List of modern conflicts in the Middle East

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This article is about modern conflicts in the West Asia. For ancient conflicts, see List of conflicts in the Near East.
Middle East
Contemporary Middle East
Countries (2013) Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, *Iraqi Kurdistan, *ISIS, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, *Northern Cyprus, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, *Syrian Kurdistan, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Yemen

This is a list of conflicts in the Middle East during the 20th Century ensuing in the geographic and political region known as the Middle East. The "Middle East" is traditionally defined as the Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia), Levant, and the Delta of the Nile and neighboring areas of Arabia, Anatolia and Iran. It currently encompasses the area from Egypt, Turkey and Cyprus in the west to Iran and the Persian Gulf in the east.[1]

  • Conflicts are separate incidents with at least 100 casualties, and are listed by total deaths, including sub-conflicts.[2]
  • This list only refers to the post-Ottoman period, or in other words, 1918-1999. For 21st century conflicts go here.

List of conflicts[edit]

Date Conflict Location Casualties
1902–1932 Unification of Saudi Arabia [a] Flag of the Second Saudi State.svg Emirate of Riyadh, Flag of Hejaz 1917.svg Kingdom of Hejaz, Standard of the Emir of Kuwait, 1956.svg Kuwaiti Emirate, Flag of Nejd (1926).svg Sultanate of Nejd, Jordan Emirate of Transjordan, Iraq Mandatory Iraq, Flag of Nejd (1926).svg Kingdom of Nejd and Hejaz 8,000–9,000
1918–1922 Simko Shikak revolt[3][verification needed] Flag of Persia (1910-1925).svg Persia 1,000–5,500
1919 Egyptian Revolution of 1919[4] Egypt Sultanate of Egypt 3,000
1919–1923 Turkish War of Independence [b][verification needed]  Turkey,  Greece,  Armenia,  Soviet Union 170,500–873,000
1919–2003 Iraqi-Kurdish conflict [c] IraqIraqIraq Iraq, Flag of Kingdom of Kurdistan (1922-1924).svg Kingdom of Kurdistan 142,000–320,000
1920 Franco-Syrian War[citation needed] Flag of Kingdom of Syria (1920-03-08 to 1920-07-24).svg Arab Kingdom of Syria, Flag of Syria French mandate.svg Occupied Enemy Territory Administration 5,000
1920 Iraqi revolt against the British[5][6] Iraq Mandatory Iraq 2,050–9,000
1923 Adwan Rebellion Jordan Transjordan 100
1924–1927 Great Syrian Revolt (Druze War)[7][verification needed] Lebanese French flag.svg Greater Lebanon, State of Syria, Flag of Jabal ad-Druze (state).svg Jabal Druze, Alawite State 8,000–12,000
1925 Sheikh Said rebellion.[8]  Turkey 15,000–250,500
1929-1948[l] Sectarian conflict in Mandatory Palestine  Mandatory Palestine 8,280
1930 Ararat rebellion[9][10][11][12][13]  Turkey, Flag of the Republic of Ararat.svg Republic of Ararat 4,500–47,000
1933 Simele massacre[14]  Kingdom of Iraq 3,000
1934 Saudi-Yemeni War[15]  Saudi Arabia, Flag of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen.svg Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen 2,100
1935 Imam Reza shrine rebellion[16]  Iran 151
1935–1936 1935–1936 Iraqi Shia revolts  Iraq 500
1935 1935 Yazidi revolt[14]  Iraq 200
1937 Dersim Rebellion[17][18][verification needed]  Turkey 40,000–70,000
1939–1945 Middle East Theatre of World War II[19][d][verification needed]  Iraq, Iran Iran, Egypt Egypt, Lebanese French flag.svg Greater Lebanon,  Mandatory Palestine, Syria Syria 46,000
1946 Egyptian Student Riots (1946)[20][verification needed][21] Egypt Egypt 100–300
1946 Iran crisis of 1946[2][8][e]  Iran,  Republic of Mahabad, Azerbaijan people's government flag.svg Azerbaijan People's Government,  Soviet Union 2,000
1948– Arab-Israeli conflict[f] Egypt Egypt, Flag of Hejaz 1917.svg All-Palestine Government,  Egypt,  United Arab Republic,  Syrian Republic,  Syria,  Jordan,  Lebanon,  Israel,  Palestinian Authority 73,000–84,000
1948 Alwaziri coup[2] Yemen Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen 4,000–5,000
1948 Al-Wathbah uprising[citation needed]  Iraq 300–400
1952 Egyptian Revolution of 1952[2] Egypt Egypt 1,000
1953 1953 Iranian coup d'état[2][8][22]  Iran 300–800
1954–1960 Jebel Akhdar War[8] Flag of Muscat.svg Sultanate of Muscat and Oman 100–523
1955–1963 Cypriot intercommunal violence[23][24] Cyprus Cyprus protectorate 400–600
1956–1960 Yemeni-Adenese clan violence[2]  Aden 1,000
1958 1958 Lebanon Crisis[2][4][24]  Lebanon 1,300–4,000
1958 1958 Iraqi Revolution[2]  Arab Federation 100
1959 1959 Mosul uprising[2] Iraq Iraqi Republic 2,000–4,000
1962–1970 North Yemen Civil War[25][26][g]  North Yemen 100,000–200,000
1962–1975 Dhofar Rebellion[8]  Oman 10,000
1963 White Revolution (Iran)[8]  Iran 100
1963 February 1963 Ba'athist Iraqi coup[27]  Iraq 1,000
1963 8th of March Syrian Revolution[28]  United Arab Republic,  Syria 820
1963–1967 Aden Emergency[29]  Federation of South Arabia,  South Yemen 2,096
1963 November 1963 Iraqi coup [27]  Iraq 250
1964 1964 Hama riot[30][31]  Syria 70–100
1966 1966 neo-Ba'athist coup d'état in Syria[8]  Syria 400
1970–1971 Jordan-Palestinian Civil War[24]  Jordan 2,000–25,000
1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus[15][32]  Cyprus 1,500–5,000
1975–1990 Lebanese Civil War[33][h]  Lebanon 150,000
1976–1979 Political violence in Turkey, 1970s[34][35][36]  Turkey 5,000–5,388
1976–1982 Islamic uprising in Syria[37] SyriaSyria Syria 40,000
1979 Iranian Revolution[38][39]  Iran 3,164–60,000
1979–1980 Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution [i]  Iran 10,171
1979–1983 Saudi Eastern Province unrest[40]  Saudi Arabia 182–219
1979 Grand Mosque Seizure[41]  Saudi Arabia 307
1980 1980 Turkish coup d'état[42][43]  Turkey 127–550
1980 Sadr uprising (1980)[44]  Iraq 1,000–30,000
1980–1988 Iran-Iraq war[15][45][j]  Iran,  Iraq,  Kuwait 1,000,000–1,250,000
1984–2013 Turkey-PKK conflict[46][verification needed]  Turkey,  Iraqi Kurdistan,  Iraq,  Federation of Arab Republics,  Syria 30,000–100,000
1986 South Yemen Civil War[47]  South Yemen 5,000–12,000
1986 1986 Egyptian Conscription Riot[48]  Egypt 107
1986 1986 Damascus bombings[citation needed]  Syria 204
1987 Iranian pilgrim riot (Mecca massacre)[49]  Saudi Arabia 402
1987–1988 ANO Executions  Lebanon,  Syria 170
1989–1996 KDPI insurgency (1989–96)  Iran 1,000
1990–1991 Gulf War[33]  Iraq,  Kuwait,  Saudi Arabia 40,000–57,000
1991 1991 uprisings in Iraq[44][50]  Iraq 50,000–100,000
1992–2000 Terrorism in Egypt[51][page needed]  Egypt 1,300–2,000
1994 1994 civil war in Yemen[citation needed]  Yemen 7,000–10,000
1995– Islamic Insurgency in Saudi Arabia[citation needed]  Saudi Arabia 300
1998 Operation Desert Fox[23][24] (Iraqi no-fly zones)  Iraq 2,000
1999 1999 Shia uprising in Iraq[8][52]  Iraq 100–200

Casualties breakdown[edit]

[a].^ Unification of Saudi Arabia (combined casualties 7,989–8,989+)

Battle of Riyadh (1902) – 37 killed.
Battle of Dilam (1903) – 410 killed.
Saudi–Rashidi War (1903–1907) – 2,300+ killed.
Annexation of Al-Hasa and Qatif (1913) – unknown.
Battle of Jarrab (1915) – unknown.
Battle of Kanzaan (1915) – unknown.
First Nejd-Hejaz War 1918–1919 – 1,392 killed[8]
Kuwait-Najd Border War (1921) – 200[8]–800 killed.
1921 Ikhwan raid on Iraq – 700 killed.
Conquest of Ha'il – unknown.
Ikhwan raids on Transjordan 1922–1924 – 500[53]-1,500 killed.
Second Nejd-Hejaz War (1924–1925) – 450 killed.[8]
Ikhwan Revolt (1927–1930) – 2,000 killed.[8]

[b].^ Turkish War of Independence (combined figure 170,500–873,000+):

Greco-Turkish War – 70,000[citation needed]–400,000 casualties[33][verification needed]
Franco-Turkish War – 40,000 casualties.[citation needed]
Turkish-Armenian War – 60,000–432,500 casualties.[54]
Koçkiri Rebellion – 500 killed.[citation needed]
Revolt of Ahmet Anzavur – unknown.
Kuva-i Inzibatiye revolt – unknown.

[c].^ Iraqi–Kurdish conflict (combined casualty figure 138,800-320,100) of:

Mahmud Barzanji revolts – unknown.
Ahmad Barzanji revolt (1931) – unknown.
1943 Iraqi Kurdish revolt (1943) – unknown.
First Kurdish-Iraqi War (1961–1970) – 75,000–105,000 killed.[25][33]
Second Kurdish-Iraqi War (1974–1975) – 9,000 killed.[55]
PUK insurgency (1976–1978) – 800 killed.
Iraqi Kurdish uprising (1982–1988) – 50,000–198,000 killed.
1991 Uprising in As Sulaymaniyah – 700–2,000 killed.
Iraqi Kurdish Civil War (1994–1997) – 3,000[56]-5,000 killed.
2003 invasion of Iraq – several hundred killed (~300) on the Kurdish front, at least 24 Peshmerga killed.

[d].^ Middle Eastern theatre of World War II (combined casualty figure 12,338-14,898+) of:

Anglo-Iraqi War – at least 560 killed.[57][58]
Farhud 175–780 killed.
Syria–Lebanon Campaign 10,404–12,964 killed.
Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran 100[8] – 1,062 killed.
Bombing of Palestine in World War II 137 deaths.[59]
Bombing of Bahrain in World War II – unknown.

[e].^ Iran crisis of 1946 (combined casualty figure 1,921+):

Azerbaijan People's Republic crisis – 421 killed.[60]
Republic of Mahabad crisis – ~1,000 killed.[citation needed]
Civil interregnum – 500 killed.[61]

[f].^ Arab–Israeli conflict (combined casualty figure 76,338–87,338+):

Israeli–Palestinian conflict (1948–present) – 23,000 killed.
Fedayeen insurgency and Retribution Operations (1950s) – 3,456 casualties.
Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon
First Intifada - 2,000 killed
Second Intifada - 7,000 killed
Gaza-Israel conflict - 3,500 killed
Arab-Israeli War (1948–1949) – 14,400 casualties.
Suez War (1956) – 3,203 killed.
Six Day War (1967) – 13,976 killed.
War of Attrition (1967–1970) – 6,403 killed.
Yom Kippur War (1973) 10,000–21,000.[62]
Second Lebanon War – 1,900 killed.

[g].^ North Yemen Civil War (combined 100,000–200,000 casualties):

1962 Coup d'état
Ramadan offensive
Haradh offensive
1965 Royalist offensive
Siege of Sana'a (1967)

[h].^ Lebanese Civil War (combined 39,132–43,970+ mortal casualties):

Bus massacre – 27 killed.
Hundred Days' War – 160 killed.
Karantina massacre – 1,000–1,500 killed.
Damour massacre – 684 killed.
Battle of the Hotels – 700 killed.
Black Saturday (Lebanon) – 200–600 killed.
Tel al-Zaatar massacre – 1,778–3,278 killed.
1982 Lebanon War – 28,280 killed.
Sabra and Shatila massacre – 762–3,500 killed.
War of the Camps (1986–1987) – 3,781 killed.
Mountain War – 1,600 killed.
War of Liberation (1989–1990) – unknown.
October 13 massacre – 500–700 killed, 260 civilians massacred.

[i].^ Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution (combined fatalities count 12,000):

1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran – 10,171+ killed and executed.[63][64]
1979 Khuzestan uprising – 112+ killed.
1979 Khorasan uprising – unknown.
1979 Azeri uprising – unknown.
1979 Baluchistan uprising – 50 killed.
Iran hostage crisis – 9 killed.
1979–1980 Tehran clashes – unknown.

[j].^ Iran–Iraq war (combined death count 645,000–823,000+):

Iraqi invasion 1980
Mujahedin al-Halq uprising 1981–1982
Liberation of Khorramshahr 1982 – 17,000 killed
Operation Undeniable Victory 1982 – 50,000 mortal casualties
Operation Ramadan 1982 – 80,000 killed
Kurdish Rebellion 1983-1988 (including the Al-Anfal Campaign) 50,000–198,000 killed
Operation Before the Dawn 1983 – 6,000+ killed
Operation Dawn 3 – 162,000 killed
Operation Dawn 5 1984 – 50,000 killed
Operation Dawn 6 1984 – unknown
Operation Khaibar 1984 – 49,000 killed
Tanker War 1984
Operation Badr (1985) – 30,000–32,000
War of the Cities 1985–1987
Operation Dawn-8 1986 – unknown
Operation Karbala-4 1986 – 15,000 killed
Operation Karbala-5 – 85,000 killed
Operation Nasr 4 – unknown
Operation Karbala-10 – unknown
Operation Mersad 1987 – 4,900 killed
1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners 2,000[65] – 30,000 executed

[l].^ Sectarian conflict in Mandatory Palestine (combined casualties 7,718)

1929 Palestine riots - 251 killed.[66][67]
1933 Palestine riots - 20 killed.[68]
Arab Revolt in Palestine - 5,000 killed.[23]
Jewish insurgency in Palestine (1944-47) - 338 British[69] and around 100 Palestinian Jews killed.
1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine - 2,009 killed by 1 April 1948.[70]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Albert Hourani et al., The Modern Middle East: A Reader. 1993: p. 2.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "CSP – Major Episodes of Political Violence, 1946–2008". Systemicpeace.org. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  3. ^ Maria T. O'Shea. Trapped Between the Map and Reality: Geography and Perceptions of Kurdistan. Routledge, 2004: p. 100 "Simultaneously, 1000 Christians were killed in Salmas, in a massacre instigated by Simko"
  4. ^ a b [1] "at least 3,000 Egyptians were killed ..."
  5. ^ Jonathan Glancey (19 April 2003). "Our last occupation". London: Guardian. Retrieved 1 February 2011.  "The rebellion was thwarted, with nearly 9,000 Iraqis killed."
  6. ^ [2] "... the British mentioned a proportion of 1 to 3, that is 2,050 killed and 6,150 wounded, while an Arab version speaks of 4,000 killed and 4,800 wounded."
  7. ^ "Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls". Users.erols.com. July 2005. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Political Science. Middle East/North Africa/Persian Gulf Region. University of Central Arkansas. Retrieved 2011. [3]
  9. ^ Yusuf Mazhar, Cumhuriyet, 16 Temmuz 1930, ... Zilan harekatında imha edilenlerin sayısı 15,000 kadardır. Zilan Deresi ağzına kadar ceset dolmuştur...
  10. ^ Ahmet Kahraman, ibid, p. 211, Karaköse, 14 (Özel muhabirimiz bildiriyor) ...
  11. ^ Ayşe Hür, "Osmanlı'dan bugüne Kürtler ve Devlet-4", Taraf, 23 October 2008, Retrieved 16 August 2010.
  12. ^ M. Kalman, Belge, tanık ve yaşayanlarıyla Ağrı Direnişi 1926–1930, Pêrî Yayınları, İstanbul, 1997, ISBN 975-8245-01-5, p. 105.
  13. ^ "Der Krieg am Ararat" (Telegramm unseres Korrespondenten) Berliner Tageblatt, 3 October 1930, "... die Türken in der Gegend von Zilan 220 Dörfer zerstört und 4500 Frauen und Greise massakriert."
  14. ^ a b "The purpose of this chapter is not to debate the extent of Assyrian civilian deaths at Summayl; the Assyrians claim 3000, while the British cite the figure as no greater than 300." [4]
  15. ^ a b c Rongxing Guo. Cross border resource management, theory and practice. Ed. S.V.Krupa. Elsevier, 2005: p.115.
  16. ^ "Immortal: A Military History of Iran and Its Armed Forces - Steven R. Ward - Google ספרים". Books.google.co.il. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  17. ^ David McDowall, A Modern History of the Kurds I.B.Tauris, 2002, ISBN 978-1-85043-416-0, p. 209.
  18. ^ http://www.pen-kurd.org/almani/haydar/Dersim-PresseerklC3A4rungEnglish.pdf
  19. ^ Mollo, p. 146
  20. ^ Ikhwanweb. Ikhwanweb
  21. ^ Ahmed Abdalla, The Student Movement and National Politics in Egypt 1923–1973. 2008: pp. 64–77 (1946: The Climax)
  22. ^ [5] 300 killed
  23. ^ a b c "200 Years of Conflict: A Very British Century 1910–2010". David Charles.info. 31 December 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  24. ^ a b c d "Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls". Users.erols.com. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  25. ^ a b "Twentieth Century Atlas - Death Tolls". Users.erols.com. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  26. ^ [6] "Since 1965, the Libyan-backed Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen and the National Liberation Front had unleashed brutal violence on British forces in the south. In the end, the conflict claimed some 200,000 lives."
  27. ^ a b Political Science, University of Central Arkansas. Iraq (1932-present). [7]
  28. ^ Derek Hopwood. Syria 1945–1986: Politics and Society. Unwin Himan ltd., 1988: p.45.
  29. ^ J.E.Peterson, British Counter-Insurgency Campaigns and Iraq. August 2009: p.12.
  30. ^ Seale, Patrick, Asad, the Struggle for the Middle East, University of California Press, 1989, p.93
  31. ^ James A.Paul et al. Human Rights in Syria. Middle East Watch Organization, 1990: p.10.
  32. ^ John J. Mearsheimer (Aug. 1990 Atlantic Monthly). "1,500 to 5,000 killed"
  33. ^ a b c d "Twentieth Century Atlas - Death Tolls". Necrometrics.com. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  34. ^ Gil, Ata. La Turquie à marche forcée, Le Monde diplomatique, February 1981.
  35. ^ Devrimci Yol Savunması, Defense of the Revolutionary Path. Ankara, January 1989, pp. 118–119.
  36. ^ [8] Al-Jazeera
  37. ^ John Pike. "Hama". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  38. ^ A Question of Numbers Web: IranianVoice.org August 08, 2003 Rouzegar-Now Cyrus Kadivar
  39. ^ E. Baqi, `Figures for the Dead in the Revolution`, Emruz, 30 July 2003
  40. ^ JAY PETERZELL (24 September 1990). "The Gulf: Shi'Ites: Poorer Cousins". Time. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  41. ^ Riyadh (10 January 1980). "63 Zealots beheaded for seizing Mosque". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 12 November 2010. 
  42. ^ [9] Todays Zaman. Turkey tries to heal coup detat wounds. "During this coup 650,000 people were detained, prosecutors demanded the death penalty for 7,000 people, 517 were sentenced to death, and 50 were executed. A further 500 people died in prisons, some under suspicious circumstances, some during torture and others on hunger strikes. Sixteen prisoners were shot while attempting to escape. Official records say 74 others were killed during prison riots."
  43. ^ [10] AlJazeera
  44. ^ a b Lawrence E. Cline. The Prospects of the Shia Insurgency Movement in Iraq. [11]
  45. ^ "Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls". Users.erols.com. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  46. ^ John Pike. "Kurdistan - Kurdish Conflict". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  47. ^ "Wars and Conflicts of Yemen (1914–present)". The History Guy. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  48. ^ Europa Publications Limited, The Middle East & North Africa, Volume 50: p. 303
  49. ^ K. McLachlan, Iran and the Continuing Crisis in the Persian Gulf. GeoJournal, Vol. 28, Issue 3, Nov. 1992, p. 359; "400 Die as Iranian Marchers Battle Saudi Police in Mecca; Embassies Smashed in Tehran..." New York Times, 8/2/87
  50. ^ [12] AlJazeera
  51. ^ "Armed Conflicts Report – Egypt". Ploughshares.ca. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  52. ^ Matthew Duss and Peter Juul. The Fractured Shia of Iraq. Center for American Progress, January 2009. p.9.
  53. ^ Noel Joseph Guckian. British Relations with Trans-Jordan, 1920–1930. University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. Ph.D Thesis: pp. 217–218. May 1985.
  54. ^ Vahakn N. Dadrian. (2003). The History of the Armenian Genocide: Ethnic Conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus. New York: Berghahn Books, pp. 360–361. ISBN 1-57181-666-6;
  55. ^ http://pards.org/2005/Iraq(Kurds)AtRisk).doc
  56. ^ Jordi Tejel. Syria's Kurds: history, politics and society. 2009. p.156.
  57. ^ "Habbaniya War Cemetery". Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 12 August 2010. 
  58. ^ Wavell, p. 3438
  59. ^ Maya Zamir, The Day of The bombing, Tel Aviv Magazine, 7 September 2007 (Hebrew)[dead link]
  60. ^ Nat. Arch. 891.00/1-1547, 15 January 1947. Touraj Atabaki, Azerbaijan: Ethnicity and the Struggle for Power in Iran. [Revised Edition of Azerbaijan, Ethnicity and Autonomy in the Twentieth-Century Iran] London: I.B.Tauris, 2000. pg 227. "A British source cited by the US Embassy in Tehran gives the number of killed Democrats as 421. The American Embass’s report has been classified under wash."
  61. ^ Tadeusz Swietochowski, Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition. New York: Columbia. University Press, 1995. p. 154. "Rossow conservatively estimated 500 killed during the lawless interregnum that preceded the coming of the Iranian troops. Hundreds of others were tried and jailed, and scores were hanged."
  62. ^ "The Yom Kippur War". thenagain.info. 
  63. ^ "The History Guy". Retrieved 26 July 2010. 
  64. ^ David McDowall. A Modern History of the Kurds (1996)
  65. ^ "Document - Iran: Violations of human rights 1987 - 1990 | Amnesty International". Amnesty.org. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  66. ^ Great Britain, 1930: Report of the Commission on the disturbances of August 1929, Command paper 3530 (Shaw Commission report), p. 65.
  67. ^ NA 59/8/353/84/867n, 404 Wailing Wall/279 and 280, Archdale Diary and Palestinian Police records.
  68. ^ "29 Oct 1933 - Riots in Palestine SEQUEL TO FORBIDDEN PROCESSIO". Trove.nla.gov.au. 29 October 1933. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  69. ^ Benjamin Grob-Fitzgibbon: Imperial Endgame: Britain's Dirty Wars and the End of Empire, p. 100
  70. ^ Yoav Gelber (2006), p.85

External links[edit]