Middle Turkic languages
|Era||c. 900–1500 CE|
Middle Turkic refers to a phase in the development of the Turkic language family, covering much of the Middle Ages (c. 900–1500 CE). In particular the term is used by linguists to refer to a group of Karluk and Oghuz and related languages spoken during this period in Central Asia, Iran, and other parts of the Middle East occupied by the Seljuk Turks. Its best known literary form is the Karakhanid dialects spoken in Kashgar, Balasaghun and other cities along the Silk Road. The literary language of the Chagatai Khanate is considered a later form of Middle Turkic. Confusingly, the Karluk and Oghuz "Middle Turkic" period overlaps with the East Turkic Old Turkic period, which covers the 8th to 13th centuries.
Literary works of the Middle Turkic period
- The Book of Dede Korkut
- The Epic of Köroğlu
- Mahmud al-Kashgari's Divânü Lügati't-Türk (in Karluk and Arabic)
- Yusuf Balasaghuni's Kutadgu Bilig (in Karluk)
- The works of Ali-Shir Nava'i (in the Karluk Chagatai language), including:
- Gharā’ib al-Ṣighār ("Wonders of Childhood")
- Nawādir al-Shabāb ("Witticisms of Youth")
- Badā’i‘ al-Wasaṭ ("Marvels of Middle Age")
- Fawā’id al-Kibār ("Advantages of Old Age")
- Muḥākamat al-Lughatayn ("Judgment between the Two Languages")
- The Mughal Emperor Babur's Baburnama (in the Karluk Chagatai language)
- Sinor, Dennis. "Old Turkic and Middle Turkic Languages." History of the Civilizations of Central Asia, vol. IV, 2 (2000), pp. 331-334.