Middle-earth in film

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J. R. R. Tolkien's novels The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, set in Middle-earth, have been the subject of various film adaptations. There were many early failed attempts to bring the fictional universe to life in screen, some even rejected by the author himself. The first depictions of Middle-earth on film were realized in 1966 as a short cartoon film. In 1978 the first big screen adaptation of the fictional setting was introduced in The Lord of the Rings. The story was more or less completed with the animated television special The Return of the King. In 1985, Middle-earth was depicted in a live-action film for the first time by an adaptation produced in the Soviet Union. In 1993, a live-action television miniseries titled Hobitit was aired by the Finnish broadcaster Yle.

New Line Cinema released the first part of director Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings film series in 2001 as part of a trilogy and several actors and roles were introduced once again in a trilogy in The Hobbit film series. There have also been fan films of Middle-earth such as The Hunt for Gollum and Born of Hope.

Collectively, the franchise has received a record 36 Academy Award nominations, winning 17, also a record. Along with The Godfather trilogy, it is one of two film series to date to have received three Best Picture nominations. The third film in Peter Jackson's trilogy, The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King, was the first and, as of 2014, only fantasy film to win Best Picture, as well as the second sequel to do so after The Godfather Part II. Furthermore, it is currently the only threequel to win the award. Along with Titanic and Ben-Hur, The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King holds the record for Academy Awards won by a single film and is the only one of the three films to win every category for which it was nominated.

Early attempts[edit]

In 1957, Tolkien received a film proposal from Forrest J. Ackerman, Morton Grady Zimmerman, and Al Brodax. The proposed film, a mix of animation, miniature work, and live action, was to be three hours long with two intermissions. Tolkien was enthusiastic about the film's concept art, described as akin to Arthur Rackham rather than Walt Disney[1] whose works Tolkien intensely disliked.[2] However, Tolkien was dissatisfied with the script[3] and the financial arrangements which would have brought him little profit. Thus the project was turned down.[4][5]

Tolkien criticized the script for divergence to the tone of the book (such as a "fairy-tale" depiction of Lothlórien, as well as elements cut "upon which [the book's] characteristic and peculiar tone principally depends") and character representation (such as Sam leaving Frodo to Shelob and going on to Mount Doom alone). He also took issue with dialogue changes as regards to the "style and sentiment" of characters, and with intercutting between the storylines of Frodo and Aragorn. He suggested eliminating the battle of Helm's Deep to better emphasize the defense of Minas Tirith, as well as cutting characters out instead of diminishing their roles. Tolkien protested against added "incantations, blue lights, and some irrelevant magic" and "a preference for fights".[5]

In 1966 William L. Snyder commissioned a 12-minutes film of cartoon stills from Gene Deitch, as related by Deitch himself.[6][7] This film was created in the Czech Republic and publicly screened in New York City.[6][8]

Contrary to widespread belief, the film rights to The Lord of the Rings were never held by Walt Disney.[9] In fact, Tolkien deeply disliked Disney's adaptations of fairy tales. The film rights were sold by Tolkien to United Artists in 1969. The Beatles planned to do a live-action version with Paul McCartney as Frodo Baggins, Ringo Starr as Sam Gamgee, George Harrison as Gandalf, and John Lennon as Gollum. The group approached Stanley Kubrick to direct the film. Even though he briefly considered directing the film, Kubrick turned the offer down, as he felt the trilogy was unfilmable due to its immensity.[10] Soon the plans for the film came to nothing because Tolkien didn't want the Beatles in the film.[11]

In the 1970s John Boorman was contracted by United Artists to direct an adaptation that would have collapsed the entire story into a single film.[12] Boorman corresponded with Tolkien about the project.[5][13] In the script by Boorman and Rospo Pallenberg, many new elements have been inserted or modified. Among other things, Gimli is put in a hole and beaten so he can retrieve the password to Moria from his ancestral memory, Frodo and Galadriel have sexual intercourse, Arwen is made into a teenaged spiritual guide with her role as Aragorn's love interest wholly transferred to Éowyn, and Aragorn’s healing of Éowyn takes place on the battlefield and given sexual overtones.[5][13][14] The project ultimately proved too expensive to finance at that time. Again collaborating with Pallenberg, Boorman later made the Arthurian epic Excalibur where he used special effects techniques and locations intended for the Tolkien project.[5][13][14]

Materials pertaining to Ackerman/Zimmerman/Brodax and Boorman's treatments, as well as Ralph Bakshi's (below) are stored in the Tolkien papers collection of Marquette University.[5]

Animated films[edit]

The Hobbit, an animated version of the story produced by Rankin/Bass, debuted as a television movie in the United States in 1977. In 1978, Romeo Muller won a Peabody Award for his teleplay. The film was also nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, but lost to Star Wars.[15]

Filmmaker Ralph Bakshi was introduced to the work of J. R. R. Tolkien by a director at Terrytoons in 1956. In 1957, he started trying to obtain the rights by convincing producers that the books could be animated.[16] Following John Boorman's attempt to adapt the books, Bakshi proposed that United Artists produce the story as three animated films.[12] Bakshi and Dan Melnick, then-president of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, made a deal with United Artists to purchase the film rights to the story for $3 million, but the deal fell through when Melnick was fired from MGM.[12] Bakshi contacted Saul Zaentz, who had helped finance Fritz the Cat, and persuaded him to produce The Lord of the Rings. United Artists agreed to produce the story as two films.[12] Voice actors included Christopher Guard, William Squire, Michael Scholes and John Hurt. The film incorporated the use of rotoscoping, brief snippets of cel animation, and live-action footage mixed with animation. Bakshi later regretted his use of the rotoscoping technique, stating that he made a mistake by tracing the source footage rather than using it as a guide.[17] Once the film was completed, Bakshi was told that audiences would not pay to see an incomplete film, and The Lord of the Rings was released without any indication that a second part would follow, in spite of Bakshi's objections.[12][18] The film cost $4 million to produce and grossed $30.5 million at the box office.[19] Film critic Leonard Maltin said that it was one of only two major commercial successes in Bakshi's career, the other being Fritz the Cat.[20] Despite this, the studio refused to fund the sequel, which would have picked up half-way through the story and adapted the remainder of the book.[12] The Lord of the Rings won the Golden Gryphon at the 1980 Giffoni Film Festival.[21]

In 1980, Rankin/Bass more or less completed what Bakshi had started with their own animated adaptation of The Return of the King,[22] based on their own concepts previously applied to their earlier animated adaptation of The Hobbit.

First live-action versions[edit]

The first live-action film depicting characters and stories of Middle-earth was shown in 1985 in the Soviet Union. Skazochnoye puteshestviye mistera Bilbo Begginsa Khobbita (Russian: Сказочное путешествие мистера Бильбо Беггинса Хоббита) [The Fabulous Journey of Mr. Bilbo Baggins the Hobbit] was a film based on the events of The Hobbit. Shot in 1984[23] as a teleplay and produced in the framework of the children's TV series Tale after Tale (Russian: Сказка за сказкой), it featured actors such as Zinovy Gerdt, Mikhail Danilov, Anatoly Ravikovich, and Igor Dmitriev.

In 1993, the Finnish broadcaster Yle produced a live-action miniseries based on The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. The nine episodes of Hobitit ("The Hobbits") were aired on Yle TV1. The series was written and directed by Timo Torikka. Toni Edelmann composed the soundtrack.[24] Actors included Matti Pellonpää, Martti Suosalo, Vesa Vierikko, Ville Virtanen, Kari Väänänen, and Leif Wager.

Peter Jackson film series[edit]

The Lord of the Rings[edit]

Miramax Films developed a full-fledged live action adaptation of The Lord of the Rings, with Peter Jackson as director. Eventually, with Miramax owner Disney becoming increasingly uneasy with the sheer scope of the proposed project, Jackson was given the opportunity to find another studio to take over. In 1999, New Line Cinema assumed production responsibility (while Miramax executives Bob Weinstein and Harvey Weinstein retained on-screen credits as executive producers). The three films were shot simultaneously. They featured extensive computer-generated imagery, including major battle scenes utilizing the "Massive" software program. The first film subtitled, The Fellowship of the Ring was released on December 19, 2001, the second film subtitled, The Two Towers on December 18, 2002 and the third film subtitled, The Return of the King worldwide on December 17, 2003. All three won the Hugo Award for Best (Long-form) Dramatic Presentation in their respective years.

The films were met with both critical and commercial success. Jackson's adaptations garnered seventeen Oscars, four for The Fellowship of the Ring, two for The Two Towers, and eleven for The Return of the King; these covered many of the award categories. The Return of the King in fact won all of the eleven awards for which it was nominated, including Best Picture. With a total of 30 nominations, the trilogy also became the most-nominated in the Academy's history, surpassing the Godfather series' 28 (with the release of The Hobbit, the series currently has 36 nominations total). Its 11 Oscars at the 2004 Academy Awards tied it for most awards won for one film with Titanic six years earlier and the 1959 version of Ben-Hur. It also broke the previous "sweep" record, beating Gigi and The Last Emperor (which each took 9 out of 9). The Return of the King also made movie history as the highest grossing film opening on a Wednesday and was the second film after Titanic to earn over US$1 billion worldwide.

The Lord of the Rings film trilogy is verified to be the currently highest grossing motion picture trilogy worldwide of all time, evidenced by its earning close to $3-billion (US).[25] The film trilogy also set a record for the total number of Academy Awards won, tallying a total of seventeen Oscars.[26] Critical acclaim has commonly hailed the trilogy as "the greatest films of our era,"[27] and "the trilogy will not soon, if ever, find its equal."[28]

On the other hand, some readers of the book decried certain changes made in the adaptation, including changes in tone,[29][30] various changes made to characters such as Aragorn, Arwen, Denethor and Faramir, as well as to the main protagonist Frodo himself, and the deletion of the next to the last chapter of Tolkien's work, "The Scouring of the Shire", a part he himself felt thematically necessary.

The trilogy's defenders assert that it is a worthy interpretation of the book, most changes stemming from the filmmakers putting the book into a modern context[citation needed], rearranging the events into a chronologically linear narrative (as opposed to Tolkien separating the two main story threads into two separate parts for The Two Towers and most of The Return of the King), and their perceived need for developing characters further or for sheer timing issues.[citation needed] In any case, the films proved popular with general audiences (i.e. non-readers) and readers alike.

The Hobbit[edit]

A three-part prequel directed by Peter Jackson was released between 2012 and 2014. The three films are subtitled, An Unexpected Journey, The Desolation of Smaug, and The Battle of the Five Armies,[31] were filmed back to back and produced in New Zealand; principal photography began on 21 March 2011.[32] The first film was released on 14 December 2012, the second was released on 13 December 2013, and the third film was released 17 December 2014.

The films star Martin Freeman as Bilbo Baggins,[33] Richard Armitage as Thorin Oakenshield and Benedict Cumberbatch as Smaug.[34] Several actors from The Lord of the Rings reprised their roles, including Ian McKellen, Andy Serkis, Hugo Weaving, Cate Blanchett, Christopher Lee, Ian Holm, Elijah Wood and Orlando Bloom. Also returning for the production were a big part of the production crew; among others, illustrators John Howe and Alan Lee, art director Dan Hennah and cinematographer Andrew Lesnie. As with the trilogy, props were generally be crafted by Weta Workshop and visual effects managed by Weta Digital. Additionally, composer Howard Shore, who wrote the score for The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, confirmed his role in all three parts of the film project.[35]

Fan films[edit]

The Hunt for Gollum, a fan film based on elements of the appendices to The Lord of the Rings, was released on the internet in May 2009. It is set between the events of The Hobbit and The Fellowship of the Ring, and depicts Aragorn's quest to find Gollum. The film's visual style is based on that of the Jackson films. Although it is completely unofficial, it has received coverage in major media.[36]

Another fan made feature film, Born of Hope, produced and directed by Kate Madison, was released online on December 1, 2009 on Dailymotion and later on YouTube. It takes place before the events of The Hobbit. The film can be streamed freely on its main website.[37] Like The Hunt for Gollum, this film triggered reviews in various media.[38]

Cast[edit]

Character Animated films Peter Jackson films
The Hobbit
(1977)
The Lord of the Rings (1978) The Return of the King
(1980)
The Lord of the Rings The Hobbit
The Fellowship of the Ring
(2001)
The Two Towers
(2002)
The Return of the King
(2003)
An Unexpected Journey
(2012)
The Desolation of Smaug
(2013)
The Battle of the Five Armies
(2014)
Bilbo Baggins Orson Bean Norman Bird Orson Bean Ian Holm   Mentioned Ian Holm Martin Freeman (young)
Ian Holm (old)
Martin Freeman (young) Martin Freeman (young)
Ian Holm (old)
Frodo Baggins   Christopher Guard Orson Bean Elijah Wood  
Gandalf John Huston William Squire John Huston Ian McKellen
Gollum Brother Theodore Peter Woodthorpe Brother Theodore Andy Serkis  
Aragorn II Elessar   John Hurt Theodore Bikel Viggo Mortensen     Mentioned
Samwise Gamgee   Michael Scholes Roddy McDowall Sean Astin  
Meriadoc Brandybuck   Simon Chandler Casey Kasem Dominic Monaghan  
Peregrin Took   Dominic Guard Sonny Melendrez Billy Boyd  
Legolas   Anthony Daniels   Orlando Bloom   Orlando Bloom
Gimli   David Buck   John Rhys-Davies     Mentioned  
Boromir   Michael Graham Cox   Sean Bean Sean Bean
Extended Edition only
Sean Bean
Non-speaking role
 
Arwen Evenstar   Liv Tyler  
Elrond Cyril Ritchard André Morell Paul Frees Hugo Weaving   Hugo Weaving
Galadriel   Annette Crosbie   Cate Blanchett
Saruman   Fraser Kerr   Christopher Lee Christopher Lee
Extended Edition only
Christopher Lee   Christopher Lee
Thorin Oakenshield Hans Conried     Mentioned   Richard Armitage
Dwalin Jack DeLeon   Graham McTavish
Balin Don Messick     Mentioned   Ken Stott
Kíli Jack DeLeon   Aidan Turner
Fíli Jack DeLeon   Dean O'Gorman
Dori John Stephenson   Mark Hadlow
Nori Jack DeLeon   Jed Brophy
Ori Jack DeLeon     Prop only
Non-speaking role
  Adam Brown
Óin Jack DeLeon   John Callen
Gloin Jack DeLeon   John Rhys-Davies
Non-speaking role
  Mentioned Peter Hambleton
Bifur Jack DeLeon   William Kircher
Bofur Jack DeLeon   James Nesbitt
Bombur Paul Frees   Stephen Hunter
Théoden   Philip Stone Don Messick   Bernard Hill  
Éowyn     Non-speaking role Nellie Bellflower   Miranda Otto  
Éomer   Karl Urban  
Faramir   David Wenham  
Treebeard   John Westbrook   John Rhys-Davies  
Gríma Wormtongue   Michael Deacon   Brad Dourif Brad Dourif
Extended Edition only
 
Denethor   William Conrad   Mentioned John Noble
Extended Edition only
John Noble  
Sauron   Sala Baker
Alan Howard (voice)
  Mentioned Sala Baker
Alan Howard (voice)
Benedict Cumberbatch (as "The Necromancer")
The One Ring   Alan Howard (voice)   Prop only
Non-speaking role
Alan Howard (voice)   Prop only
Non-speaking role
Benedict Cumberbatch (voice)   Prop only
Non-speaking role
Smaug Richard Boone     Mentioned     Non-speaking role Benedict Cumberbatch
Celeborn   Marton Csokas   Marton Csokas
Non-speaking role
 
Thranduil Otto Preminger     Mentioned   Lee Pace
Dáin II Ironfoot     Mentioned   Billy Connolly
Beorn   Mikael Persbrandt
Radagast   Sylvester McCoy
Tauriel   Evangeline Lilly
Bard the Bowman John Stephenson   Luke Evans
Bain   John Bell
Tilda   Mary Nesbitt[39]
Sigrid   Peggy Nesbitt[39]
Master of Lake-town   Stephen Fry
Alfrid   Ryan Gage
Haldir   Craig Parker  
Gamling   Bruce Hopkins  
Madril   John Bach  
Damrod   Alistair Browning  
Aldor   Bruce Alpress  
Haleth   Calum Gittins  
Bereg   Ray Trickitt  
Isildur   Harry Sinclair   Harry Sinclair  
Gil-galad   Mark Ferguson
Non-speaking role
 
Elendil   Peter McKenzie
Non-speaking role
 
Thrór   Jeffrey Thomas
Non-speaking role
  Mentioned  
Thráin II   Michael Mizrahi (old)
Thomas Robins (young)
Non-speaking role
Antony Sher
Extended Edition only
 
Girion   Luke Evans
Extended Edition only
Luke Evans
Non-speaking role
 
Witch-king of Angmar   John Stephenson Brent McIntyre
Shane Rangi
  Lawrence Makoare
Andy Serkis (voice)
  Non-speaking role   Mentioned   Non-speaking role
King of the Dead   Paul Norell  
Lurtz   Lawrence Makoare  
Uglúk   Nathaniel Lees  
Grishnákh   Stephen Ure  
Lugdush   Sala Baker  
Mauhúr   Robbie Magasiva  
Sharku   Jed Brophy  
Snaga   Jed Brophy  
Gothmog   Lawrence Makoare  
Gorbag   Stephen Ure  
Murgash   Sala Baker  
Shagrat   Peter Tait  
Bolingúl   Jed Brophy  
Azog   Manu Bennett
Bolg   Conan Stevens Lawrence Makoare John Tui
Great Goblin John Stephenson   Barry Humphries  
Yazneg   John Rawls  
Fimbul   Stephen Ure  
Grinnah   Stephen Ure  
Goblin scribe   Kiran Shah[40]  
Narzug   Benjamin Mitchell  
Tom Paul Frees      Prop only
Non-speaking role
  William Kircher  
Bert Paul Frees      Prop only
Non-speaking role
  Mark Hadlow  
William Don Messick      Prop only
Non-speaking role
  Peter Hambleton  
Barliman Butterbur   Alan Tilvern   David Weatherley  
Harry Goatleaf   Martyn Sanderson  
Butterbur Sr.   Richard Whiteside
Non-speaking role
 
Betsy Butterbur   Katie Jackson  
Bill Ferny Sr.   Dallas Barnett
Non-speaking role
 
Squint   Matt Smith
Non-speaking role
 
Lobelia Sackville-Baggins   Elizabeth Moody
Extended Edition only
  Erin Banks
Extended Edition only
  Erin Banks
Otho Sackville-Baggins   Peter Corrigan
Extended Edition only
  Brian Hotter
Extended Edition only
  Brian Hotter
Rosie Cotton   Sarah McLeod
Non-speaking role
  Sarah McLeod  
Everard Proudfoot   Noel Appleby   Noel Appleby
Non-speaking role
 
Mrs. Proudfoot   Megan Edwards
Non-speaking role
 
Farmer Maggot   Cameron Rhodes
Mike Hopkins (voice)
 
Gaffer Gamgee   Norman Forsey
Extended Edition only
 Mentioned  
Ted Sandyman   Brian Sergent
Extended Edition only
 
Old Noakes   William Johnson
Extended Edition only
 
Bounder   Ian Mune  
Mrs. Bracegirdle   Lori Dungey
Extended Edition only
 
Fredegar Bolger   Norman Cates
Extended Edition only
 
Elanor Gamgee   Alexandra Astin
Non-speaking role
 
Belladonna Took   Sonia Forbes-Adam
Extended Edition only
 
Old Took   Dan Hennah
Extended Edition only
 
Master Worrywort   Timothy Bartlett  
Tosser Grubb   Mervyn Smith
Extended Edition only
 
Fredegar Chubb   Eric Vespe
Extended Edition only
 
Háma   John Leigh  
Morwen   Robyn Malcolm  
Éothain   Sam Comery  
Freda   Olivia Tennet  
Théodred   Paris Howe Strewe
Non-speaking role
 
Déagol   Thomas Robins  
Irolas   Ian Hughes  
Mouth of Sauron   Don Messick   Bruce Spence
Extended Edition only
 
Braga   Michael Mitchinson
Hilda Bianca   Sarah Peirse
Figwit / Lindir   Bret McKenzie
Non-speaking role
  Bret McKenzie  
Círdan   Michael Elsworth
Non-speaking role
  Michael Elsworth
Non-speaking role
 
Glorfindel   Jarl Benzon
Non-speaking role
  Jarl Benzon
Non-speaking role
 
Rúmil   Jørn Benzon
Non-speaking role
 
Eldarion   Sadwyn Brophy
Non-speaking role
 
Galion   Craig Hall  
Elros   Robin Kerr  
Feren   Simon London
Albert Dreary   Peter Jackson
Non-speaking role
 
Man of Rohan   Peter Jackson
Non-speaking role
 
Corsair   Peter Jackson
Non-speaking role
 
Dwarf of Erebor   Peter Jackson
Non-speaking role
 
Albert Dreary Sr.   Peter Jackson
Non-speaking role
 

References[edit]

  1. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (1981), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, #261, ISBN 0-395-31555-7 
  2. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (1981), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, #17, ISBN 0-395-31555-7 
  3. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (1981), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, #266, ISBN 0-395-31555-7 
  4. ^ Carpenter, Humphrey (1977), Tolkien: A Biography, New York: Ballantine Books, ISBN 0-04-928037-6 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Croft, Janet B. "Three Rings for Hollywood: Scripts for The Lord of the Rings by Zimmerman, Boorman, and Beagle". Retrieved 29 November 2006. 
  6. ^ a b "William L. Snyder". genedeitchcredits. Gene Deitch. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  7. ^ "Gene Deitch's 'The Hobbit' Short Film Surfaces Online Nearly 50 Years On". Huff Post Culture (The Huffington Post). 11 January 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2012. 
  8. ^ Kayatta, Mike (9 January 2012). "A Long Lost Adaptation of The Hobbit Makes Its Way Online". The Escapist. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  9. ^ http://www.2719hyperion.com/2009/02/myth-of-walt-disneys-lord-of-rings.html
  10. ^ Interview in "Show" magazine vol. 1, No. 1, 1970.
  11. ^ "Beatles plan for Rings film". CNN. 28 March 2002. Retrieved 14 June 2006. 
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  13. ^ a b c OUTRE: The World Of Ultramedia, issue #26
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  25. ^ Top Box Office Earning Trilogies Worldwide at Box Office Mojo.com, last retrieved on 5 August 2006
  26. ^ The film trilogy's entry at UsefulTrivia.com, last retrieved on 5 August 2006
  27. ^ Tyler, Joshua. "The Lord of the Rings: Return of the King". Cinema Blend. Retrieved 11 January 2011. 
  28. ^ Return of the King review at CalendarLive.com by Kenneth Turan, last retrieved on 5 August 2006[dead link]
  29. ^ Croft, Janet B. The Mines of Moria: "Anticipation" and "Flattening" in Peter Jackson's The Fellowship of the Ring. From http://faculty-staff.ou.edu, last retrieved on 21 August 2006
  30. ^ Chance, Jane. Is there a text in this Hobbit? Peter Jackson's The Fellowship of the Ring. Originally for Literature Film Quarterly, 2002. Last retrieved on 25 August 2006
  31. ^ "Titles and Release Dates Announced for the Hobbit Films!". ComingSoon.net. Retrieved 2011-05-30. 
  32. ^ Bulbeck, Pip (2011-03-20). "'Hobbit' Filming Finally Under Way in New Zealand". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 2011-03-21. Retrieved 2011-03-21. 
  33. ^ Michael Bodey (October 22, 2010). "The Office's Martin Freeman as Bilbo Baggins leads Hobbit cast". The Australian. Retrieved March 9, 2011. 
  34. ^ Fleming, Mike (2011-06-16). "Benedict Cumberbatch To Voice Smaug in 'The Hobbit'". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  35. ^ Composer Howard Shore to Score THE HOBBIT. Collider.com (2010-11-18). Retrieved on 2011-05-19.
  36. ^ Masters, Tim (30 April 2009). "Making Middle-earth on a shoestring". BBC News (BBC). Retrieved 1 May 2009. 
    Sydell, Laura (30 April 2009). "High-Def 'Hunt For Gollum' New Lord Of The Fanvids". All Things Considered (National Public Radio). Retrieved 1 May 2009. 
  37. ^ Born of Hope homepage
  38. ^ Ide, Wendy (12 February 2010). "Born of Hope". Times Online. London: Times Newspapers Limited. Retrieved 2010-04-06. 
    "Movies Editor" (11 February 2010). "Lord of the Rings prequel for just £25,000". Yahoo! Movies. Retrieved 2010-04-06. 
  39. ^ a b Sibley, Brian (2013). The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug Official Movie Guide. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 132–134. ISBN 978-0-547-89870-4. 
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