Mikawa Chiryū Station was opened on October 28, 1915, as Chiryū Station(知立駅,Chiryū-eki?) on the privately owned Mikawa Railway. The Aichi Electric Railway Company opened Shin-Chiryū Station(新知立駅,Shin-Chiryū-eki?) nearby on April 1, 1922. The two stations merged later that year. The Aichi Electric Railway Company was taken over by Meitetsu on August 1, 1935 (becoming the Meitetsu Nagoya Main Line, and the Mikawa Railway on June 1, 1941. A new station building was completed later the same year. The station was renamed to its present name on April 1, 1959, with the completion of the third generation station building. Operations of the Nagoya Main Line were discontinued.