|City of Midland|
|Nickname(s): The Tall City|
|Motto: "Feel the Energy"|
|• City Council||Mayor Wes Perry
John Love III
|• City Manager||Courtney Sharp|
|• City||71.5 sq mi (185.2 km2)|
|• Land||71.3 sq mi (184.7 km2)|
|• Water||0.2 sq mi (0.5 km2)|
|Elevation||2,782 ft (848 m)|
|• Density||1,558.9/sq mi (601.8/km2)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|GNIS feature ID||1341547|
Midland is a city in and the county seat of Midland County, Texas, United States, on the Southern Plains of the state's western area. A small portion of the city extends into Martin County. At the 2010 census, the population of Midland was 111,147, and a 2011 estimate of 113,931, making it the twenty-eighth most populous city in the state of Texas. Due to the oil boom in Midland, certain officials have estimated the population to be hovering around 155,000 to 165,000. The Midland metropolitan area's, composed of Midland County, population grew 4.6 percent to 151,662 between July 1, 2011, and July 1, 2012, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. It is the principal city of the Midland, Texas Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Midland County. The metropolitan area is also a component of the larger Midland−Odessa, Texas Combined Statistical Area, which had an estimated population of 274,002 on July 1, 2010. People in Midland are called Midlanders.
Midland was originally founded as the midway point between Fort Worth and El Paso on the Texas and Pacific Railroad in 1881. The city has received national recognition as the hometown of former First Lady Laura Bush, and the onetime home of former President George H. W. Bush, former President George W. Bush, and former First Lady Barbara Bush.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Cityscape
- 4 Culture
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Government
- 7 Economy
- 8 Education
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Sister cities
- 11 Notable residents
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Midland was originally established in June 1881 as Midway Station, on the Texas and Pacific Railway. It earned its name because of its central location between Fort Worth and El Paso, but because there were already other towns in Texas by the name of Midway, the city changed its name to Midland in January 1884 when it was granted its first Post Office. Midland became the county seat of Midland county in March 1885 when that county was first organized and separated from Tom Green County. By 1890 it had become one of the most important cattle shipping centers in the state. The city was first incorporated in 1906, and by 1910 the city established its first fire department along with a new water system.
Midland was forever changed by the discovery of oil in the Permian Basin in 1923 when the Santa Rita No. 1 well began producing in Reagan County, followed shortly by the Yates Oil Field in Iraan, Texas. Soon, Midland was transformed into the administrative center of the West Texas oil fields. During the second world war Midland was the largest bombardier training base in the country. A second boom period began after the Second World War, with the discovery and development of the Spraberry Trend, still ranked as the third-largest oil field in the United States by total reserves. Yet another boom period occurred during the 1970s, with the high oil prices associated with the oil and energy crises of that decade. Today, the Permian Basin produces one fifth of the nation's total petroleum and natural gas output.
Midland's economy still relies heavily on petroleum; however, the city has also diversified to become a regional telecommunications and distribution center. By August 2006, a busy period of crude oil production had caused a significant workforce deficit. According to the Midland Chamber of Commerce, at that time there were almost 2,000 more jobs available in the Permian Basin than there were workers to fill them.
John Howard Griffin wrote a history of Midland, Land of the High Sky (1959).
Avery v. Midland County
In 1967 the U.S. Supreme Court heard the case of Avery v. Midland County. Midland mayor Hank Avery had sued Midland County challenging the electoral-districting scheme in effect for elections to the County Commissioner's Court. The county districts geographically quartered the county, but the city of Midland, in the northwestern quarter, accounted for 97% of the county's population. A judge, elected on an at-large basis, provided a fifth vote, but the result was that the three rural commissioners, representing only three percent of the county's population, held a majority of the votes.
The majority of the U.S. Supreme Court held that the districting inequality violated the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection clause. The dissenting minority held that this example of the Warren Court's policy of incorporation at the local-government level exceeded the Court's constitutional authority.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 71.5 square miles (185.2 km²), of which 71.3 square miles (184.7 km²) is land and 0.2 square mile (0.5 km²) (0.28%) is water.
Midland features a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh or BSk) with long, hot summers and short, moderate winters. The city is occasionally subject to cold waves during the winter, but it rarely sees extended periods of below-freezing cold. Midland receives approximately 14.6 inches (370 mm) of precipitation per year, much of which falls in the summer. Highs exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on 101 days per year, and 100 °F (38 °C) on 16 days.
|Climate data for Midland, Texas|
|Record high °F (°C)||84
|Average high °F (°C)||57.4
|Average low °F (°C)||30.3
|Record low °F (°C)||−8
|Precipitation inches (mm)||.56
|Snowfall inches (cm)||2.1
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||3.9||3.4||2.6||3.2||6.2||4.9||5.0||5.8||6.0||4.7||3.1||3.6||52.4|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||1.6||.7||.2||.1||0||0||0||0||0||.1||.3||.9||3.9|
|Source: National Weather Service |
Nicknamed "The Tall City", Midland has long been known for its downtown skyline. Most of downtown Midland’s major office buildings were built during a time of major Permian Basin oil and gas discoveries. The surge in energy prices in the mid-1980s set about a building boom for Downtown Midland. For many years, the 22-story Wilco Building in downtown Midland was the tallest building between Fort Worth and Phoenix. Today, Midland's tallest building is the 24-story Bank of America Building which stands at a height of 332 feet (101 m). Four buildings over 500 feet (150 m) tall were planned in the 1980s, including one designed by world famous architect I.M. Pei. The great Oil Bust of the mid-1980s killed any plans for future skyscrapers. A private development group plans to build Energy Tower at City Center, which is proposed to stand at 870 feet tall with 59 floors (6 floors underground and 53 above). If built, Energy Tower will be Texas' 6th tallest building.
Midland College is home to the McCormick Gallery, located inside the Allison Fine Arts Building, on the college's main campus. Throughout the year, changing exhibits at the McCormick feature works of MC students and faculty, visiting artists, and juried exhibits from the Arts Assembly of Midland . The McCormick is also home to the Studio 3600 Series, established in 2006 to "spotlight selected art students and provide them the opportunity to exhibit key works that identify the style they have crafted over a period of time."
The Midland-Odessa Symphony & Chorale (MOSC) has performed in the Permian Basin for over 45 years, and is the region's largest orchestral organization, presenting both Pops and Masterworks concerts throughout the year. Composed of professional musicians from the area as well as Lubbock, San Angelo and other surrounding cities, the MOSC also is home to three resident chamber ensembles, the Lone Star Brass, Permian Basin String Quartet and West Texas Winds. These ensembles are made up of principal musicians in the orchestra, who come to the area from across the United States.
The Chateau Club on Wall Street hosted some musical greats in the early seventies. Managed by D.M. Williams, Club Chateau's house band consisted of a line up of some of the nation's best known R&B artists from such well known singing groups as The Coasters, The Drifters, and The Shirelles. The band was led by blues great Johnny Heartsman. Heartsman was a master of the Hammond B3 organ, guitar, and flute. Local talent consisted of drummer Jeff Colvin and guitarist Larry Grubb. Heartsman hosted a Sunday afternoon jam session. It was one Sunday that young West Texan, Jay Boy Adams wandered in to the Sunday afternoon jam. Williams and Heartsman hired him on the spot. Adams was not yet twenty one. He remained as the regular guitar player and singer for the next two years. Adams will regularly credit his time with The Heartsman Trio as his learning ground and credit Heartsman as a major influence in his musical development.
The Midland Community Theatre (MCT) has been entertaining the Permian Basin since 1946 with musicals, comedies, dramas, mysteries, children's theatre and melodramas. MCT produces 15 shows each year in three performance spaces - Davis Theatre I (485 seats) and Mabee Theatre II (155 seats), located in the Cole Theatre, and the annual fundraiser Summer Mummers in the historic Yucca Theatre. MCT has an extensive education program, including the Pickwick Players (teen performance troupe), Theatre School programs and OutReach classes. MCT operates with a professional staff of 20 and depends upon the hard work and dedication of hundreds of volunteers in the Permian Basin to produce shows throughout the year. MCT is a member of the American Association of Community Theatre, and hosted the 2006 AACT International Theatrefest.
Twice each year, the Phyllis & Bob Cowan Performing Arts Series at Midland College presents free cultural and artistic performances of "international interest and scope to stimulate and inspire the Midland arts community," and entertain the community at-large. The series was endowed in 1999, and has since brought a diverse selection of entertainers to Midland, including Andre Watts, the Eroica Trio, the Moscow Boys Choir, the Flying Karamazov Brothers, the Preservation Hall Jazz Band, 3 Mo' Divas, Ballet Folklorico de Mexico de Amalia Hernandez and the Golden Dragon Acrobats of China.
Sitting on the southern edge of the Llano Estacado and located near the center of the Permian Basin oil fields, Midland's economy has long been focused on petroleum exploration and extraction. Providing more information about this industry is the Permian Basin Petroleum Museum, located on the outskirts of town near Interstate 20. The museum houses numerous displays on the history, science, and technology of oil and gas development. The Permian Basin Petroleum Museum houses a collection of race cars designed by Jim Hall, a long time Midland resident who pioneered the use of aerodynamic downforce in the design of Formula One cars.
Midland is also home to The Museum of the Southwest. The Museum features a collection of paintings by various members of the Taos Society of Artists and Karl Bodmer as well as engravings by John J. and John W. Audubon. Located within the same museum complex are the separate Children's Museum and the Marian W. Blakemore Planetarium. The Museum of the Southwest is housed in the Turner Mansion, the historic 1934 home of Fred and Juliette Turner.
Headquartered in Midland is the Commemorative Air Force (CAF). Associated with the CAF is the American Airpower Heritage Museum. The museum, accredited by the American Alliance of Museums, displays and preserves World War II artifacts and memorabilia, as well as a collection of original WWII nose art panels. As part of the museum tour, visitors can see 14-20 aircraft on display in the CAF hangar. A research library and archives house a significant oral history collection and give the public access to the museum's information resources.
On display at the Midland County Historical Museum are reproductions of the "Midland Man", the skeleton of a Clovis female found near the city in 1953 . Analysis of the remains by Dr. Curtis R. McKinney using uranium-thorium analysis showed that the bones are 11,600 ± 800 years old. Presenting his findings at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in 1992, Dr. McKinney said, "[T]he Midland Woman was related to the earliest ancestors of every Indian who lives today, and she is very likely the only representative of those who created the Clovis cultures."
Midland is home to the Midland RockHounds, a Texas League minor league baseball team. It is the Double-A affiliate of the Oakland Athletics. The Rockhounds have played their home games in Citibank Ballpark since 2002.
West Texas United Sockers is an American soccer team founded in 2008. The team is a member of the United Soccer Leagues Premier Development League (PDL), the fourth tier of the American Soccer Pyramid, in the Mid South Division of the Southern Conference. The team plays its home games at the Grande Communications Stadium in Midland, Texas.
Midland is home to the West Texas Drillers (Adult Tackle Football) of the Minor Professional Football League. The Drillers were established in 2009. The Drillers play their home games at Grande Communications Stadium in Midland, Texas.
Midland College is a member of the Western Junior College Athletic Conference, and fields teams in baseball, men's basketball, women's basketball, men's golf, softball and volleyball. Midland College has won 20 national championships in sports since 1975, as well as produced 192 All-Americans.
Plans have been made to develop a 35 court tennis facility named the Bush Tennis Center.
Midland is also home to the Midland Mad Dog Rugby Club, which competes in the Texas Rugby Union as a division III team.
Twice each year, the Davidson Distinguished Lectures Series at Midland College presents free public lectures by "nationally-known speakers whose academic accomplishments, civic leadership, and/or public achievements interest, enrich, and enlighten Midland students and citizens." The series was endowed in 1996, and has since brought a diverse selection of speakers to Midland, including Ken Burns, Richard Leakey, Bill Moyers, Mark Russell, Sandra Day O'Connor, Richard Rodriguez, Shelby Foote, Anna Deavere Smith, John Updike and Neil deGrasse Tyson.
- KLFB 88.1 FM (Religious)
- KFRI 88.7 FM (Christian Contemporary)
- KBMM 89.5 FM (Religious)
- KLVW 90.5 FM (Christian Contemporary)
- KVDG 90.9 FM (Spanish)
- KXWT 91.3 FM (Public Radio)
- WJFM 91.7 FM (Gospel Music)
- KNFM 92.3 FM (Country)
- KZBT 93.3 FM (Hip-Hop)
- KACD 94.1 FM (Spanish)
- KTXO 94.7 FM (Rhythmic Oldies)
- KQRX 95.1 FM (Rock)
- KMRK-FM 96.1 FM (Country)
- KMCM 96.9 FM (Oldies)
- KODM 97.9 FM (Adult Contemporary)
- KHKX 99.1 FM (Country)
- KMTH 99.5 FM (Public Radio)
- KBAT 99.9 FM (Rock)
- KMMZ 101.3 FM (Regional Mexican)
- KFZX 102.1 FM (Classic Rock)
- KCRS 103.3 FM (Top-40)
- KTXC 104.7 FM (Regional Mexican)
- KCHX 106.7 FM (Adult Contemporary)
- KWEL 107.1 FM (Talk)
- KQLM 107.9 FM (Spanish)
- KCRS 550 AM (News/Talk)
- KXOI 810 AM (Spanish)
- KFLB 920 AM (Religious)
- KWEL 1070 AM (Talk)
- KMND 1510 AM (Sports)
Midland is served by 10 local television stations: KMID, an ABC affiliate; KWES-TV, an NBC affiliate; KOSA, a CBS affiliate and a MyNetwork TV affiliate on their digital cable TV station; KPEJ-TV, a Fox affiliate; KPBT, a PBS affiliate; KWWT, The CW Television Network affiliate; KUPB, a Univision affiliate; KTLE-LP, a Telemundo affiliate; and K69IT, a Multimedios Television affiliate. It also has one local religious television station: KMLM-DT, a God's Learning Channel affiliate, which is a worldwide institution offering pro-Israel programming. Midland is also served by one local newspaper, the Midland Reporter-Telegram.
Many major motion pictures have been filmed in and around Midland, including Hangar 18, Waltz Across Texas, Fandango, Blood Simple, Hard Country, Friday Night Lights, The Rookie, The Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada, Everybody's Baby: The Rescue of Jessica McClure (which featured, as extras, many participants in the actual rescue and its coverage), and others.
In the Heroes television series, the Midland-Odessa area is a focal point for many of the first season's episodes, serving as the home for the Bennet family as well as the location of a recurring restaurant, the Burnt Toast Diner.
|U.S. Census Bureau Texas Almanac|
At the 2010 census, 111,149 people, 41,268 households, and 32,607 families resided in the city. The population density was 1,558.9 people per square mile (550.6/km²). There were 47,562 housing units at an average density of 667.1 per square mile (231.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 75.51% White, 8.37% African American, 0.63% Native American, 1.01% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 12.49% from other races, and 1.96% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 28.99% of the population.
Of the 41,268 households, 37.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.4% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.3% were not families. About 25.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.19.
In the city, the population was distributed as 29.9% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males.
In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $39,320, and for a family was $48,290. Males had a median income of $37,566 versus $24,794 for females. The per capita income for the city in 2007 was $52,294. In 2000, about 10.1% of families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.4% of those under age 18 and 8.0% of those age 65 or over.
According to the city’s most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city’s various funds had $57.3 million in revenues, $53.0 million in expenditures, $363.4 million in total assets, $133.9 million in total liabilities, and $75.0 million in cash and investments.
The structure of the management and coordination of city services is:
|City Manager||Courtney Sharp|
|City Attorney||Keith Stretcher|
|City Secretary||Amy M. Turner|
|Chief of Police||Price Robinson|
|Fire Chief||Robert Isbell|
|Finance Director||Robert McNaughton|
|Community Services Director||Tina Jauz|
|Director of Airports||Marv Esterly|
|Director of Utilities||Stuart Purvis|
|Director of General Services||Robert Patrick|
|Director of Development Services||Rick Crownover|
State and federal representation
On the federal level, Midland residents are represented in the US Senate by John Cornyn and Ted Cruz, and in the US House of Representatives by Mike Conaway. Midland residents are represented in the Texas Senate by Republican Kel Seliger, District 31. Midland is also represented in the Texas House of Representatives by Republican Tom Russell Craddick, District 82.
The United States Postal Service operates the Midland Main Post Office on the grounds of Midland International Airport. The other four post offices are Claydesta, Downtown Midland, Graves, and Village.
According to the city's 2008 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top ten employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1||Midland Independent School District||2,826|
|2||Warren Equipment Companies||1,920|
|3||Midland Memorial Hospital and Medical Center||1,500|
|6||City of Midland||962|
|7||Patterson Drilling UTI||750|
|10||Key Energy Services||500|
Colleges and universities
Midland is the home of Midland College (MC), which offers a variety of over 50 programs of study for associate degrees and certificates to more than 6,000 students who enroll each semester. MC offers programs in health sciences, information technology, and aviation, including a professional pilot training program. MC is one of only three community colleges in Texas approved to offer a bachelor's degree in applied technology. Dr. Steve Thomas is MC's current president.
Midland is also the home for the physician assistant program offered by the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center Permian Basin Campus located on the campus of Midland College. The entry-level graduate program awards a master of physician assistant studies following 27 months of intensive academic and clinical training.
Midland is the home to three local public high schools: Midland High School, Robert E. Lee High School and Early College High School (ECHS) at Midland College, all three of which are part of the Midland Independent School District.
ECHS welcomed its first freshman class on August 24, 2009. The goal for ECHS is to award students their associates degrees from Midland College by the time they receive their high school diplomas.
Also, many private schools are in Midland, including Hillcrest School, Hillander, Midland Classical Academy, Midland Christian School, Midland Montessori, St. Ann's School, and Trinity School of Midland, among others. Midland is also home to three charter schools: Richard Milburn Academy, Premier High School, and Midland Academy Charter School.
- Midland County Library
- Haley Memorial Library & History Center
- Murray L. Fasken Learning Resource Center at Midland College
- Midland is served by Midland International Airport (ICAO code: KMAF, IATA code: MAF), which is located between Odessa and Midland.
- Midland Airpark (ICAO code: KMDD, IATA code: MDD) is a general aviation airport located on Midland's northeast side.
- I-20 (Interstate 20)
- I-20 Bus. (Wall Street/Front Street)
- SH 140 (Florida Street)
- SH 158 (Garden City Highway)
- SH 349 (Big Spring Street)
- Loop 250
- Loop 268 (Wall Street)
- FM 868 (Midland Drive)
Midland was the site of the 2012 Midland train wreck, in which a train collided with a parade float carrying wounded military veterans, killing four.
Midland also has city-wide public bus services provided for the Midland-Odessa Urban Transit District by Midland-Odessa Transit Management, otherwise known as E-Z Rider.
- Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico)
- Dongying, Shandong, (China), located near China's second-largest known oil field. A modest pagoda, located at the Beal Complex, was donated by Dongying officials.
- New Amsterdam (Guyana)
- Wirral (United Kingdom)
Notable residents of Midland include former Presidents George W. and George H. W. Bush, actors Tommy Lee Jones, Kathy Baker, and Woody Harrelson, former Texas Longhorn and NFL running back Cedric Benson, Olympic gold medalist Doug Russell, retired US Army general Tommy Franks, and former LPGA golfer Judy Rankin.
- "Table 2. Annual Estimates of the Population of Combined Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007 (CBSA-EST2007-02)" (CSV). 2007 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2008-03-27. Archived from the original on 2008-06-04. Retrieved 2008-07-21.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "Race, Hispanic or Latino, Age, and Housing Occupancy: 2010". US Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
- Handbook of Texas Online, s.v. "," http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/hdm03 (accessed April 11, 2010).
- Top 100 Oil and Gas Fields (Department of Energy)
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "National Weather Service Midland". Srh.noaa.gov. 2012-03-07. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
- "List of Architectural designs, including MGF Building by I. M. Pei". Uwm.edu. 2012-04-03. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
- "Architect: 'Energy Tower starts ripple effect of downtown activity'".
- [dead link]
- Phyllis & Bob Cowan Performing Arts Series
- "Historic plaque - Midland Man : The Portal to Texas History". Texashistory.unt.edu. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
- Davidson Distinguished Lectures Series
- "State & County QuickFacts". U.S. Census Bureau. 2012. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- "American FactFinder". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
- http://www.texasalmanac.com/population/population-city-history.pdf%7CTexas Almanac
- Personal Income for Metropolitan Areas, 2007 http://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/regional/mpi/2008/xls/mpi0808.xls
- City of Midland CAFR Retrieved 2009-06-24
- City of Midland CAFR p. x Retrieved 2009-06-24
- "Parole Division Region V." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on May 21, 2010.
- "Post Office Location - MIDLAND." United States Postal Service. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- "Post Office Location - CLAYDESTA." United States Postal Service. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- "Post Office Location - DOWNTOWN MIDLAND." United States Postal Service. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- "Post Office Location - GRAVES." United States Postal Service. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- "Post Office Location - VILLAGE." United States Postal Service. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- City of Midland CAFR p. 132 Retrieved 2009-06-24
- "Early College High School a 'once-in-a-lifetime' chance for students". Mywesttexas.com. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
- "KMDD - Midland Airpark". AirNav. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
- "Article referencing Midland's sister cities". Midlandtexas.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
- "Midland 101: 1962 LHS yearbook stands out".
- City of Midland, Texas
- Odessa-Midland Area Radio Stations
- Midland from the Handbook of Texas Online
- Midland Reporter-Telegram
- Midland College