Mil Mi-24

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Mi-24, Mi-25, Mi-35
Russian Air Force Mil Mi-24PN Dvurekov-6.jpg
Russian Mi-24PN
Role Attack helicopter with transport capabilities
National origin Soviet Union
Manufacturer Mil
First flight 19 September 1969
Introduction 1972
Status In service
Primary users Russian Air Force
ca. 50 other users (see Operators section below)
Produced 1969–present
Number built 2,300 (estimated)
Developed from Mil Mi-8

The Mil Mi-24 (Миль Ми-24, NATO reporting name: Hind) is a large helicopter gunship and attack helicopter[1] and low-capacity troop transport with room for eight passengers. It is produced by Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant and operated since 1972 by the Soviet Air Force, its successors, and more than 30 other nations.

In NATO circles, the export versions, Mi-25 and Mi-35, are denoted with a letter suffix as "Hind D" and "Hind E" respectively. Soviet pilots called the Mi-24 the "flying tank", or летающий танк (letayushchiy tank). More common unofficial nicknames were "Crocodile" (Крокодил or Krokodil) due to the helicopter's camouflage scheme[2] and "Drinking Glass" (Стакан or Stakan) because of the flat glass plates which surround the cockpit of the Mi-24.

Contents

Development[edit]

During the early 1960s, it became apparent to Soviet designer Mikhail Leont'yevich Mil that the trend towards ever-increasing battlefield mobility would result in the creation of flying infantry fighting vehicles, which could be used to perform both fire support and infantry transport missions. The first expression of this concept was a mock-up unveiled in 1966 in the experimental shop of the Ministry of Aircraft's factory number 329 where Mil was head designer. The mock-up designated V-24 was based on another project, the V-22 utility helicopter, which itself never flew. The V-24 had a central infantry compartment that could hold eight troops sitting back to back, and a set of small wings positioned to the top rear of the passenger cabin, capable of holding up to six missiles or rockets and a twin-barreled GSh-23L cannon fixed to the landing skid.

Mil Mi-24A

Mil proposed the design to the heads of the Soviet armed forces, and while he had the support of a number of strategists, he was opposed by several more senior members of the armed forces who believed that conventional weapons were a better use of resources. Despite the opposition, Mil managed to persuade the defence minister's first deputy, Marshal Andrey A. Grechko, to convene an expert panel to look into the matter. While the panel's opinions were mixed, supporters of the project eventually held sway and a request for design proposals for a battlefield support helicopter was issued. The development of gunships and attack helicopters by the US Army during the Vietnam War convinced the Soviets of the advantages of armed helicopter ground support doctrine, which had a positive influence on moving forward with the development of the Mi-24.[3]

Mil engineers prepared two basic designs: a 7-ton single-engine design and a 10.5-ton twin-engine design, both based on the 1,700 hp Izotov TV3-177A turboshaft. Later, three complete mock-ups were produced, along with five cockpit mock-ups to allow the pilot and weapon station operator positions to be fine-tuned.

The Kamov design bureau suggested an army version of their Ka-25 Hormone ASW helicopter as a low-cost option. This was considered but later dropped in favor of the new Mil twin-engine design. A number of changes were made at the insistence of the military, including the replacement of the 23 mm cannon with a rapid-fire heavy machine gun mounted in a chin turret, and the use of the 9K114 Shturm (AT-6 Spiral) anti-tank missile.

A directive was issued on 6 May 1968 to proceed with development of the twin-engine design. Work proceeded under Mil until his death in 1970. Detailed design work began in August 1968 under the codename Yellow 24. A full scale mock-up of the design was reviewed and approved in February 1969. Flight tests with a prototype began on 15 September 1969 with a tethered hover, and four days later the first free flight was conducted. A second prototype was built, followed by a test batch of ten helicopters.

Russian Air Force Mil Mi-24P

Acceptance testing for the design began in June 1970, continuing for 18 months. Changes made in the design addressed structural strength, fatigue problems and reduced vibration levels. Also, a 12-degree anhedral was introduced to the wings to address the aircraft's tendency to Dutch roll at speeds in excess of 200 km/h (124 mph), and the Falanga missile pylons were moved from the fuselage to the wingtips. The tail rotor was moved from the right to the left side of the tail, and the rotation direction reversed. The tail rotor now rotated up on the side towards the front of the aircraft, into the downwash of the rotor, which increased the efficiency of the tail rotor. A number of other design changes were made until the production version Mi-24A (izdeliye 245) entered production in 1970, obtaining its initial operating capability in 1971 and was officially accepted into the state arsenal in 1972.[4]

In 1972, following completion of the Mi-24, development began on a unique attack helicopter with transport capability. The new design had a reduced transport capability (3 troops instead of 8) and was called the Mi-28, and that of the Ka-50 attack helicopter, which is smaller and more maneuverable and does not have the large cabin for carrying troops. In October 2007, the Russian Air Force announced it would replace its Mi-24 fleet with Mi-28Ns and Ka-52s by 2015.[5][6]

Design[edit]

Overview[edit]

The core of the aircraft was derived from the Mil Mi-8 (NATO reporting name "Hip") with two top-mounted turboshaft engines driving a mid-mounted 17.3 m five-blade main rotor and a three-blade tail rotor. The engine configuration gave the aircraft its distinctive double air intake. Original versions have an angular greenhouse-style cockpit; Model D and later have a characteristic tandem cockpit with a "double bubble" canopy. Other airframe components came from the Mi-14 "Haze". Two mid-mounted stub wings provide weapon hardpoints, each offering three stations, in addition to providing lift. The loadout mix is mission dependent; Mi-24s can be tasked with close air support, anti-tank operations, or aerial combat.

The Mi-24 fuselage body is heavily armored and can resist impacts from 12.7 mm (0.50 in) rounds from all angles. The titanium rotor blades are also resistant to 12.7 mm rounds.[citation needed] The cockpit is protected by ballistic-resistant windscreens and a titanium-armored tub.[7] The cockpit and crew compartment are overpressurized to protect the crew in NBC conditions.[citation needed]

Flight characteristics[edit]

Mi-24D cockpit

Considerable attention was given to making the Mi-24 fast. The airframe was streamlined, and fitted with retractable tricycle undercarriage landing gear to reduce drag. The wings provide considerable lift at high speed, up to a quarter of total lift. These caused a problem when trying to perform tight turns in Afghanistan,[citation needed] resulting in them flying in pairs where possible. The main rotor was tilted 2.5° to the right from the fuselage to compensate for translating tendency at a hover. The landing gear was also tilted to the left so the rotor would still be level when the aircraft was on the ground, making the rest of the airframe tilt to the left. The tail was also asymmetrical to give a side force at speed, thus unloading the tail rotor.[8]

A modified Mi-24B, named A-10, was used in several speed and time-to-climb world record attempts. The helicopter had been modified to reduce weight as much as possible, and among the measures used was to remove the stub wings.[4] The speed record over a closed 1000 km course set on 13 August 1975 of 332.65 km/h (206.7 mph) still stands, as do many of the female-specific records set by the all-female crew of Galina Rastorguyeva and Lyudmila Polyanskaya.[9] On 21 September 1978 the A-10 set the absolute speed record for helicopters with 368.4 km/h (228.9 mph) over a 15/25 km course. The record stood until 1986 when it was broken by the current record holder, a modified Westland Lynx.[10]

U.S. operated Mi-24P Hind-F

Comparison to Western helicopters[edit]

Mi-24 SuperHind, a modernized Hind by the South African firm ATE. At the Ysterplaat Airshow 2006.

As a combination of armoured gunship and troop transport, the Mi-24 has no direct NATO counterpart. While the UH-1 ("Huey") helicopters were used in the Vietnam War either to ferry troops, or as gunships, they were not able to do both at the same time. Converting a UH-1 into a gunship meant stripping the entire passenger area to accommodate extra fuel and ammunition, and removing its troop transport capability, while it has no armour. The Mi-24 was designed to do both, and this was greatly exploited by airborne units of the Soviet Army during the 1980–89 Soviet war in Afghanistan. The closest Western equivalent was the Sikorsky S-67 Blackhawk, which used many of the same design principles and was also built as a high-speed, high-agility attack helicopter with limited troop transport capability using many components from the existing Sikorsky S-61. The S-67, however, was never adopted for service.[1] Other Western equivalents are the IAR 330 of the Romanian Army, which is a licence-built armed version of the Aérospatiale SA 330 Puma and MH-60 Direct Action Penetrator, a special purpose armed variant of the Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk. The Hind has been called the world's only "assault helicopter," for its combination of firepower & troop-carrying capability.[citation needed]

Operational history[edit]

Ogaden War (1977–1978)[edit]

The first use of the Mi-24 in combat was with the Ethiopian forces during the Ogaden War against Somalia. The helicopters formed part of a massive airlift of military equipment from the Soviet Union, after the Soviets switched sides towards the end of 1977. The helicopters were instrumental in the combined air and ground assault that allowed the Ethiopians to retake the Ogaden, by the beginning of 1978.[11]

Cambodian-Vietnamese War (1978)[edit]

The Mi-24A was extensively used by the Vietnam People's Air Force in the Cambodian–Vietnamese War against the Khmer Rouge. The gunships destroyed many of their bases and outposts up until 1986, when KR forces were driven to the border of Thailand.

Chadian-Libyan conflict (1978–1987)[edit]

The Libyan air force actively used Mi-24A and Mi-25 units during their numerous interventions in Chad's civil war.[8] The Mi-24s were first used in October 1980 in the battle of N'Djamena where they helped the People's Armed Forces seize the capital.

In March 1987 the Armed Forces of the North, which were backed by the USA and France, managed to seize a Libyan air force base at Ouadi-Doum in Northern Chad. Among the aircraft captured during this raid were three Mi-25s. These were turned over to France, which in turn sent one to the United Kingdom and one to the USA.[4]

Soviet war in Afghanistan (1979–1989)[edit]

The aircraft was operated extensively during the Soviet war in Afghanistan, mainly for bombing Mujahideen fighters. When the U.S. supplied heat-seeking Stinger missiles to the Mujahideen, the Soviet Mi-8 and Mi-24 helicopters proved to be favorite targets of the rebels.

It is difficult to find the total number of Mi-24s used in Afghanistan.[12] At the end of 1990 the whole Soviet Army had 1,420 Mi-24s.[13] During the Afghan war the sources estimate the strength of the helicopters up to 600 machines per year, with up to 250 may be Mi-24s.[14] Other sources – like the CIA ex-secret report from 1987 counts data (used helicopters in that period, not total) per year, starting from 85 Mi-24 in 1980 to 120 in 1985 showing increasing use of these helicopters.[15]

First deployment and combat[edit]

Mi-24s were supplied to the Afghan government in April 1979 to deal with Mujahideen guerrillas.[16] The Afghan pilots were well-trained and made effective use of their machines, but the Mujahideen were not easy targets. The first Mi-24 to be lost in action was shot down by guerrillas on 18 July 1979.[17][18] The situation in Afghanistan grew worse and on 25 December 1979, Soviet troops were committed to the war.

After a brutal learning curve in the face of Afghan rebels, Mi-24 pilots learned to be dangerous themselves, and the rebels called the Mi-24 "Shaitan-Arba" (Satan's Chariot)".[16] In one case, an Mi-24 pilot who was out of ammunition managed to rescue a company of infantry by maneuvering aggressively towards Mujahideen guerrillas and scaring them off. The Mi-24 was popular with ground troops, since it could stay on the battlefield and provide fire as needed, while "fast mover" strike jets could only stay for a short time before heading back to base to refuel.

The Mi-24's favoured munition was the 80-millimetre (3.1 in) S-8 rocket, the 57 mm (2.2 in) S-5 having proven too light to be effective. The 23 mm (0.91 in) gun pod was also popular. Extra rounds of rocket ammunition were often carried internally so that the crew could land and self-reload in the field. The Mi-24 could carry ten 100-kilogram (220 lb) iron bombs for attacks on camps or strongpoints, while harder targets could be dealt with a load of four 250-kilogram (550 lb) or two 500-kilogram (1,100 lb) iron bombs.[19] Some Mi-24 crews became experts at dropping bombs precisely on targets. Fuel-air explosive bombs were also used in a few instances, though crews initially underestimated the sheer blast force of such weapons and were caught by shock waves.

Combat experience quickly demonstrated the disadvantages of having a Mi-24 carrying troops. Gunship crews found the soldiers a concern and a distraction while being shot at, and preferred to fly lightly loaded anyway, especially given their operations from high ground altitudes in Afghanistan. Mi-24 troop compartment armour was often removed to reduce weight. Troops would be carried in Mi-8 helicopters while the Mi-24s provided fire support.

It did prove useful to carry a technician in the Mi-24's crew compartment, handling a light machine gun in a window port. This gave the Mi-24 some ability to "watch its back" while leaving a target area. In some cases a light machine gun was fitted on both sides to allow the technician to move from one side to the other without having to take the machine gun with him.

This weapon configuration still left the gunship blind to the direct rear, and Mil experimented with fitting a machine gun in the back of the fuselage, accessible to the gunner through a narrow crawl-way. The experiment was highly unsuccessful, as the space was cramped, full of engine exhaust fumes, and otherwise unbearable. During a demonstration, an overweight Soviet Air Force general got stuck in the crawl-way.[4] Operational Mi-24s were retrofitted with rear-view mirrors to help the pilot spot threats and take evasive action.

The Mi-24s not only protected helicopter troop assaults and supported ground actions; they also protected convoys, using rockets with flechette warheads to drive off ambushes, performed strikes on predesignated targets, and engaged in "hunter-killer" sweeps. The hunter-killer Mi-24s operated in pairs at minimum, more often groups of four or eight, to provide mutual fire support. The Mujahideen learned to move mostly at night to avoid the gunships, and in response the Soviets trained their Mi-24 crews in night-fighting, dropping parachute flares to illuminate potential targets for attack. The Mujahideen quickly caught on and scattered as quickly as possible when Soviet target designation flares were lit nearby.

Attrition in Afghanistan[edit]

The war in Afghanistan brought with it losses by attrition.[16] The environment itself, dusty and often hot, was rough on the machines; dusty conditions led to the development of the PZU air intake filters. The rebels' primary air-defense weapons early in the war were heavy machine guns and anti-aircraft cannons, though anything smaller than a 23 millimetre shell generally did not do much damage to a Mi-24. The cockpit glass panels were resistant to 12.7 mm (.50 in caliber) rounds.

The rebels also used Soviet-made shoulder-launched, heat-seeking surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) and American Redeye shoulder-launched SAMs, which had either been captured from the Soviets or their Afghan allies or were supplied from Western sources. Many of them came from stocks the Israelis had captured during their wars with Soviet backed states in the Middle East. Owing to a combination of the limited capabilities of these early types of missiles, poor training and poor material condition of the missiles, they were not particularly effective. The RPG-7, originally developed as an antitank weapon, was the first effective countermeasure to the Hind. However, the RPG-7, not being designed for air defense, had several shortcomings owing to its design. Oftentimes attempting to use one to shoot down a helicopter could lead to the user injuring themselves with the rocket's backblast.

From 1986[19] the CIA then began supplying the Afghan rebels with newer Stinger shoulder-launched, heat-seeking SAMs.[20] These were a marked improvement over earlier weapons, and while their actual military impact was not irrelevant, their real value was their demoralization and deterrent value against air power, and their propaganda worth to anti-Soviet groups. The Stinger missile locked on to infra-red emissions from the aircraft, particularly engine exhaust, and was resistant to interference from decoy flares. Countermeasure flares and missile warning systems were later installed in all Soviet Mil Mi-2, Mi-8, and Mi-24 helicopters, giving pilots a chance to evade the missile. Heat dissipaters were also fitted to exhausts to decrease the Mi-24's heat signature. Tactical and doctrinal changes were introduced to make it harder for the enemy to deploy these weapons effectively. These reduced the Stinger threat but did not eliminate it.

Mi-24s were also used to shield jet transports flying in and out of Kabul from Stingers. The gunships carried flares to blind the heat-seeking missiles. The crews called themselves "Mandatory Matrosovs", after a Soviet hero of the Second World War who threw himself across a German machine gun to let his comrades break through.

According to Russian sources, 74 helicopters were lost, including 27 shot down by Stinger and two by Redeye.[19] In many cases, however, the helicopters, thanks to their armour and the durability of construction, withstood significant damage.

Mi-24 crews and end of Soviet involvement[edit]

Mi-24 crews carried AK-74 and other hand-held weapons to give them a better chance of survival if forced down.[16] Early in the war, head of Mil Marat Tischenko visited Afghanistan to see what the troops thought of his helicopters, and gunship crews put on several displays for him. They even demonstrated maneuvers, such as barrel rolls, which design engineers considered impossible. An astounded Dr. Tischenko commented, "I thought I knew what my helicopters could do, now I'm not so sure!"[16]

The last Soviet Mi-24 was shot down during the night of 2 February 1989, with both crewmen killed. It was also the last Soviet helicopter lost during nearly ten years of warfare.[19]

Mi-24s in Afghanistan after Soviet withdrawal[edit]

Mi-24s passed on to Soviet-backed Afghan forces during the war remained in dwindling service in the grinding civil war that continued after the Soviet withdrawal.[16] Some were flown by defectors to neighboring Pakistan, and a few of these machines apparently found their way into the hands of the U.S. Army.[citation needed]

Afghan Air Force Mi-24s in the hands of the ascendant Taliban gradually became inoperable, but a few flown by the Northern Alliance, which had Russian assistance and access to spares, remained operational up to the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan in the fall of 2001. In 2008, the Afghan Air Force took delivery of six refurbished Mi-35 helicopters, purchased from the Czech Republic. The Afghan pilots were trained by India and began live firing exercises in May 2009 in order to escort Mi-17 transport helicopters on operations in restive parts of the country.

Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988)[edit]

The Mi-25 saw considerable use by the Iraqi Army during the long war against Iran.[21] Its heavy armament was a key factor in causing severe damage to Iranian ground forces during the war. However, the Mi-25s lacked an effective anti-tank capability, as they were only armed with obsolete 9M17 Skorpion missiles.[22] This led the Iraqis to develop new gunship tactics, with help from East German advisors. The Mi-25s would form "hunter-killer" teams with French-built Aérospatiale Gazelles, with the Mi-25s leading the attack and using their massive firepower to suppress Iranian air defenses, and the Gazelles using their HOT missiles to engage armoured fighting vehicles. These tactics proved effective in halting Iranian offensives, such as Operation Ramadan in July 1982.[22]

An Iraqi Mil Mi-25, brought down during the Iran–Iraq War, on display at a Military museum in Tehran.

This war also saw the only confirmed air-to-air helicopter battles in history with the Iraqi Mi-25s flying against Iranian AH-1J SeaCobras (supplied by the United States before the Iranian Revolution) on several separate occasions. Not long after Iraq's initial invasion of Iran, in November 1980 two Iranian SeaCobras crept up on two Mi-25s and hit them with TOW wire-guided antitank missiles. One Mi-25 went down immediately, the other was badly damaged and crashed before reaching base.[19][23] The Iranians pulled off a repeat performance on 24 April 1981, destroying two Mi-25s without incurring losses to themselves.[19]

The Iraqis hit back, claiming the destruction of a SeaCobra on 14 September 1983 (with YaKB machine gun), then three SeaCobras on 5 February 1984[23] and three more on 25 February 1984 (two with Falanga missiles, one with S-5 rockets).[19] After a lull in helicopter losses, each side lost a gunship on 13 February 1986.[19] Later, a Mi-25 claimed a SeaCobra shot down with YaKB gun on 16 February, and a SeaCobra claimed a Mi-25 shot down with rockets on 18 February.[19] The last engagement between the two types was on 22 May 1986, when Mi-25s shot down a SeaCobra. The final claim tally was 10 SeaCobras destroyed and 6 Mi-25s destroyed. The relatively small numbers and the inevitable disputes over actual kill numbers makes it unclear if one gunship had a real technical superiority over the other. Iraqi Mi-25s also claimed a total of 43 kills against other Iranian helicopters, such as Agusta-Bell UH-1 Hueys.[23]

In general, the Iraqi pilots liked the Mi-25, in particular for its high speed, long range, high versatility and large weapon load, but disliked the relatively ineffectual weapons and lack of agility.[22] The Mi-25 was also used by Iraq in chemical warfare against Iranians and Kurdish civilians in Halabja.[23]

Nicaraguan civil war (1980–1988)[edit]

Mi-25s were also used by the Nicaraguan Army during the civil war of the 1980s.[24][25] Nicaragua received 12 Mi-25s (some sources claim 18) in the mid-1980s to deal with "Contra" insurgents.[23] The Mi-25s performed ground attacks on the Contras and were also fast enough to intercept light aircraft being used by the insurgents. The U.S. Reagan Administration regarded introduction of the Mi-25s as a major escalation of tensions in Central America.

Two Mi-25s were shot down by Stingers fired by the Contras. A third Mi-25 was damaged while pursuing Contras near the Honduran border, when it was intercepted by Honduran F-86 Sabres and A-37 Dragonflies. A fourth was flown by a defecting Sandinista pilot to Honduras in December 1988.

Sri Lankan Civil War (1987–2009)[edit]

The Indian Peace Keeping Force (1987–90) in Sri Lanka used Mi-24s when an Indian Air Force detachment was deployed there in support of the Indian and Sri Lankan armed forces in their fight against various Tamil militant groups such as the LTTE. It is believed that Indian losses were considerably reduced by the heavy fire support provided by their Mi-24 gunships. The Indians lost no Mi-24s in the operation, as the Tigers had no weapons capable of dealing with the Crocodile at the time,[23][26] although several sustained heavy damage from machine gun fire.

Since 14 November 1995, the Mi-24 has been used by the Sri Lanka Air Force in the war against the LTTE and has proved highly effective providing close air support for ground forces. The Sri Lanka Air Force currently operates a mix of Mi-24/-35P and Mi-24V/-35 versions attached to its No. 9 Attack Helicopter Squadron. They have recently been upgraded with modern Israeli FLIR and electronic warfare systems. Five were upgraded to intercept aircraft by adding radar, fully functional helmet mounted target tracking systems, and AAMs. More than 5 Mi-24s have been lost to LTTE MANPADs, and another two lost in attacks on airbases, with one heavily damaged but later returned to service.[26]

Persian Gulf War (1991)[edit]

An Iraqi Mi-25 Hind-D, captured during the 1991 Persian Gulf War.

The Mi-24 was also heavily employed by the Iraqi Army during their invasion of Kuwait, although most were withdrawn by Saddam Hussein when it became apparent they would be needed to help retain his grip on power in the aftermath of the war. In the ensuing 1991 uprisings in Iraq, these helicopters were used against dissidents as well as fleeing civilian refugees.[27][28]

A few Mi-24s were later sent over the border into Iran, along with many other Iraqi military aircraft, in the hope of sparing them from destruction by allied air strikes.[citation needed] Some Mi-24 were captured and later sent to the U.S. and operated by OPTEC/OTSA in Fort Bliss and Fort Irwin.[citation needed]

Sierra Leone Civil War (1991–2002)[edit]

Three Mi-24Vs owned by Sierra Leone and flown by South African military contractors, including Neall Ellis, were used against RUF rebels.[29] In 1995, they helped drive the RUF from the capital, Freetown.[30] Guinea also used its Mi-24s against the RUF on both sides of the border and was alleged to have provided air support to the LURD insurgency in northern Liberia in 2001–03.

Croatian War of Independence (1990s)[edit]

Twelve Mi-24s were delivered to Croatia in 1993, and were effectively used in 1995 by the Croatian Army in Operation Storm against Krajina army . The Mi-24 was used to strike deep into the enemy background and disrupt Krajina army communications. The actions of the Mi-24s were successful and one Croatian Mi-24 crashed near the city of Drvar, Bosnia and Herzegovina due to strong winds, both the pilot and the operator survived. The Mi-24s used by Croatia were obtained from Ukraine. The helicopters were withdrawn from service in 2004. One Mi-24 was modified to carry Mark 46 torpedoes.[31]

First and Second Wars in Chechnya (1990s–2000s)[edit]

During the First and Second Chechen Wars, beginning in 1994 and 1999 respectively, Mi-24s were employed by the Russian armed forces.

In the first year of the Second Chechen War, 11 Mi-24s were lost by Russian forces, about half of which were lost as a result of enemy action.[32]

Peruvian operations (1989-present)[edit]

The Peruvian Air Force received 12 Mi-25Ds from the USSR in 1983-85 after ordering them in the aftermath of 1981 Paquisha conflict with Ecuador. These have been permanently based at the Vitor airbase near La Joya ever since, operated by the 4th Air Group (formerly the 2nd) of the 211th Air Squadron. Their first deployment occurred in June 1989 during the war against Communist guerrillas in the Peruvian highlands, which continues in the Valley of Rivers Apurímac, Ene and Mantaro (VRAE), although in limited numbers at the present.[33][34][35][36]

Peru employed Mi-25s against Ecuadorian forces during the short Cenepa conflict in early 1995. The only loss occurred on 7 February, when a FAP Mi-25 was downed after being hit in quick succession by at least two – probably three – 9K38 Igla shoulder-fired missiles during a low-attitude mission over the Cenepa valley. The three crewmen were killed.[37]

Sudanese Civil War (1995–2005)[edit]

In 1995, the Sudanese Air Force acquired six Mi-24s for use in Southern Sudan and the Nuba mountains to engage the SPLA. At least two aircraft were lost in non-combat situations within the first year of operation. A further twelve were bought in 2001,[38] and used extensively in the oil fields of Southern Sudan. Mi-24s were also deployed to Darfur in 2004–5.

First and Second Congo Wars (1996–2003)[edit]

Three Mi-24s were used by Mobutu's army and were later acquired by the new Air Force of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[39] These were supplied to Zaire in 1997 as part of a French-Serbian contract. At least one was flown by Serbian mercenaries. One hit a power line and crashed on 27 March 1997, killing the three crew and four passengers.[40] Zimbabwean Mi-24s were also operated in coordination with the Congolese Army.

The United Nations peacekeeping mission employed Indian Air Force Mi-24/-35 helicopters to provide support during the Second Congo War. The IAF has been operating in the region since 2003.[41]

Kosovo war (1998–1999)[edit]

2 Mi-24Vs were used by the Yugoslav Special Operations Unit against Albanian insurgents of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), during the Kosovo War.[citation needed]

Conflict in Republic of Macedonia (2001)[edit]

Macedonian Mi-24V

The Military of the Republic of Macedonia acquired used Ukrainian Mi-24Vs. They were used frequently against Albanian insurgents during the 2001 conflict in Macedonia. The main areas of action were in Tetovo, Radusha and Aracinovo.[42]

Ivorian Civil War (2002–2004)[edit]

During the Ivorian Civil War five Mil Mi-24s piloted by mercenaries were used in support of government forces. They were later destroyed by the French Army in retaliation for an air attack on a French base which killed nine soldiers.[43]

Afghanistan War (2001–present)[edit]

In 2008 and 2009, the Czech Republic donated six Mi-24s under the ANA Equipment Donation Programme. As a result, the Afghan National Army Air Corps (ANAAC) now has the ability to escort its own helicopters with heavily armed attack helicopters. Currently 9 Mi-35 attack helicopters are operated by the ANAAC. Major Caleb M. Nimmo was the first American to fly the Mi-35 Hind in combat.[44] On 13 September 2011, a Mi-35 attack chopper of the Afghan National Army was used to hold back an attack on ISAF and police buildings.[45]

Polish Helicopter Detachment contributed with Mi-24s to International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). The Polish pilots trained in Germany before deploying to Afghanistan and currently train with U.S. service personnel. On 26 January 2011, one Mi-24 caught on fire during takeoff from its base in Ghazni. One American and four Polish soldiers were able to evacuate unharmed.[46] This leaves the Polish contingent with five operational Mi-24s (three aircraft have been lost so far) and four Mi-17s.

Iraq War (March 2003–2010)[edit]

The Polish contingent in Iraq has been using six Mi-24Ds since December 2004. One of them crashed on 18 July 2006 in an air base in Al Diwaniyah.[47] Polish Mi-24Ds used in Iraq will not be returning to Poland due to their age, condition, low combat value of the Mi-24D variant, and high shipping costs; depending on their condition they will be transferred to the New Iraqi Army or scrapped. New Mi-35Ps will be bought by the Polish Army as "replacements of equipment depleted during combat operations" for the Mi-24Ds used and left in Iraq.[citation needed]

War in Somalia (2006–2009)[edit]

The Ethiopian Air Force operates about three Mil Mi-35 and ten Mil Mi-24D helicopter gunships in the Somalian theater. One was shot down near the Mogadishu International Airport on 30 March 2007 by Somali insurgents.[48]

War in Chad (2008)[edit]

Upon returning to Abeche, one of the Chadian Mi-35s made a forced landing at the airport. It was claimed that it was shot down by rebels.[49][50]

South Ossetia war (2008)[edit]

During the 2008 South Ossetia war the Mi-24 was used by both Russia and Georgia.

Libyan civil war (2011)[edit]

The Libyan Air Force Mi-24s were used by both sides to attack enemy positions during the 2011 Libyan civil war.[51] A number were captured by the rebels, who formed the Free Libyan Air Force together with other captured air assets. During the battle for the Benina airport, one Mi-35 (853 serial number), was destroyed on the ground on 23 February 2011. In the same action the serial number 854 was captured by the rebels together with a Mi-14 (serial number 1406).[52][53] Two Mi-35s operating for the pro-Gaddafi Libyan Air Force were destroyed on the ground on 26 March 2011 by French aircraft enforcing the no-fly zone.[54] One Free Libyan Air Force Mi-25D (854 serial number, captured at the beginning of the revolt) violated the no-fly-zone on 9 April 2011 to strike loyalist positions in Ajdabiya. It was shot down by Libyan ground forces during the action. The pilot, Captain Hussein Al-Warfali, died in the crash.[55] A number of other Mi-25s were claimed shot down by the rebels.

2010–2011 Ivorian crisis[edit]

Ukrainian army Mi-24P helicopters as part of the United Nations peacekeeping force fired four missiles at a pro-Gbagbo military camp in Ivory Coast's main city of Abidjan.[56]

Syrian Civil War (2011–present)[edit]

Forces loyal to Syrian President Bashar Assad have used Mi-24s to attack rebels involved in bombings in many of Syria's most populated cities.[57] Controversy has surrounded an alleged delivery of Mi-25s to the Syrian military, due to NATO members, including Turkey, disallowing such arms shipments through their territory.[58]

Syrian insurgents captured at least one damaged or destroyed Mi-25, along with other helicopters, after the fall of Taftanaz Air Base in January 2013.[59]

Invasion of Mali 2013[edit]

French forces intervened in Mali after AQIM had taken over the nation, which operated Mi-24 Hind-D variant. Four of which were imported from Bulgaria. At least two were destroyed by retreating AQIM forces. It is unknown whether they are now used for spare parts or have been scrapped.

Kachin conflict (2012-2013)[edit]

The Myanmar Air Force uses the Mi-24 in the Kachin conflict against the Kachin Independence Army.[60]

Post-U.S Iraqi insurgency[edit]

The new Iraqi Air Force is currently receiving 40 Mi-35 ordered from Russia as part of an arms deal that includes Mi-28 and Ka-52 attack helicopters, as well as Pantsir air defense systems. The delivery of the first four was announced by Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki in November 2013.[61][62]

Their first deployment began in late December against camps of the al-Qaeda linked Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and several Islamist militants in the al-Anbar province that have taken control of several areas of Fallujah and Ramadi.[63] FLIR footage of the strikes has been released by the military.[64]

Crimean Crisis of 2014[edit]

Russia deployed 13 MI-24s during the 2014 Crimean crisis while deploying troops to Crimea.[65][broken citation]

Pro-Russian Unrest in Ukraine (2014)[edit]

During the Siege of Sloviansk, on 2 May 2014, two Ukrainian Mi-24s were shot down by pro-Russian insurgents. The Ukraine military claims they were downed by MANPADS while on patrol close to Slavyansk.[66] The Ukrainian government confirmed both aircraft being shot down along with a Mi-8 damaged by small arms fire. Initial reports reported two dead and others wounded; later five crew members were confirmed dead and one taken prisoner, before being released on 5 May.[67][68][69]

On 5 May 2014, another Ukrainian Mi-24 was forced to make an emergency landing after being hit by machine gun fire while on patrol close to Slavyansk. The Ukrainian forces recovered the two pilots and destroyed the helicopter with a rocket strike by a Su-24 aircraft to prevent its capture by pro-Russian insurgents.[70][71]

Mi-24s supported Su-25s attack aircraft with MiG-29s in top cover during the battle for Donetsk Airport.[verification needed]

Variants[edit]

Main article: Mil Mi-24 variants

Operators[edit]

 Afghanistan
 Algeria
 Angola
 Armenia
 Azerbaijan
 Belarus
 Brazil
 Bulgaria
 Burundi
 Burkina Faso
 Chad
 Congo, Republic of the
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
 Cuba
Cyprus Air Force Mi-35
 Cyprus
 Czech Republic
 Djibouti
A Djiboutian Mi-24
 Equatorial Guinea
 Eritrea
 Ethiopia
 Georgia
 Guinea
Hungarian Mi-24
 Hungary
IAF Mi-35 Hind Akbar
 India
 Indonesia
 Iraq
 Kazakhstan
 Kyrgyzstan
 Libya
 Macedonia
 Mali
 Mongolia
 Mozambique
 Burma
 Namibia
 Niger
 Nigeria
 North Korea
 Pakistan
 Peru
Mi-24W (V) of Polish Army
 Poland
 Russia
 Rwanda
 Senegal
 Sierra Leone
 Sri Lanka
 Sudan
 Syria
 Tajikistan
 Turkmenistan
 Uganda
Ukrainian Mil Mi-24 helicopters
 Ukraine
 United States
 Uzbekistan
 Venezuela
 Vietnam
 Yemen
 Zimbabwe

Former operators[edit]

 Croatia
 Czechoslovakia
 East Germany
 Germany
 Nicaragua
 Slovakia
 Soviet Union
 FR Yugoslavia

Accidents[edit]

On 12 August 2012, two Ugandan Army MI-24s flying from Entebbe, Uganda across Kenya to Somalia crashed in rugged terrain in Kenya. They were found two days later, burned out, with no likely survivors from the 10 Ugandan servicemen on board the two helicopters. Another aircraft from the same flight crashed on Mount Kenya and all seven Ugandan servicemen onboard were rescued a day later. The aircraft were supporting an African Union force to fight Al-Qaeda-linked Al-Shabaab insurgents in the ongoing Somali Civil War. A Mi-17 transport helicopter, part of the same mission, landed without problems in the eastern Kenyan town of Garissa near the Somali border for a scheduled refuelling stop.[94]

Aircraft on display[edit]

Mi-24 helicopters can be seen in the following museums:

Russia[edit]

  • Central Air Force Museum, Monino - Mi-24A

Belgium[edit]

  • Koninklijk militair museum, Brussel - Mi-24

Czech Republic[edit]

Germany[edit]

Hungary[edit]

Iran[edit]

Latvia[edit]

Poland[edit]

South Africa[edit]

Slovakia[edit]

  • Military History Museum, Piešťany – Mi-24D tactical number 0100[95]

Ukraine[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

United States[edit]

Sri Lanka[edit]

  • Ratmalana Air Force Museum
  • Hingurkgoda Air Defense Squdron

Specifications (Mi-24)[edit]

Orthographic projection of the Mil Mi-24.
Cabin door to the rear troop-utility compartment
Possible armament configuration on Mi-24W
Yakushev-Borzov YakB-12.7 machine gun

Data from Indian-Military.org[98]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2–3: pilot, weapons system officer and technician (optional)
  • Capacity: 8 troops or 4 stretchers or 2400 kg (5,291 lb) cargo on an external sling
  • Length: 17.5 m (57 ft 4 in)
  • Rotor diameter: 17.3 m (56 ft 7 in)
  • Wingspan: 6.5 m (21 ft 3 in)
  • Height: 6.5 m (21 ft 3 in)
  • Disc area: 235 m² (2,530 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 8,500 kg (18,740 lb)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 12,000 kg (26,500 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Isotov TV3-117 turbines, 1,600 kW (2,200 hp) each

Performance

Armament
Internal guns
  • flexible 12.7 mm Yakushev-Borzov Yak-B Gatling gun on most variants. Maximum of 1,470 rounds of ammunition.
  • fixed twin-barrel GSh-30K on the Mi-24P. 750 rounds of ammunition.
  • flexible twin-barrel GSh-23L on the Mi-24VP and Mi-24VM. 450 rounds of ammunition.
  • PKB passenger compartment window mounted machine guns
External stores
  • Total payload is 1,500 kg of external stores.
  • Inner hardpoints can carry at least 500 kg
  • Outer hardpoints can carry up to 250 kg
  • Wing-tip pylons can only carry the 9M17 Phalanga (in the Mi-24A-D) or the 9K114 Shturm complex (in the Mi-24V-F).
Bomb-load
  • Bombs within weight range (presumably ZAB, FAB, RBK, ODAB etc.), Up to 500 kg.
  • MBD multiple ejector racks (presumably MBD-4 with 4 × FAB-100)
  • KGMU2V submunition/mine dispenser pods
First-generation armament (standard production Mi-24D)
Second-generation armament (Mi-24V, Mi-24P and most upgraded Mi-24D)
  • UPK-23-250 gunpod carrying the GSh-23L
  • B-8V20 a lightweight long tubed helicopter version of the S-8 rocket launcher
  • 9K114 Shturm in pairs on the outer and wingtip pylons

Popular culture[edit]

The Mi-24 has appeared in several films and has been a common feature in many video games.

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

  • Eden, Paul (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. London, UK: Amber Books, 2004. ISBN 1-904687-84-9. 

External links[edit]