||This biographical article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2013)|
|Miguel Ângelo Laporta Nicolelis|
|Born||March 7, 1961
São Paulo, Brazil
|Institutions||Duke University, International Institute for Neuroscience of Natal|
|Alma mater||University of São Paulo|
Miguel Ângelo Laporta Nicolelis (Portuguese pronunciation: [miˈɡɛw ˈɐ̃ʒelu lɐˈpɔɾtɐ nikoˈlɛlis]), MD, PhD, is a Brazilian scientist and physician, best known for his pioneering work in "reading monkey thought". He and his colleagues at Duke University implanted electrode arrays into a monkey's brain that were able to detect the monkey's motor intent and thus able to control reaching and grasping movements performed by a robotic arm. This was possible by decoding signals of hundreds of neurons recorded in volitional areas of the cerebral cortex while the monkey played with a hand-held joystick to move a shape in a video game. These signals were sent to the robot arm, which then mimicked the monkey's movements and thus controlled the game. After a while the monkey realised that thinking about moving the shape was enough and it no longer needed to move the joystick. So it let go of the joystick and controlled the game purely through thought. A system in which brain signals directly control an artificial actuator is commonly referred to as brain-machine interface or brain-computer interface.
On January 15, 2008, Dr. Nicolelis's lab saw a monkey implanted with a new BCI successfully control a robot walking on a treadmill in Kyoto, Japan. The monkey could see the robot, named CB, on a screen in front of him, and was rewarded for walking in sync with the robot (which was under the control of the monkey). After an hour the monkey's treadmill was turned off, but he was able to continue to direct the robot to walk normally for another few minutes, indicating that a part of the brain not sufficient to induce a motor response in the monkey had become dedicated to controlling the robot, as if it were an extension of itself.
On August 3, 2010, Nicolelis was awarded an NIH Director's Pioneer Award to continue his research on brain-machine interface technology. On January 5, 2011, Dr. Nicolelis was appointed by Pope Benedict XVI as an ordinary member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences.
Nicolelis is a fan of Sociedade Esportiva Palmeiras, a Brazilian football club; a football ball with Palmeiras crest can be seen at his website. He is currently working on a project that allowed a quadriplegic child to deliver the kickoff at the opening game of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, in Brazil.
Brain to brain
In 2013 a report of research by Nicolelis and others was published which showed brain to brain communication between two rats using brain–computer interfaces. This result may demonstrate the feasibility of a biological computer consisting of a network of animal, or human, brains. Currently, researchers are divided on their views of this research. Critics state that there are flaws in the scientific methods used and that there is lack of controls. They claim that some of the scientific claims are rendered "far-fetched at best." One researcher stated the work was similar to a "poor Hollywood science fiction script." Proponents have praised this research for drawing attention to Brain to Brain Interfaces as a way of studying neural systems: “The study helps to promote the role of BMIs not only in prosthetic applications, but also as scientific tools. It’s a contribution to that.” Ron Frostig, a neuroscientist at the University of California, Irvine, have described this brain to brain work as "an amazing paper” and a “beautiful proof of principle” that information can be transferred from one brain to another in real time.
- "Monkey Think, Robot Do". Scientific American. January 15, 2008.
- "Monkey’s Thoughts Propel Robot, a Step That May Help Humans". The New York Times. January 15, 2008.
- "British Heart foundation Body of research". The Guardian. November 20, 2011.
- Gorman, James (February 28, 2013). "In a First, Experiment Links Brains of Two Rats". The New York Times. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
- Cookson, Clive (February 28, 2013). "Telepathic rats solve problems together". Financial Times. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- Pais-Vieira et al. 2013.
- Cossins, Dan (February 28, 2013). "A Brain-to-Brain Interface for Rats". The Scientist. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- "50 Award: Research Leaders". Scientific American. Dec 2014 [Nov 11, 2004]. p. 46. Retrieved Jun 12, 2014.
Selected Publications on Brain-Machine Interface
- Carmena, JM; Lebedev, MA; Crist, RE; O’Doherty, JE; Santucci, DM; Dimitrov, DF; Patil, PG; Henriquez, CS et al. (2003), Learning to control a brain-machine interface for reaching and grasping by primates, Biology (PLoS) 1: 193–208.
- Freire, MAM; Morya, E; Faber, J; Santos, JR; Guimarães, JS; Lemos, NAM; Sameshima, K; Pereira, A; Ribeiro, S; Nicolelis, Miguel Ângelo Laporta (2011), Comprehensive analysis of tissue preservation and recording quality from chronic multielectrode implants (PDF), ONE (PLoS) 6 (11), e27554.
- Lebedev, MA; Carmena, JM; O’Doherty, JE; Zacksenhouse, M; Henriquez, CS; Principe, JC; Nicolelis, Miguel Ângelo Laporta (2005), Cortical ensemble adaptation to represent actuators controlled by a brain machine interface, J. Neurosci 25: 4681–93, doi:10.1523/jneurosci.4088-04.2005.
- Nicolelis, Miguel Ângelo Laporta (2003), Brain-machine interfaces to restore motor function and probe neural circuits, Nat Rev Neurosci 4: 417–22, doi:10.1038/nrn1105.
- Nicolelis, Miguel Ângelo Laporta (March 15, 2011), Beyond Boundaries: The New Neuroscience of Connecting Brains with Machines — and How It Will Change Our Lives, Times Books, ASIN B005Q5R5RU, ISBN 0-80509052-5.
- Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Lebedev, Mikhail; Kunicki, Carolina; Wang, Jing; Nicolelis, Miguel Ângelo Laporta (February 28, 2013), A Brain-to-Brain Interface for Real-Time Sharing of Sensorimotor Information, Scientific Reports (Nature) 3, doi:10.1038/srep01319, Article no. 1319, retrieved February 28, 2013, "A brain-to-brain interface (BTBI) enabled a real-time transfer of behaviorally meaningful sensorimotor information between the brains of two rats."
- Santucci, DM; Kralik, JD; Lebedev, MA; Nicolelis, Miguel Ângelo Laporta (2005), Frontal and parietal cortical ensembles predict single-trial muscle activity during reaching movements, Eur. J. Neurosci. (Blackwell synergy) 22: 1529–40, doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.04320.x.
- Wessberg, J; Stambaugh, CR; JD, Kralik; Beck, PD; Laubach, M; Chapin, JK; Kim, J; Biggs, SJ; Srinivasan, MA; Nicolelis, Miguel Ângelo Laporta (2000), Real-time prediction of hand trajectory by ensembles of cortical neurons in primates, Nature 16: 361–65.
- Nicolelis Lab
- CV and awards
- New Scientist, 2003
- New Scientist, 2004.
- International Institute for Neuroscience of Natal (IINN)
- Rose, Charlie (Oct 16, 2003), Interview.
- Mindful Motion: Miguel Nicolelis and Mind-Powered Robots; and Creating Science Cities in Brazil and Beyond (podcast), Scientific American, January 16, 2008
- Computing with Neural Ensembles (video), FR: ESPCI, Nov 2, 2011.
- "Minds and Machines – A conversation with Miguel Nicolelis", Ideas Roadshow, 2013