||This biographical article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2013)|
|Miguel Angelo Laporta Nicolelis|
|Born||March, 7th, 1961
São Paulo, Brazil
|Institutions||International Institute for Neuroscience of Natal|
|Alma mater||University of São Paulo|
Miguel Angelo Laporta Nicolelis (Portuguese pronunciation: [miˈɡɛw ˈɐ̃ʒelu lɐˈpɔɾtɐ nikoˈlɛlis]), MD, PhD, is a Brazilian scientist and physician, best known for his pioneering work in "reading monkey thought". He and his colleagues at Duke University implanted electrode arrays into a monkey's brain that were able to detect the monkey's motor intent and thus able to control reaching and grasping movements performed by a robotic arm. This was possible by decoding signals of hundreds of neurons recorded in volitional areas of the cerebral cortex while the monkey played with a hand-held joystick to move a shape in a video game. These signals were sent to the robot arm, which then mimicked the monkey's movements and thus controlled the game. After a while the monkey realised that thinking about moving the shape was enough and it no longer needed to move the joystick. So it let go of the joystick and controlled the game purely through thought. A system in which brain signals directly control an artificial actuator is commonly referred to as brain-machine interface or brain-computer interface.
On January 15, 2008, Dr. Nicolelis's lab saw a monkey implanted with a new BCI successfully control a robot walking on a treadmill in Kyoto, Japan. The monkey could see the robot, named CB, on a screen in front of him, and was rewarded for walking in sync with the robot (which was under the control of the monkey). After an hour the monkey's treadmill was turned off, but he was able to continue to direct the robot to walk normally for another few minutes, indicating that a part of the brain not sufficient to induce a motor response in the monkey had become dedicated to controlling the robot, as if it were an extension of itself.
Nicolelis is a co-founder and scientific director of the Edmond and Lily Safra International Institute for Neuroscience of Natal, a brain research facility in Brazil
On August 3, 2010, Nicolelis was awarded an NIH Director's Pioneer Award to continue his research on brain-machine interface technology. On January 5, 2011, Dr. Nicolelis was appointed by Pope Benedict XVI as an ordinary member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences.
Nicolelis is a fan of Sociedade Esportiva Palmeiras, a Brazilian football club; a football ball with Palmeiras crest can be seen at his website. He is currently working on a project that will allow a quadriplegic child to deliver the kickoff at the opening game of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, in Brazil.
Brain to brain
In 2013 a report of research by Nicolelis and others was published which showed brain to brain communication between two rats using brain–computer interfaces. This result may demonstrate the feasibility of a biological computer consisting of a network of animal, or human, brains. Currently, researchers are divided on their views of this research. Critics state that there are flaws in the scientific methods used and that there is lack of controls. They claim that some of the scientific claims are rendered "far-fetched at best." One researcher stated the work was similar to a "poor Hollywood science fiction script." Proponents have praised this research for drawing attention to Brain to Brain Interfaces as a way of studying neural systems: “The study helps to promote the role of BMIs not only in prosthetic applications, but also as scientific tools. It’s a contribution to that.”  Ron Frostig, a neuroscientist at the University of California, Irvine, have described this brain to brain work as "an amazing paper” and a “beautiful proof of principle” that information can be transferred from one brain to another in real time.
- "Monkey Think, Robot Do". Scientific American. January 15, 2008.
- "Monkey’s Thoughts Propel Robot, a Step That May Help Humans". The New York Times. January 15, 2008.
- "Body of research". The Guardian. November 20, 2011.
- James Gorman (February 28, 2013). "In a First, Experiment Links Brains of Two Rats". The New York Times. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
- Clive Cookson (February 28, 2013). "Telepathic rats solve problems together". Financial Times. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Mikhail Lebedev, Carolina Kunicki, Jing Wang & Miguel A. L. Nicolelis (February 28, 2013). "A Brain-to-Brain Interface for Real-Time Sharing of Sensorimotor Information". Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing Group) 3: Article no. 1319. doi:10.1038/srep01319. Retrieved February 28, 2013. "A brain-to-brain interface (BTBI) enabled a real-time transfer of behaviorally meaningful sensorimotor information between the brains of two rats."
- Dan Cossins (February 28, 2013). "A Brain-to-Brain Interface for Rats". The Scientist. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- James Gorman (February 28, 2013). "In a First, Experiment Links Brains of Two Rats". The New York Times. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
- In a First, Experiment Links Brains of Two Rats February 28, 2013
- A Brain-to-Brain Interface for Real-Time Sharing of Sensorimotor Information Nature Scientific Reports 3, Published 28 February 2013
- Pais-Vieira, M.; Lebedev, M.; Kunicki, C.; Wang, J.; Nicolelis, M. A. L. (2013). "A Brain-to-Brain Interface for Real-Time Sharing of Sensorimotor Information". Scientific Reports 3. doi:10.1038/srep01319.
Selected Publications on Brain-Machine Interface
- Beyond Boundaries: The New Neuroscience of Connecting Brains with Machines---and How It Will Change Our Lives (ASIN B005Q5R5RU) publisher: Times Books (March 15, 2011)
- Lebedev, M.A., Carmena, J.M., O’Doherty, J.E., Zacksenhouse, M., Henriquez, C.S., Principe, J.C., Nicolelis, M.A.L. (2005) Cortical ensemble adaptation to represent actuators controlled by a brain machine interface. J. Neurosci. 25: 4681-4693.
- Santucci, D.M., Kralik, J.D., Lebedev, M.A., Nicolelis, M.A.L. (2005) Frontal and parietal cortical ensembles predict single-trial muscle activity during reaching movements. Eur. J. Neurosci., 22: 1529-1540.
- Carmena, J.M., Lebedev, M.A., Crist, R.E., O’Doherty, J.E., Santucci, D.M., Dimitrov, D.F., Patil, P.G., Henriquez, C.S., Nicolelis, M.A.L. (2003) Learning to control a brain-machine interface for reaching and grasping by primates. PLoS Biology, 1: 193-208.
- Nicolelis MA (2003) Brain-machine interfaces to restore motor function and probe neural circuits. Nat Rev Neurosci. 4: 417-422.
- Wessberg J, Stambaugh CR, Kralik JD, Beck PD, Laubach M, Chapin JK, Kim J, Biggs SJ, Srinivasan MA, Nicolelis MA. (2000) Real-time prediction of hand trajectory by ensembles of cortical neurons in primates. Nature 16: 361-365.
- Freire MAM, Morya E, Faber J, Santos JR, Guimaraes JS, Lemos NAM, Sameshima K, Pereira A, Ribeiro S, Nicolelis MAL. (2011) Comprehensive analysis of tissue preservation and recording quality from chronic multielectrode implants. PLoS ONE 6 (11): e27554.
- Nicolelis Lab
- CV and awards
- New Scientist 2003
- New Scientist 2004
- International Institute for Neuroscience of Natal (IINN)
- Oct 16, 2003 interview with Charlie Rose
- Mindful Motion: Miguel Nicolelis and Mind-Powered Robots; and Creating Science Cities in Brazil and Beyond Scientific American podcast January 16, 2008
- Nov 2, 2011 Computing with Neural Ensembles (video)
- "Minds and Machines - A conversation with Miguel Nicolelis", Ideas Roadshow, 2013