|This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2013)|
June 30, 1878|
Brege, Krško, Austria-Hungary
|Died||August 5, 1966
Golek, Krško, Yugoslavia
|Occupation||psychologist, author and educator|
|Known for||playing an important role during the creation of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs and the establishment of the University of Ljubljana.|
Mihajlo Rostohar (July 30, 1878 – August 5, 1966) was a Slovenian psychologist, author and educator, who played an important role during the creation of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. Together with Ivan Hribar and Danilo Majaron, he had a crucial role in the establishment of the University of Ljubljana.
He was born in a peasant family in Brege near Krško, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Duchy of Carniola. He attended high school (gymnasium) in Ljubljana and Kranj. He studied philosophy at the University of Graz with Alexius Meinong and later in Vienna, where he graduated in 1905. After working for a year as a supplementary high school teacher in Villach, he decided to pursue an academic career, following the advice of the Austrian philosopher Friedrich Jodl. He continued his studies in Prague, Leipzig (under the supervision of Wilhelm Wundt), Halle and Berlin. He obtained his habilitation at the Charles University of Prague.
After participating in the Italian campaign during World War I, he was involved in the formation of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs in 1918. In 1919, he moved to Czechoslovakia, where he continued his academic career. After the Nazi German takeover of Bohemia and Moravia in 1939, he returned to Slovenia. After World War Two, he went back to Czechoslovakia, but returned to Yugoslavia in 1948.
He died in Golek near Krško in Slovenia.
An elementary school in Krško is named after him.
Rostohar was active in the Slovene public life. Together with many other Slovene students from Prague, he helped introducing the political and social thought of Tomáš G. Masaryk to the Slovene Lands. He was close to progressive ideas, but unlike many other Slovene followers of Masaryk, he did not join the Social democratic party, but moved closer to national liberal positions.
During the First Balkan War, he publicly supported the idea of an autonomous Albania, with similar arguments as the Austria-Hungarian diplomacy. Because of this, he was attacked by the Slovene language press. In Rostohar's defense, the writer Ivan Cankar produced his famous lecture Slovenes and Yugoslavs, delivered in Ljubljana in 1913.
At the end of First World War there were numerous military units of the Army of Austria-Hungary on the territory of the Duchy of Carniola. Many of these soldiers and officers were Slovenians. During October 1918 there were mass desertions among them. On October 28, 1918 members of the Slovenian National council gathered in the hotel Union and agreed to organize a political rally on Congress Square for the next day. Despite the fact that soldiers and officers were not allowed to participate in the rally on October 29, 1918, around 200 soldiers and officers were in the crowd. Mihajlo Rostohar climbed to the balcony, where leaders of the rally spoke to the gathered people, and shouted:
“We soldiers renounce Austria and swear obedience to the state of our nation, to Yugoslavia!”
Then, on the night between October 29 and 30 1918, he gathered some other Slovenian soldiers and officers, and also soldiers and officers from the 53rd regiment from Zagreb who got off the train that was transporting them through Ljubljana and joined them. Together with prisoners of war from Serbia and Russia they had liberated, there were around 600 of them. Rostohar used them to surround the barracks in Kodeljevo and disarm a battalion of the Austro-Hungarian army from Hungary on the same night.
After the first success in taking over control of the Ljubljana, Slovenian officers and soldiers were very much afraid of the army under control of the Austro-Hungarian field marshal Svetozar Borojević. Therefore Rostohar organized Slovenian officers to prepare flyers printed in different languages to invite soldiers under command of Svetozar Borojević to go peacefully home, and not to start conflicts. Those activities helped in the peaceful take over of the control of Ljubljana.
Rostohar studied in Vienna and Graz under professor Alexius Meinong, and he received his PhD in Vienna in 1906 after defending his thesis — Über die Hypothese. Ihre wissenschaftliche Bedeutung. (About the hypothesis. Its scientific importance.). He also studied in Prague where he started teaching in 1911 in Prague as associate professor at the Faculty of Arts of Charles University, after he defended his work on logic — Theory of Hypothetical Judgement in 1910. In 1919 he was one of the initiators for establishing the University of Ljubljana. He drew up the first statute of the University and made plans for establishing the Psychological Institute in Slovenia. Despite all those activities he was not elected a professor. Therefore he left Ljubljana and started teaching in Brno at Masaryk University until 1939 and after Second World War till 1948. From 1948 he taught at the University of Ljubljana as chief of the Psychology department. He was the founder of empirical psychology and many psychological subjects. He was author of many works published on Czech, German, French, Serbo-Croatian and Slovenian.
Rostohar used his professional education to analyze the moral meaning of nation. He believed that the core of nationality is the awareness of belonging and the feeling that such awareness generates.
- Uvod v znanstveno mišljenje (1910)
- Theorie hypotetickeho soudu (1910) - Theory of Hypothetical Judgement
- Nationality and its moral significance (1913)
- Za novi socializem (1923)
- Studiez vyvojové psyhologie. Dil 1 (1928)
- Psychologcké zaklady počatečniho čteni s praktickym návodem ke čteni (1934)
- Psyhologie sociàlni (1948)
- Psychopatologie (1948)
- Psychologie jako veda o subjektivni skotečnosti (1950)
- Obča psiholgija (1951)
- Socialna psihologija (1952)
- Pedopsihologija (1953)
- Osnove obče psihologije (1964)
- Osnove socialne psihologije(1965)
- Psihologija (1966)
- Irena Gantar Godina, Masaryk in masarykovstvo pri Slovencih (Ljubljana: Slovenska matica, 1987).
- Ude, Lojze (1972). Slovenci in jugoslovenska skupnost (in Slovenian). Yugoslavia: Založba Obzorja. p. 62. "Teda je prišel Rostohar na idejo, da brani avtonomijo Albanije - z argumenti avstrijske diplomacije. Slovenski tisk ga silovito napadel, posebno Dan."
- Švajncer, Janez. "Prva slovenska vojska 1918-1919" (in Slovenian). Slovenia: Tukaj je Slovenia. Archived from the original on January 6, 2011. Retrieved January 6, 2011. "Slovenski oficirji so spodbudili poroènika Rostoharja, da je tudi sam odšel na balkon in spregovoril. Ko je dobil besedo je po kratkem nagovoru potegnil sabljo ter zavpil: »Mi vojaki odrekamo pokoršèino Avstriji in prisegamo zvestobo svoji narodni državi Jugoslaviji!«"
- JAN KRLÍN (2006). "Narodni svet v Ljubljani leta 1918" (in slovenian). Retrieved January 6, 2011. ". Rostohar je s pomočjo revolucionarnega odbora slovenskih oficirjev v rezervi, topništva 53. hrvaškega polka in osvobojenih ruskih in srbskih ujetnikov v noči z 29. na 30. oktober 1918 obkolil madžarsko vojašnico na Kodeljevem (mestni del Ljubljane) in prisilil vojsko h kapitulaciji."
- JAN KRLÍN (2006). "Narodni svet v Ljubljani leta 1918" (in slovenian). Retrieved January 6, 2011. "Naslednja nevarnost, ki je grozila slovenskim oblastem, je bila soška vojska maršala Boroeviča. Po Rostoharjevih spominih sodeč je dal oficirski odbor v Ljubljani natisniti letake v različnih jezikih, ki so bili namenjeni vojakom soške vojske, da bi se v miru vrnili domov in se ne bi več bojevali."
- "Jurij Perovšek, Polemika Uščeničnik — Rostohar o veri, narodnosti in etiki v letah 1912—1913" (pdf) (in Slovenian). p. 2. Retrieved January 6, 2011. "Mihajlo Rostohar (1878—196) je studiral filosofijo na Dunaju, nato v Gradcu pri profesoru Alexiusu Meinongu. Leta 1906 je bil na Dunaju promoviran za doktora filozofije, z disertacijo Uber die Hypotesse, Ihre Wissenshatfliche."
- Nový, Lubomír; Jiří Gabriel; Jaroslav Hroch (1994). Czech philosophy in the XXth century 4. Paideia Publishers & The Council in Research and Value in Philosophy. ISBN 1-56518-028-3. "Rostohar, of Slovenian origin, came to Brno from Prague, where he had become an associate professor at the Faculty of Arts of Charles University in 1911, having defended his work on logic, Theory of Hypothetical Judgement in 1910"
- Theodore M. Porter; Dorothy Ross (2003). The Cambridge history of science: The modern social sciences. United States of America: The press syndicate of the University of Cambridge. p. 448. "Rostohar analyzed the moral meaning of nationality, he believed that the essence of nationality lies in awareness of belonging and in the feelings that such awareness generates."
- Kržišnik-Bukić, Vera (1974), Mihajlo Rostohar in "Napredna misel"
- Švancara, Josef (1999), Mihajlo Rostohar (1878-1966): v tradici celostní a experimentální psychologie
- Perovšek, Jurij, Polemika Uščeničnik — Rostohar o veri, narodnosti in etiki v letah 1912—1913 (pdf), retrieved January 6, 2011
- Narodni svet v Ljubljani leta 1918 (National Council in Ljubljana in 1918).
- Short biography of Mihajlo Rostohar within text about his polemics with Ušeničnik