Mid back unrounded vowel

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Mid back unrounded vowel
ɤ
ɤ̞
IPA number 315 430
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɤ​̞
Unicode (hex) U+0264 U+031E

The mid back unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. While there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the "exact" mid back unrounded vowel between close-mid [ɤ] and open-mid [ʌ] (since no language is known to distinguish all three), ɤ is normally used. If precision is desired, diacritics can be used, such as ɤ̞ or ʌ̝.

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɤ̞
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bulgarian[1] път [pɤ̞̈t̪] 'path' Centralized. See Bulgarian phonology
Danish Standard[2] læger [ˈleːɤ̞̈] 'doctors' Centralized;[2] one of possible realizations of /ɐ/.[2] See Danish phonology
English Cardiff[3] plus [pl̥ɤ̞̈s] 'plus' Centralized.[3][4] In Cardiff, it may be [ə], [ɜ], [ɜ̟] or [ë̞] instead.[3] It corresponds to [ʌ] in other dialects. See English phonology
Norfolk[4]
Estonian[5] kõrv [kɤ̞̈rv] 'ear' Centralized.[5]
German Chemnitz dialect[6] Schirm [ʃɤ̞̈ˤːm] 'umbrella' May be transcribed /ʌˤː/.[7] It is centralized and pharyngealized,[6] and it may be realized as [ɪːɒ̯] instead.[6] See Chemnitz German phonology

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Asu, Eva Liina; Teras, Pire (2009), "Estonian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 39 (3): 367–372, doi:10.1017/s002510030999017x 
  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5 
  • Coupland, Nikolas (1990), English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, ISBN 1-85359-032-0 
  • Khan, Sameer ud Dowla; Weise, Constanze (2013), "Upper Saxon (Chemnitz dialect)", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (2): 231–241, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000145 
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2 
  • Ternes, Elmer; Vladimirova-Buhtz, Tatjana (1999), "Bulgarian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 55–57, ISBN 0-521-63751-1