List of Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 variants

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MiG-21
Mig21F13web.jpg

This is a list of variants and specifications for variants of the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21, which differed considerably between models.

Variants[edit]

All information in this section adapted from MiG-21 (2008).[1]

Development and Preproduction - Generation Zero (1954–1956)[edit]

Ye-1 (1954)
Preliminary swept-wing design around the Mikulin AM-5A non-reheated turbojet. Instead of building it, the design was quickly reworked into the Ye-2.
Ye-2 (1954; NATO: "Faceplate")
Swept-wing prototype with Mikulin AM-9B reheated turbojet, armed with three NR-30 cannon, and could carry one UB-16-57 rocket pod. Fitted with RSIU-4 VHF radio, Uzel IFF interrogator, ARK-5 Amur automatic direction finder with RUP landing approach computer, MRP-48P Dyatel marker beacon receiver, SRO-2 Khrom IFF transponder, Sirena-2 RWR, SRD-1M Radal'-M radar rangefinder linked to an ASP-5N computing gunsight. Ye-2 made its maiden flight on 14 February 1955, but programme was abandoned when Mikulin RD-11 turbojet became available.
Ye-2A (1955; aka "MiG-23")
Ye-2 design modified for RD-11 turbojet. Six built. Identical to Ye-5 except for wings: Ye-2A had swept wings. Fitted with RSIU-4V radio, ARK-5 ADF with RUP module, MRP-48P marker beacon receiver, Bariy-M IFF transponder, Sirena-2 RWR, SRD-1M Radal'-M radar rangefinder with ASP-5N-V3 computing gunsight.
MiG-23 (1957; Izdeliye 63)
Ye-2A was assigned the production designation MiG-23. It was to be much like the prototype, but with SRD-5M Baza-6 radar rangefinder and an SRO-2 Khrom IFF transponder, amongst other changes. Of twelve units planned for 1957, only five were built; these were powered by R11-300 turbojets (production version of RD-11) and had one (centreline) hardpoint to carry a 400-litre drop tank, a UB-16-57 rocket pod or a FAB-250 bomb. All work on this aircraft was ordered to be terminated in 1958, and the units built were reused for various special test programmes.
Ye-4 (1955)
The first delta wing prototype of the MiG-21. Proof-of-concept testbed: used an existing production engine in a Ye-5 airframe.
Ye-50 (1956)
Swept-wing, experimental high-altitude interceptor. Ye-2 airframe modified to fit Dushkin S-155 rocket motor. Design work started in 1954, first flight in 1956. Programme terminated after crash of Ye-50/3 on 8 August 1957.[2]
Ye-50A (1956)
Not to be confused with MiG-23 "Flogger." The Ye-50A was a refinement of the Ye-50; was to enter production and service with the designation "MiG-23U," but this didn't happen due to unavailability of the intended R11E-300 turbojet.
MiG-23U (1956; Izdeliye 64)
U = Uskoritel ("Booster")
This was to be production version of Ye-50A. Only one was completed due to continuing unavailability of the R11E-300 powerplant.
Ye-5 (1956)
Delta wing research prototype powered by Mikulin AM-11 turbojet. Some changes besides the engine were made from the Ye-4, including addition of a second hydraulic system. The initial designation was I-500.
MiG-21 (1956; Izdeliye 65; NATO "Fishbed-A")
The first series of fighters, production version of Ye-5. Five units built at Tbilisi, but not continued due to efforts having been redirected towards the more advanced Ye-6/MiG-21F. The aircraft that were built found work as testbeds.

Initial Mass Production - Generation One (1957–1961)[edit]

Ye-6 (1957)
Three pre-production versions of MiG-21F.
Ye-50P (1958)
Rocket-boosted high-altitude interceptor project, terminated before construction.
MiG-21F (1959; Izdeliye 72; NATO "Fishbed-B")
F = Forsirovannyy ("uprated")
Single-seat day fighter aircraft. It was the first production aircraft, with 93 machines being made (20 in 1959, 73 in 1960). The MiG-21F carried 2160 liters of fuel in six internal fuel tanks and was powered by an R11F-300 turbojet engine with 5740kgf of thrust. The earliest units were fitted with one NR-30 and two NR-23 cannon, subsequent aircraft were armed with two 30-mm NR-30 cannons 60 shells each, it was also capable of carrying two bombs ranging from 50 to 500 kg each. Avionics included PUS-36D weapons sequencing module, R-800 communications radio, ASP-5NV-U1 computing gunsight, and SRD-5MN Baza-6 radar rangefinder.
Ye-6/9 (1960)
A production MiG-21F was modified in 1960 to test nuclear strike capability on the MiG-21 airframe.
Ye-6T (1958)
Prototypes based on MiG-21F used for testing the Vympel K-13 (NATO: AA-2 'Atoll') missile system. The aircraft were later reused for other tests.
Ye-6T/1 ("Ye-66") (1959)
Ye-6T/1 prototype, number 31 Red, was refitted with R11F2-300 engine to break the world speed record. "Ye-66" was a "fake" designation used on the documents submitted to the FAI; it was not the official designation. Konstantin Kokkinaki set a new world speed record on September 16, 1960 in this aircraft, reaching a top speed of 2499km/h (1552 mph) on a 100km closed course.
Ye-6T/1 ("Ye-66A") (1961)
After setting a new world speed record, Ye-6T/1 "31 Red" was rebuilt again to try to set a new world altitude record. To this end it had a U-21 rocket booster added to a fairing in the tail, and kept the upgraded R11F2-300 turbojet. "Ye-66A" was a "fake" designation used on the documents submitted to the FAI; it was not the official designation. On April 28, 1961, Georgi Mosolov set the new altitude record at 34,714 m (113,891 ft), breaking the previous record set by an American pilot in an F-104 Starfighter by 2899 m (9511 ft).
Ye-6T/2 (1961)
Second prototype Ye-6T reused to test skid-type landing gear for use on dirt strips.
Ye-6T/3 (1961)
Ye-6T with canards fitted, tested 1961-1962.
MiG-21P-13 (aka Ye-7) (1958)
P = Perekhvatchik ("interceptor")
13 = refers to K-13 missile system
Two MiG-21 sans suffixe (izdeliye 65) were converted to use K-13 missile system as part of a development project for an interceptor armed with the K-13 missile. Due to the MiG-21P-13 project lagging behind schedule, it was decided to produce the existing MiG-21F with the capability to use the K-13 missile system, resulting in the MiG-21F-13. The development continued, however, eventually resulting in the MiG-21PF.
MiG-21F-13 (1960; Izdeliye 74; NATO "Fishbed-C")
Mig 21-F13
F = Forsirovannyy ("Uprated")
13 = refers to K-13 missile system
Short-range day fighter; the MiG-21F-13 was the first MiG-21 model to be produced in large numbers. Unlike the MiG-21F, the MiG-21F-13 had only one NR-30 cannon on the starboard side, with only 30 rounds; however, it added the capability to use the K-13 missile system, of which two could be carried on underwing hardpoints. On early-production MiG-21F-13s the launch rails were of the APU-28 type; later models had these replaced by APU-13 rails. The launch rails were removable, allowing the MiG-21F-13 to carry two UB-16-57 unguided rocket launchers, two S-24 rockets on PU-12-40 launch rails or two FAB-100/250/500 bombs or ZB-360 napalm tanks. The F-13 had further upgrades: an improved ASP-5ND optical gunsight and an upgraded SRD-5ND ranging radar. The MiG-21F-13 was also built under licence in China as the Chengdu J-7 or F-7 for export, as well as in Czechoslovakia as the Aero S-106, though the S-106 designation was not used for long; subsequently, the Czech-built units were referred to as "MiG-21F-13" just like the Soviet-built aircraft.
MiG-21FR
Czechoslovak designation for MiG-21F and Aero S.106 (Czech-built MiG-21F) converted to carry reconnaissance pods.
MiG-21F-13R (1974)
R = Razuznavatelen ("Reconnaissance")
Bulgarian designation for MiG-21F-13 aircraft locally modified to carry an AFA-39 camera.
Ye-6V (1961; NATO "Fishbed-E")
Experimental STOL version of MiG-21F-13 with JATO boosters.

Interceptors - Generation Two (1961–1966)[edit]

MiG-21PF (1961; Izdeliye 76; NATO "Fishbed-D")
P = Perekhvatchik ("Interceptor")
F = Forsirovannyy ("Uprated")
Production version of the all-weather interceptor. These were powered by the R11F2-300 turbojet and, starting with the seventh production batch, fitted with the RP-21 radar (the first six batches used the older TsD-30T radar (aka RP-9-21). Further, the weapons control system was modified from that of the F-13 to allow use of the RS-2US (aka K-5MS) beam-riding AAM in addition to the IR-seeking K-13.
MiG-21PF (1961; Izdeliye 76A)
Mig 21 PF
Version for export to Warsaw Pact countries; only difference from domestic version was the IFF equipment.
MiG-21PFL (1966; Izdeliye 76A)
L = Lokator ("Radar")
Version of MiG-21PF tailored to a Vietnamese requirement. The "L" designation may be short for lokator to reflect the different sensor suite in this version as compared to the standard PF.
MiG-21PFM (Izdeliye 76A)
M = Modifiziert ("Modernised")
Not to be confused with the "real" MiG-21PFM which is izdeliye 94. This was an East German designation for MiG-21PF aircraft with upgraded RP-21 radars.
MiG-21RFM (Izdeliye 76A)
R = Lokator ("Radar")
F = Forsaj ("Reheat")
M = Modernizat ("Modernised")
Romanian designation for the MiG-21PF.
MiG-21Ye
Remote-controlled drones converted from MiG-21PF; also designated M-21 (M = mishen', "target").
MiG-21FL (1965; Izdeliye 77)
F = Forsazh ("Reheat")
L = Lokator ("Radar")
Export (Third world) model of the MiG-21PF. Downgraded from baseline MiG-21PF with older and less powerful R11F-300 engine, no provision for carrying RS-2US beam-riding missiles and a simplified, downgraded version of the RP-21 radar, designated R1L. Wide-chord fin and brake chute fairing at its base. Built under license in India as the Type 77.
Ye-7SPS (1961)
SPS = Sduv Pogranichnovo Sloya ("Boundary Layer Blowing")
Testbed to develop flap-blowing system, rebuilt from Ye-6V/2.
MiG-21PFS (1963; Izdeliye 94; NATO "Fishbed-D/F")
P = Perekhvatchik ("Interceptor")
F = Forsirovannyy ("Uprated")
S = Sduv Pogranichnovo Sloya ("Boundary Layer Blowing")
Production version of Ye-7SPS.
MiG-21PFS (Izdeliye 94; NATO "Fishbed-D")
The first nine production batches of the MiG-21PFS were externally identical to the MiG-21PF but with blown flaps and brake chute fairing at the fin's base.
MiG-21PFS (Izdeliye 94; NATO "Fishbed-F")
From batch 10 to batch 19, the large-chord vertical stabiliser first seen on the MiG-21FL was introduced, but the aircraft retained the SK ejection seat and one-piece, forward-opening canopy of the MiG-21PF.
MiG-21PFS (Izdeliye 94; NATO "Fishbed-F")
From c/n 941314 onwards, MiG-21PFS aircraft had the wide-chord tail, a KM-1 ejection seat and a two-piece, sidewards-opening canopy.
Ye-7M
Further development of the Ye-7SPS; prototype for MiG-21PFM.
MiG-21PFM (izd. 94A), Polish Air Force, markings of 10th Fighter Regt.
MiG-21PFM (1964; Izdeliye 94; NATO "Fishbed-F")
P = Perekhvatchik ("Interceptor")
F = Forsirovannyy ("Uprated")
M = Modernizirovannyy ("Modernised")
The production version of the Ye-7M was a modernised MiG-21PF, with an upgraded RP-21M radar, SRZO-2 Khrom-Nikkel IFF transponder and other changes in avionics. Further, later-production PFMs reintroduced cannon armament, in the form of the capability to carry a GSh-23 cannon and 200 rounds in an underbelly pod. Following tests in 1966, MiG-21PFM aircraft built after 1968 could carry the Kh-66 air-to-surface missile.
MiG-21PFM (1964; Izdeliye 94A; NATO "Fishbed-F")
Export version with a different IFF system and no capacity to carry S-24 rockets or ZB-62 napalm tanks.
MiG-21PFM (Izdeliye 94N; NATO "Fishbed-F")
Nuclear-capable version of MiG-21PFM.
MiG-21PFMA (Izdeliye 94A)
Polish designation of standard MiG-21PFM.
MiG-21PFMN (Izdeliye 94N)
Polish designation of nuclear-capable MiG-21PFM.
MiG-21RFMM (Izdeliye 94A)
R = Radar
F = Forsaj ("Reheat")
M = Modernizat ("Modernised")
Romanian designation for the MiG-21PFM.
MiG-21 SPS
MiG-21SPS (Izdeliye 94A; NATO "Fishbed-F")
SPS = Sduv Pogranichnovo Sloya ("Boundary Layer Blowing")
To avoid confusion with the local "MiG-21PFM" designation given to the modified MiG-21PF (izdeliye 76A), the East German air force redesignated the "real" MiG-21PFM of izdeliye 94A as "MiG-21SPS."
MiG-21SPS-K (Izdeliye 94A; NATO "Fishbed-F")
K = Kanone ("Cannon")
East German designation for MiG-21PFM (Izd. 94A) aircraft wired for using cannon pods.
Ye-7R
Prototypes of the MiG-21R combat-capable reconnaissance aircraft derived from MiG-21PFS.
MiG-21R (1965; Izdeliye 03/94R; NATO "Fishbed-H")
Initially designated Izdeliye 03 to confuse outsiders, the MiG-21R's official "type" designation was Izdeliye 94R. The first production unit was rolled out in early 1966 and production continued until 1971. For recce missions, the MiG-21R could carry a Type D daylight PHOTINT pod, a Type N nighttime PHOTINT pod, a Type R general-purpose ELINT pod or a Type T pod housing a TV system, making the MiG-21R one of the first Soviet recce aircraft to make use of ELINT equipment. Small changes were made throughout the production run. Early-production units had the R11F2S-300 turbojet, which was replaced in later machines by the R13-300 powerplant. In the air-to-air role, the MiG-21R could carry two RS-2US or R-3S AAMs, and in the strike role it could be loaded with two UB-16-57UM or UB-32 rocket pods, two S-24 heavy unguided rockets or two bombs of up to 500kg weight (each).
MiG-21R (Izdeliye 94RA; NATO "Fishbed-H")
Export version of the MiG-21R, delivered with the Type D and Type R pods.
MiG-21RF (Izdeliye 94RA; NATO "Fishbed-H")
Egyptian designation for MiG-21R aircraft which had been locally modified by permanently mounting the cameras in a fairing under the nose.
MiG-21RF (Izdeliye 96R; NATO "Fishbed-H")
Not to be confused with the Egyptian local designation "MiG-21RF." This designation was used after some MiG-21Rs were upgraded with R13-300 engines as in the MiG-21MF.
Ye-7S (1963)
Tactical fighter prototype - a production MiG-21PF converted into an avionics testbed to test the Sapfir-21 fire-control radar.
MiG-21S (1964; Izdeliye 95; NATO "Fishbed-J")
S = Sapfir (referring to the Sapfir-21/RP-22 radar).
The production version of the Ye-7S. This was fitted with the RP-22 radar (production version of the Sapfir-21 radar) working together with a ASP-PF-21 computing gunsight. The airframe was different from that of the MiG-21PFM by using the same saddle tank as in the MiG-21R. The MiG-21S had an R11F2S-300 powerplant and an AP-155 autopilot featuring a 'panic button' autorecovery system. The MiG-21S could carry the GP-9 cannon pod. It had four underwing hardpoints, with the two outboard pods being "wet", that is, they could carry drop tanks. It could carry all weapons that the MiG-21PFM could, with the addition of the R-3R (K-13R) missile, the semi-active radar homing variant of the K-13. MiG-21S was produced from 1965 to 1968 and delivered only to the Soviet air force.
MiG-21N (1965; Izdeliye 95N; NATO "Fishbed-J")
'N = Nositel ("Carrier")
Also known as MiG-21SN, this was a variation of the MiG-21S capable of delivering one RN-25 tactical nuclear weapon.
MiG-21PD (1966; Izdeliye 23-31/92)
PD = Podyomniye Dvigateli ("Lifting Engines")
STOL technology demonstrator built out of a MiG-21PFM airframe.

Modernisation - Generation Three (1968–1972)[edit]

Mig 21 fishbed H/J
MiG-21M (1968; Izdeliye 96; NATO "Fishbed-J")
M = Modernizirovannyy ("Modernised")
Export variant of the MiG-21S with two major differences: the RP-22 radar of the MiG-21S was substituted with the older RP-21MA radar, and featured a built-in GSh-23L cannon instead of a cannon pod. In the air-to-air role it could only carry the R-3S IR-seeking AAM on its four pylons, as the SARH variant, the R-3R, was not cleared for export. The type was also licence-built in India, the first Indian-built example being delivered in February 1973.
MiG-21M (Izdeliye 96A, NATO "Fishbed-J")
Export variant for Warsaw Pact countries.
MiG-21MA (Izdeliye 96A, NATO "Fishbed-J")
The Czechoslovak Air Force redesignated its MiG-21Ms that had been re-engined with the Tumanskiy R13-300 engine as "MiG-21MA," keeping the RP-21MA radar. Some of these were later re-equipped with the RP-22 radar - bringing it to MiG-21MF standard - and were then redesignated "MiG-21MF."
MiG-21I (1968; Izdeliye 21-11; "Analog")
I = Imitator ("Simulator")
Testbed for the wing design of the Tu-144 (NATO "Charger") supersonic transport.
MiG-21K (1969; proposal)
This was a proposed variant of the MiG-21 for a dedicated ground attack role; the Mikoyan proposal was withdrawn before phase two of the competition, which was eventually won by the Su-25.
MiG-21Sh (1969; Izdeliye 21-32"; project)
Sh = Shturmovik
This was another ground-attack project that was a "fusion" of the MiG-21 and the MiG-27; it was referred to alternatively as MiG-21Sh and MiG-27Sh. Cancelled due to the MiG-23/27 offering higher performance.
MiG-21SM (1969; Izdeliye 15/95M; NATO "Fishbed-J")
S = Sapfir (referring to the Sapfir-21/RP-22 radar).
M = Modernizirovannyy ("Modernised")
Upgrade of the MiG-21S using the R13-300 engine and with a built-in GSh-23L cannon, as well as a considerably updated avionics package.
MiG-21MF, Polish Air Force, markings of 3rd Tactical Sqn.
MiG-21MF (1970; Izdeliye 96F; NATO "Fishbed-J")
M = Modernizirovannyy ("Modernised")
F = Forsirovannyy ("Uprated [engine]")
Export version of the MiG-21SM, with RP-22 radar and R13-300 turbojet. The choice of weapons loads was increased with the addition of the R-60 (NATO: AA-8 "Aphid") and later the R-60M IR-seeking AAM. These were also licence-built in India by HAL as the Type 88.
MiG-21MFR (1995)
R = Razuznavatelen ("Reconnaissance")
Bulgarian local designation for MiG-21MF modified to carry recce pods after the retirement of the MiG-21F-13R.
MiG-21MF-75
Unofficial designation used in Bulgaria, East Germany, Romania and Czechoslovakia to refer to MiG-21MF aircraft delivered with cockpit instrumentation identical to that in the MiG-21bis (the "75" refers to "1975", the year in which these entered production.)
MiG-21MFN
Czech Air Force designation for MiG-21MF upgraded with NATO standard avionics.
MiG-21DF (1969)
D = Dal'nomer ("Rangefinder")
F = Forsirovannyy ("Uprated")
A production MiG-21 (S or SM) refitted with R13F2-300 engine and Kvant radar rangefinder for test purposes. Though testing revealed an improvement in manoeuvrability, this variant was not put into production.
MiG-21SMF (1970)
S = Sapfir (referring to the Sapfir-21/RP-22 radar).
M = Modernizirovannyy ("Modernised")
F = Forsirovannyy ("Uprated [engine]")
A testbed aircraft - a stock MiG-21SM refitted with the uprated R13F2-300 turbojet. Though a prototype for what would have been a new model, it never entered production.
MiG-21MT (1971; Izdeliye 96T; NATO "Fishbed-J")
M = Modernizirovannyy ("Modernised")
T = Toplivo ("Fuel," referring to increased fuel capacity)
This was a MiG-21MF with increased fuel capacity. Though designed for export, only 15 were built and none were exported.
MiG-21SMT of the former Soviet Air Force.
MiG-21SMT (1971; Izdeliye 50; NATO "Fishbed-K")
S = Sapfir (referring to the Sapfir-21/RP-22 radar).
M = Modernizirovannyy ("Modernised")
T = Toplivo ("Fuel," referring to increased fuel capacity)
A development of the MiG-21SM with increased fuel capacity. This variant is easily spotted thanks to its larger spine.
MiG-21ST (Izdeliye 50)
S = Sapfir (referring to the Sapfir-21/RP-22 radar).
T = Toplivo ("Fuel," referring to increased fuel capacity)
Due to the extreme unpopularity of the MiG-21SMT amongst Soviet pilots, most were rebuilt with the smaller saddle tank of the MiG-21bis after that type entered production in 1972. Following the conversion, they were redesignated MiG-21ST and were externally indistinguishable from the MiG-21bis.
MiG-21bis (1972; Izdeliye 75; NATO "Fishbed-L/N"
The ultimate development of the MiG-21, fitted with the Tumanskiy R25-300 turbojet engine and a great number of other advances over previous types. Those MiG-21bis for the Soviet PVO (Air Defence Force) were equipped with the Lazur GCI system (NATO: "Fishbed-L"), while those for the Soviet Air Force were fitted with the Polyot ILS system (NATO: "Fishbed-N").
Mig 21fishbed L/N
MiG-21bis (Izdeliye 75A; NATO "Fishbed-L")
Lazur-equipped version with a slightly different avionics package exported to some Warsaw Pact countries. In Bulgaria and East Germany these were designated MiG-21bis-Lazur.
MiG-21bis (Izdeliye 75B; NATO "Fishbed-N")
Polyot-equipped version with a slightly different avionics package exported to some Warsaw Pact countries. In Bulgaria and East Germany these were designated MiG-21bis-SAU (SAU referring to Sistema Avtomaticheskovo Upravleniya = "Automatic Control System"). This variant was manufactured under licence by HAL in India from 1980 to 1987.
Croatian Air Force MiG-21 bis-D
MiG-21bis-D
D = Dorađen ("Upgraded")
Upgraded in 2003 for the Croatian Air force with some elements of the Lancer standard. Modernized for NATO interoperability including a Honeywell ILS (VOR/ILS and DME), a GPS receiver, a new IFF system and communications equipment from Rockwell Collins.
MiG-21bis/T
T = Tiedusteluversio ("Reconnaissance Version")
Finnish designation for MiG-21bis modified to carry reconnaissance pods.

Trainer Variants (1960–1968+)[edit]

Ye-6U (1960)
Trainer prototype based on the Ye-6T.
"Ye-33" (1965)
A Ye-6U prototype was used by two women, N. A. Prokhanova and Lydia Zaitseva to set back-to-back altitude records. Prokhanova set a record of 24,336 m (79,842 ft) - the highest any woman had ever gone - on May 22, 1965, and a month later, Zaitseva set an altitude record for sustained level flight, at 19,020 m (62,401 ft).
MiG-21U (1961; Izdeliye 66-400; NATO "Mongol-A")
U = Uchebnyy ("Training")
Two-seat training version of the MiG-21F-13.
MiG-21U-400
East German designation for MiG-21U aircraft of izdeliye 66-400.
MiG-21UR (1961; project)
U = Uchebnyy ("Training")
R = Razvedchik ("Reconnaissance")
This was an unrealised project based on the Ye-6U in which the rear cockpit was transformed into an extensive camera bay.
MiG-21U (1965; Izdeliye 66-600; NATO "Mongol-B")
Essentially the same as the 66-400, but with the wide-chord vertical stabiliser as on the MiG-21PFM.
MiG-21U-600
East German designation for MiG-21U aircraft of izdeliye 66-600.
MiG-21US (1966; Izdeliye 68; NATO "Mongol-B")
U = Uchebnyy ("Training")
S = Sduv [Pogranichnovo Sloya] ("[Boundary Layer] Blowing")
Two-seat training version; upgrade of MiG-21U 66-400 with blown flaps.
MiG-21US (1966; Izdeliye 68A; NATO Mongol-B")
Export version of MiG-21US with slightly modified avionics.
MiG-21UM (1968; Izdeliye 69; NATO "Mongol-B")
U = Uchebnyy ("Training")
M = Modernizovannyy ("Modernised")
Two-seat training version of the MiG-21MF. Type 69 Indian Air Force designation.
MiG-21UMD
D = Dorađen
Croatian designation for four MiG-21UM upgraded for NATO interoperability, similarly to the MiG-21bis-D.

Upgrade programmes[edit]

MiG-21-93
Russia now offers an upgrade package to bring late-model MiG-21s up to the MiG-21-93 standard. This package provides an upgrade of the avionics suite that includes installation of the Kopyo pulse-doppler radar, smaller version of N010 Zhuk airborne radar used by the MiG-29, which enables the aircraft to fire a greater range of modern weapons such as the beyond-visual-range Vympel R-77 air-to-air missile. The upgraded avionics also enhance the aircraft's survivability as well as its ability to engage enemy fighters. Other upgrade features include installation of a dual-screen HUD, helmet-mounted target designator, and advanced flight control systems.
MiG-21 2000
MiG-21-2000
Single-seat 21st century version for export buyers. Made by Israel Aerospace Industries.[3]
MiG-21 LanceR
Romanian Air Force MiG-21 UM LanceR-B
Upgraded version for the Romanian Air Force done by Elbit Systems of Israel and Aerostar SA of Romania. The LanceR-A version is optimized for ground attack being able to deliver precision guided munitions of eastern and western origin as well as R-60, R-73 and Python III air to air missiles. The LanceR-B version is the trainer version and the LanceR-C version is the air superiority version featuring 2 LCD MFDs, helmet mounted sight and the Elta EL/M-2032 Air combat radar.[2]
IAF MiG-21 Bison
MiG-21 Bison
Upgraded version for export, the Indian Air Force being the first customer. Equipped with the Phazotron Kopyo (Spear) airborne radar, which is capable of simultaneously tracking 8 targets and engaging 2 of them with semi-active radar homing air-to-air missiles, such as the Vympel R-27. The radar also enable the fighter to deploy active radar homing air-to-air missiles such as the Vympel R-77 when an additional channel is incorporated. Russia has claimed that this version is equivalent to the early F-16. The Indian Air Force has since then upgraded its avionics with the addition of Helmet Mounted Sight (HMS), ability to fire High Off-Boresight missiles like the R-73 (missile) and Tactical Data Link, improving further its already formidable WVR Combat capability, and has performed very well even against F-15C Eagles in Cope India and Red Flag Exercises.[4]
MiG-21-97
MiG-21-93 upgrade. MiG-21-93 re-engined with the Klimov RD-33 engine. The Russians have claimed that the evaluation at Ramenskoye Airport had shown that this version has beaten simulated F-16 in a mock dogfight with a score of 4:1.[citation needed]

Foreign-built variants[edit]

China (PRC)

Chinese-built variants of the MiG-21 are designated Chengdu J-7 and F-7 (for export). Only the initial version of the J-7 was a copy of a MiG-21 variant, namely the MiG-21F-13. Though an agreement had been reached between China and the USSR for licence production of the MiG-21 in China, political relations soured between the two countries, causing Soviet assistance to stop. The Chinese reverse-engineered parts of the handful of MiG-21F-13s supplied from the USSR, in order to make up for blueprints and documentation that had not yet been shipped over from the USSR at the time of the political rift. All subsequent development of the J-7 was indigenous to China and different from Soviet-made versions.[1] The Guizhou JL-9 trainer, first flown in 2003, is also based on the MiG-21 airframe.[5]

Czechoslovakia

Between 1962 and 1972 the MiG-21F-13 version was manufactured under license by Aero Vodochody, in Czechoslovakia. Aero Vodochody (then Středočeské strojírny, n.p.), built a total of 194 planes during this period, under the cover designation article Z-159. It followed the MiG-15 and MiG-19S built in Vodochody factory from the fifties to sixties. The sole locally built version of the MiG-21F-13 differed externally from the Soviet-built examples by the solid dural sheet fairing behind the cockpit canopy, as opposed to the transparent one on the original Soviet MiGs. These machines were built for the Czechoslovak Air Force and also for export. The R13-300 engines were imported from the Soviet Union.

India
MiG 21 Type 77 of the Indian Air Force landing.

The production of the MiG-21s in India under license by Hindustan Aeronautics in Nasik started with the MiG-21FL in 1966 in four phases starting with the assembly of CKD kits, moving on to subassemblies, parts, and finally advancing to production from scratch. 205 MiG-21FLs, designated Type 77 and nicknamed Trishul ("Trident), were built in India between 1966 and 1972; the first one built entirely from Indian-made components was delivered to the IAF on 19 October 1970, with the first Indian-made R11F2S-300 powerplant leaving the assembly line on 2 January 1969. In 1971 HAL production was switched to an improved version of the MiG-21M (izdeliye 96), which was designated Type 88 by HAL; as this variant was produced exclusively in India, no izdeliye designation is applicable. The first Type 88 MiG-21M was delivered to the IAF on 14 February 1973 and the last on 12 November 1981, with a total of 158 built. The last variant to be produced by HAL was the MiG-21bis. A total of 75 were built in 1977 from CKD kits, and a further 220 were built from scratch by 1984.[1] Despite a series of crashes during the 1990s, the Indian Air Force has decided to upgrade about 125 of the MiG-21bis in its inventory to the MiG-21 "Bison" standard. Those can serve until 2025. The original MIG-21 FL (MIG-21 PF or Type 77) was retired in December 2013; remaining MIG-21M aircraft (Type 88) are scheduled to be retired by 2015.[6][7]

Engines[edit]

The engines used in MiG-21 variants are listed in the table below.[8]

Engines used in MiG-21 variants:[1]
Model Engine Thrust – kN (dry/reheat) Thrust – lbf (dry/reheat)
Ye-2 Mikulin AM-9B 25.5/31.9 5730/7165
Ye-2A/MiG-23 (izd. 63) Tumansky R-11 37.3/50.0 8380/ 11240
Ye-50 Tumansky RD-9E + Dushkin S-155 25.5/32.4 + 37.3 5730/7275 + 8380
Ye-50A/MiG-23U (izd. 64) Tumansky R-11E-300 + Dushkin S-155 37.3/50.0 + 37.3 8380/11240 + 8380
Ye-4 Tumansky RD-9E 25.5/32.4 5730/7275
MiG-21 (izd. 65) Tumansky R-11-300 ?/49.0 ?/11020
Ye-6 Tumansky R-11F-300 38.3/56.4 8600/ 12680
MiG-21F (izd. 72) Tumansky R-11F-300 38.3/56.4 8600/ 12680
MiG-21F-13 (izd. 74) Tumansky R-11F-300 38.3/56.4 8600/ 12680
Ye-6T ("Ye-66") Tumansky R-11F2-300 36.8/60.7 8258/ 13633
Ye-6T ("Ye-66A") Tumansky R-11F2-300 + Sevruk S3-20M5A 36.8/60.7 + ? 8258/13633 + ?
Ye-6V Tumansky R-11F2S-300 38.8/60.6 8710/ 13610
Ye-7 1-2/MiG-21P Tumansky R-11F-300 38.3/56.4 8600/ 12680
Ye-7 3–4 Tumansky R-11F2-300 38.8/60.0 8710/ 13490
MiG-21PF (izd. 76, 76A) Tumansky R-11F2-300 38.8/60.0 8710/ 13490
MiG-21FL (izd. 77) Tumansky R-11F-300 38.3/56.4 8600/ 12680
Ye-7SPS, MiG-21PFS (izd. 94) Tumansky R-11F2S-300 38.8/60.6 8710/ 13610
MiG-21PFM (izd. 94, 94A) Tumansky R-11F2S-300 38.8/60.6 8710/ 13610
Ye-7R Tumansky R-11F2S-300 38.8/60.6 8710/ 13610
MiG-21R (izd. 03, 94R, 94RA) Tumansky R-11F2S-300 38.8/60.6 8710/ 13610
MiG-21R (94R late) Tumansky R-13-300 39.9/63.7 8970/ 14320
Ye-7S Tumansky R-11F2-300 38.8/60.0 8710/ 13490
MiG-21S/SN (izd. 95/95N) Tumansky R-11F2S-300 38.8/60.6 8710/ 13610
MiG-21M (izd. 96) Tumansky R-11F2SK-300 38.8/60.6 8710/ 13610
MiG-21SM (izd. 95M/15) Tumansky R-13-300 39.9/63.7 8970/ 14310
MiG-21MF (izd. 96F) Tumansky R-13-300 39.9/63.7 8970/ 14310
MiG-21MT/SMT/ST (izd. 96T/50/50) Tumansky R-13F-300 39.9/63.7 8970/ 14320
MiG-21bis (izd. 75/75A/75B) Tumansky R-25-300 40.2/69.6 (97.1*) 9040/15650 (21825*)

* = limited (3-minute) "extra-power" reheat at altitudes 4000m (13,120 ft) or less.

Armament[edit]

The following table shows the possible ordnance loads of various models of the MiG-21. The number in the pylons column indicates the number of stores carried per pylon.

Armaments of various MiG-21 variants:[1]
Model Internal Cannon Center Pylon Inboard Pylons (per hardpoint) Outboard Pylons (per hardpoint)
Ye-2 3x NR-30 w 60 rpg 1x UB-16-57 16-tube rocket pod n/a n/a
Ye-2A/MiG-23 3x NR-30 w 60 rpg 1x PTB-490 490L drop tank
1x UB-16-57
1x FAB-250 GP bomb
n/a n/a
Ye-50A/MiG-23U 2x NR-30 w 60 rpg n/a 1x ORO-57K 8-tube rocket pod n/a
Ye-4 3x NR-30 w 60 rpg 1x FAB-250/500 GP bomb
1x UB-16-57
1x PTB-400 400L drop tank
n/a n/a
MiG-21 3x N-30 w 60 rpg 1x FAB-250 GP bomb
2x ORO-57K on special adapter
2x TRS-190 HVAR on twin launcher
1x ARS-212 unguided rocket
1x PTB-400
n/a n/a
MiG-21F 1st 30: 1x NR-30 + 2x NR-23
Rest: 2x NR-30 w 60 rpg
1x PTB-400 1x S-21 Ovod-M HVAR
1x S-24 HVAR
1x OFAB-100-120 HE-Frag bomb
1x FAB-100/250/500
1x ZB-360 napalm tank
n/a
MiG-21F-13 1x NR-30 w 30 rds 1x PTB-490 1x K-13/R-3S AAM
1x UB-16-57U
1x S-24 HVAR
1x FAB-100/250/500
1x ZB-360
n/a
MiG-21PF/PFS n/a 1x PTB-490 1x K-13/R-3S
1x RS-2-US AAM
1x UB-16-57U
1x FAB-100/250
n/a
MiG-21FL n/a 1x PTB-490 1x K-13/R-3S
1x UB-16-57U
1x FAB-100/250
n/a
MiG-21PFM n/a 1x PTB-490
1x GP-9 cannon pod w GSh-23-2 w 200 rds
1x K-13/R-3S
1x RS-2-US
1x UB-16-57U
1x FAB-100/250
1x Kh-66 ASM
n/a
MiG-21R n/a 1x PTB-490/PTB-800 800L drop tank
Type D daylight PHOTINT pod
Type N nighttime PHOTINT pod
Type R ELINT pod
Type T TV pod
SPRD-99 JATO booster
1x R-3S
1x RS-2-US
1x UB-16-57UM
1x S-24
1x FAB-100/250/500/OFAB-100
1x ZB-500 napalm tank
1x Kh-66
1x PTB-490
1x UB-16-57UM
1x FAB-100/250/OFAB-100
1x S-24
MiG-21S n/a 1x PTB-490/PTB-800
1x GP-9 cannon pod
1x SPRD-99
1x R-3R/R-3S
1x RS-2-US
1x Kh-66
1x UB-16-57UM
1x S-24
1x FAB-100/250/500/OFAB-100
1x ZB-500
1x PTB-490
1x R-3R/R-3S
1x UB-16-57UM
1x OFAB-100/FAB-100/250
1x S-24
MiG-21SN 1x PTB-490/PTB-800
1x GP-9 cannon pod
1x SPRD-99
1x RN-25 tactical nuclear bomb
1x R-3R/R-3S
1x RS-2-US
1x Kh-66
1x UB-16-57UM
1x S-24
1x FAB-100/250/500/OFAB-100
1x ZB-500
1x PTB-490
1x R-3R/R-3S
1x UB-16-57UM
1x OFAB-100/FAB-100/250
1x S-24
n/a
MiG-21M 1x GSh-23-2L w 200 rds 1x PTB-490/PTB-800
1x SPRD-99
1x R-3S
1x RS-2-US
1x Kh-66
1x UB-16-57U
1x S-24
1x FAB-100/250/500/OFAB-100
1x R-3S
1x RS-2-US
1x Kh-66
1x UB-16-57U
1x S-24
1x FAB-100/250/500/OFAB-100
1x PTB-490
MiG-21SM 1x GSh-23-2L w 200 rds 1x PTB-490/PTB-800
1x SPRD-99
1x R-3S/R-3R
1x UB-16-57/UB-32
1x FAB-100/250/500/OFAB-100
1x ZB-360
1x Kh-66
1x S-24
1x R-3S/R-3R
1x UB-16-57/UB-32
1x FAB-100/250/500/OFAB-100
1x ZB-360
1x Kh-66
1x S-24
1x PTB-490
MiG-21MF/MT 1x GSh-23-2L w 200 rds 1x PTB-490/PTB-800
1x SPRD-99
1x R-3S
1x Kh-66
1x UB-16-57U
1x S-24
1x FAB-100/250/500/OFAB-100
1x R-3S
2x R-60 AAM on twin rail
1x Kh-66
1x UB-16-57U
1x S-24
1x FAB-100/250/500/OFAB-100
1x PTB-490
MiG-21SMT/ST 1x GSh-23-2L w 200 rds 1x PTB-490/PTB-800
1x SPRD-99
1x R-3S/R-3R
1x Kh-66
1x UB-16-57U
1x S-24
1x FAB-100/250/500/OFAB-100
1x R-3S/R-3R
2x R-60 AAM on twin rail
1x Kh-66
1x UB-16-57U
1x S-24
1x FAB-100/250/500/OFAB-100
1x PTB-490
MiG-21bis 1x GSh-23-2L w 200 rds 1x PTB-490/PTB-800
1x SPRD-99
1x R-3S/R-3R/R-13M
1x R-55 AAM
1x Kh-66
1x UB-16-57U
1x S-24
1x FAB-100/250/500/OFAB-100
1x R-3S/R-3R/R-13M
1x R-55
2x R-60/R-60M on twin rail
1x Kh-66
1x UB-16-57U
1x S-24
1x FAB-100/250/500/OFAB-100
1x PTB-490
MiG-21 LanceR[9] 1x GSh-23-2L w 200 rds 1x PTB-490/PTB-800
1x SPRD-99
1x LITENING laser designator
1x recce pod
1x R-3S/R-13M
1x R-73
1x Python 3
1x Magic 2
1x UB-16-57U
1x S-24
1x FAB-100/250/500/OFAB-100
1x Mk82/Mk84
1x R-3S/R-13M
2x R-60M on twin rail
1x R-73
1x Python 3
1x Magic 2
1x UB-16-57U
1x S-24
1x FAB-100/250/500/OFAB-100
1x PTB-490
MiG-21-93 1x GSh-23-2L w 200 rds 1x PTB-490/PTB-800
1x SPRD-99
1x R-3S/R-3R/R-13M
1x R-27R1 AAM
1x R-55 AAM
1x R-73 AAM
1x R-77 AAM
1x Kh-25MP ASM
1x Kh-31A/Kh-31P ASM
1x Kh-66
1x UB-16-57U
1x S-24
1x FAB-100/250/500/OFAB-100
1x KAB-500Kr LGB
1x R-3S/R-3R/R-13M
1x R-27R1
1x R-55
1x R-73
1x R-77
2x R-60/R-60M on twin rail
1x Kh-25MP
1x Kh-31A/Kh-31P
1x Kh-66
1x UB-16-57U
1x S-24
1x FAB-100/250/500/OFAB-100
1x KAB-500Kr LGB
1x PTB-490
MiG-21 Bison 1x GSh-23-2L w 200 rds 1x PTB-490/PTB-800
1x SPRD-99
1x R-3S/R-3R/R-13M
1x R-27R1/R-27T1 AAM
1x R-55 AAM
1x R-73E AAM
1x R-77 AAM
1x Kh-25MP
1x Kh-66
1x UB-16-57U
1x S-24
1x FAB-100/250/500/OFAB-100
1x KAB-500Kr LGB
1x R-3S/R-3R/R-13M
1x R-27R1
1x R-55
1x R-73E
1x R-77
2x R-60/R-60M on twin rail
1x Kh-25MP
1x Kh-66
1x UB-16-57U
1x S-24
1x FAB-100/250/500/OFAB-100
1x KAB-500Kr LGB
1x PTB-490

Avionics[edit]

Avionics of MiG-21 variants
Model Radio IFF ADF* RWR Gunsight Radar ** ATC Transponder GCI Cmd Link Radionav System
MiG-21 (izd. 65) RSIU-4V Klyon SRO-2 Khrom ARK-5 Amur SPO-2 Sirena-2 ASP-5N-V3 SRD-1M Konus* SOD-57 Globus Gorizont-1V
MiG-21F (izd. 72) R-800 SRO-2 Khrom ARK-54N SPO-2 Sirena-2 ASP-5NV-UI SRD-5MN Baza-6* SOD-57 Globus Gorizont-1V?
MiG-21F-13 (izd. 74) R-802 SRO-2 Khrom ARK-10 SPO-2 Sirena-2 ASP-5ND SRD-5ND Kvant* SOD-57M Globus-2 Gorizont-1V?
MiG-21PF (izd. 76) RSIU-5V SRZO-2 Khrom-Nikel' ARK-54I SPO-2 Sirena-2 PKI RP-9-21 (batch 1–6); RP-21 (7 on) SOD-57M Globus-2 ARL-S Lazur'
MiG-21PF (izd. 76A) RSIU-5 SRO-2 Khrom ARK-10* SPO-2 Sirena-2 PKI RP-9-21 SOD-57M Globus-2 ARL-S Lazur'
MiG-21FL (izd. 77) RSIU-5G SRO-1 ARK-10* SPO-2 Sirena-2 PKI R1L SOD-57M Globus-2 ?
MiG-21PFM (izd. 94) RSIU-5V SRZO-2M Khrom-Nikel' ARK-10 SPO-2 Sirena-2 PKI RP-21M SOD-57M Globus-2 ARL-S Lazur' Iskra
MiG-21PFM (izd. 94A) RSIU-5 SRZO-2 Khrom-Nikel' ARK-10* SPO-2 Sirena-2 PKI RP-21MA SOD-57M Globus-2 ARL-S Lazur' Iskra
MiG-21R (izd. 03/94R) RSIU-5V SRZO-2M Khrom-Nikel' ARK-10 SPO-3 Sirena-3 PKI RP-21M SOD-57M Globus-2 ARL-S Lazur' Iskra
MiG-21R (izd. 94RA) RSIU-5 SRZO-2 Khrom-Nikel' ARK-10 SPO-3 Sirena-3 PKI RP-21MA SOD-57M Globus-2 ARL-S Lazur' Iskra
MiG-21S/SN (izd. 95/95N) RSIU-5V SRZO-2M Khrom-Nikel' ARK-10 SPO-10 ASP-PF-21 RP-22 (Sapfir-22) SOD-57M Globus-2 ARL-S Lazur'-M ?
MiG-21M (izd. 96) RSIU-5 SRZO-2 Khrom-Nikel' ARK-10 SPO-3 Sirena-3M ASP-PFD RP-21MA SOD-57M Globus-2 ARL-S Lazur' ?
MiG-21SM (izd. 95M/15) RSIU-5V SRZO-2M Khrom-Nikel' ARK-10 SPO-10 ASP-PFD RP-22 SOD-57M Globus-2 ARL-S Lazur'-M ?
MiG-21bis (PVO; izd. 75) RSIU-5V SRZO-2M Khrom-Nikel' ARK-10 SPO-10 ASP-PFD-M RP-22M SOD-57M Globus-2 ARL-S Lazur'-M none?
MiG-21bis (VVS; izd. 75) RSIU-5V SRZO-2M Khrom-Nikel' ARK-10 SPO-10 ASP-PFD-M RP-22M SOD-57M Globus-2 none RSBN-4N
MiG-21bis (izd. 75A) RSIU-5 SRZO-2 Khrom-Nikel' ARK-10 SPO-3 Sirena-3M ASP-PFD RP-21M SOD-57M Globus-2 ARL-S Lazur'-M none?
MiG-21bis (izd. 75B) RSIU-5 SRZO-2 Khrom-Nikel' ARK-10 SPO-3 Sirena-3M ASP-PFD RP-21M SOD-57M Globus-2 none RSBN-2N

Notes to table: * ADF = Automatic direction finder; an asterisk by the name means there is no DME module present. ** = An asterisk by the name indicates a rangefinding-only unit.

General Specifications of MiG-21 variants are listed below:-

Specifications (Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21PFM)[edit]

Data from [1]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 14.5 (with pitot) m (47 ft 6.86 in)
  • Wingspan: 7.154 m (23 ft 5.66 in)
  • Height: 4.125 m (13 ft 6.41 in)
  • Wing area: 23.0 m2 (247.3 ft2)
  • Gross weight: 7,800 kg (17,195 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Tumanskiy R11F2S-300, 38.74 kN (8,710 lbf) thrust dry, 60.54 kN (13,610 lbf) with afterburner each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 2,175 km/h (1,385 mph)
  • Maximum speed: Mach 2.05
  • Range: 1,670 km (1,037 miles)
  • Service ceiling: 19,000 m (62,335 ft)

Armament

  • 1x GP-9 cannon pod with 23 mm GSh-23 cannon, plus
  • 2x K-13A (R-3S) AAM or
  • 2x 500 kg (1,102 lbs) of bombs

Specifications (Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21bis)[edit]

Data from [1]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 15.0 (with pitot) m (49 ft 2.5 in)
  • Wingspan: 7.154 m (23 ft 5.66 in)
  • Height: 4.125 m (13 ft 6.41 in)
  • Wing area: 23.0 m2 (247.3 ft2)
  • Empty weight: 5,339 kg (11,770 lb)
  • Gross weight: 8,725 kg (19,235 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Tumanskiy R25-300, 40.21 kN (9,040 lbf) thrust dry, 69.62 kN (15,650 lbf) with afterburner each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 2,237 km/h (1,468 mph)
  • Maximum speed: Mach 2.05
  • Range: (internal fuel) 1,210 km (751 miles)
  • Service ceiling: 17,800 m (58,400 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 225 m/s (44,280 ft/min)

Armament

Specifications (Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21-93)[edit]

Data from [1]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 14.5 (with pitot) m (47 ft 6.86 in)
  • Wingspan: 7.154 m (23 ft 5.66 in)
  • Height: 4.125 m (13 ft 6.41 in)
  • Wing area: 23.0 m2 (247.3 ft2)
  • Gross weight: 8,825 kg (19,425 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Tumanskiy R25-300, 40.21 kN (9,040 lbf) thrust dry, 69.62 kN (15,650 lbf) with afterburner each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 2,228 km/h (1,468 mph)
  • Maximum speed: Mach 2.05
  • Range: (internal fuel) 1,210 km (751 miles)
  • Service ceiling: 17,800 m (58,400 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 225 m/s (44,280 ft/min)

Armament

References[edit]

Notes
Citations
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Gordon, Yefim. Mikoyan MiG-21 (Famous Russian aircraft). Hinckley: Midland, 2008. ISBN 978-1-85780-257-3.
  2. ^ http://wp.scn.ru/mig_okb/planes-mig21-e50
  3. ^ "MiG-21 2000 Fighter Ground Attack, Russia." Airforce Technology.com. Retrieved: 1 December 2010.
  4. ^ [1] "Cope India 2004 - An Analysis"
  5. ^ Wei, Bai (September 2011). "China's Mountain Eagle Takes Wing". AirForces Monthly (Stamford, Lincolnshire, UK: Key Publishing) (282): 79. ISSN 0955-7091. 
  6. ^ Simha, Rakesh Krishnan (2014-06-27). "Sukhoi-30MKI is India’s fallback fighter". Russia & India Report. Retrieved 2014-07-17. 
  7. ^ "IAF Transformation: Happening but delay on MMRCA is worrying". India Strategic. October 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2014. 
  8. ^ Müller, Holger. "Engines of the MiG-21." mig-21.de. Retrieved: 1 December 2010.
  9. ^ http://www.roaf.ro/en/dotare/mig21_en.php
Bibliography

Further reading[edit]

  • Anderton, David A. North American F-100 Super Sabre. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing Limited, 1987. ISBN 0-85045-662-2.
  • Boniface, Roger. Fighter Pilots of North Vietnam: An Account of their Combats 1965 to 1975. Gamlingay, Sandy, UK: Authors On Line, 2005. ISBN 978-0-7552-0203-4.
  • Gordon, Yefim. Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15: The Soviet Union's Long-Lived Korean War Fighter. Hinckley: Midland, 2001. ISBN 1-85780-105-9.
  • Gordon, Yefim. Mikoyan MiG-21 (Famous Russian aircraft). Hinckley: Midland, 2008. ISBN 978-1-85780-257-3.
  • Herzog, Chaim. The War of Atonement. Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1975. ISBN 0-316-35900-9.
  • Michel III, Marshall L. Clashes; Air Combat Over North Vietnam 1965–1972. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1997, 2007. ISBN 1-59114-519-8.
  • Michel III, Marshall L. The 11 days of Christmas. New York: Encounter Books, 2002. ISBN 1-893554-27-9.
  • Pollack, Kenneth M. Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness, 1948-1991 London: Bison Books, 2004. ISBN 0-8032-8783-6.
  • Toperczer, István. MiG-21 Units of the Vietnam War (Osprey Combat Aircraft, 29). Oxford: Osprey Pub, 2001. ISBN 1-84176-263-6.

External links[edit]