|Catalog number||Skull 5|
|Place discovered||Atapuerca, Spain|
|Discovered by||Bermúdez, Arsuaga & Carbonell|
Miguelón (considered to be 400,000 years old) is the popular nickname for the most complete skull of an Homo heidelbergensis ever found. More than 5,500 human fossils of this species, which are considered to be the direct ancestor of Homo neanderthalensis, have been found in the Sima de los Huesos ("pit of bones") site in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain.
The excavators suggest that this concentration of bones in the pit may represent the practice of burial by the inhabitants of the cave. A competing theory cites the lack of small bones in the assemblage and suggests that the remains were washed into the pit by natural agents.
Miguelón, around thirty years old, had 13 impacts in the head and died of septicemia resulting from broken teeth. In his upper left jaw there is an important bone alteration, with evidence of alveolar infection. According to Arsuaga, a tooth had been broken in life by a strong blow, so that the flesh had been exposed and led to an infectious process that continued until nearly the orbital bone. The cranial capacity is around 1100cc.
- "El cráneo «Miguelón» llega a Madrid". ABC. 2005-12-15.
- "El cráneo de Miguelón" (PDF). Tribuna Complutense. 2008-02-07.
- Human Fossils - The pit of bones (in Spanish)