Milan Metro

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Milan Metro
Logo Metropolitane Italia.svg
Milano metropolitana Villa San Giovanni.JPG
Line M1 at Villa San Giovanni
Overview
Native name Metropolitana di Milano
Locale Milan, Lombardy, Italy
Transit type Rapid Transit
Number of lines 4[1]
Number of stations 103[1]
Daily ridership 1.15 million[2]
Website ATM
Operation
Began operation 1964[3][1]
Operator(s) Azienda Trasporti Milanesi
Number of vehicles 959 (2013)[4]
Technical
System length 94.5 km (58.7 mi)[1]
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
System map

Milano mappa rete metropolitana 2014-03-01.svg

The Milan Metro (Italian: Metropolitana di Milano) is the rapid transit system serving Milan, Italy, operated by Azienda Trasporti Milanesi. Milan metro is the longest metro system in Italy. The network consists of 4 lines, identified by different numbers and colors, with a total network length of 94.5 kilometres (58.7 mi), and a total of 103 stations, mostly underground.[1] It has a daily ridership of 1.15 million.[2]

The first line, the red one, opened in 1964,[3] making Milan the second city in Italy after Rome[5] to have a metro system. The green line opened 5 years later in 1969,[3] the yellow line in 1990,[3] and the lilac line in 2013.[6] Current expansion of Line 5 and part of the new Line 4 are planned to open before the 2015 Expo.

History[edit]

The first project for the network
A poster for the opening of the first line in 1964

The first projects for a subway line in Milan were drawn up in 1914 and 1925, following the examples of underground transport networks in other European countries like London and Paris. Planning proceeded in 1938 for the construction of a system of 7 lines, but this too halted after the start of World War II and due to lack of funds.[7]

On 3 July 1952 the city administration voted for a project of a metro system[8] and on 6 October 1955 a new company, Metropolitana Milanese, was created to manage the construction of the new infrastructure.[7] The project was funded with 500 million from the municipality and the rest from a loan. The construction site of the first line was opened in viale Monte Rosa on 4 May 1957.[7] Stations on the new line were designed by Franco Albini and Franca Helg architecture studio, while Bob Noorda designed the signaling.[7] For this project both Albini-Helg and Noorda won the Compasso D'Oro prize.

The first section from Lotto to Sesto Marelli (21 stations) was opened on 1 November 1964, after 7 years of construction works. The track was 12.5 km (7.8 mi) long, and the mean distance between the stations was 590 m (1,940 ft).[9] In the same year, in April, works on the second line started. Passengers on the network grew constantly through the first years of service, passing from 37,092,315 in 1965 to 61,937,192 in 1969.[9]

The green line from Caiazzo to Cascina Gobba (7 stations) opened five years later. During the 1960s and 1970s the network of 2 lines was completed, and both lines had 2 different spurs. In 1978, the lines were already 17.6 km (10.9 mi) and 23 km (14 mi) long respectively, with 28 and 22 stations.[9]

The first section of the third line (yellow), with 5 stations, was opened on 3 May 1990 after almost 9 years of construction works. The line opened just before the World Cup. The other 9 stations on Line 3 opened to the southeast in 1991, and northwest to Maciachini Station in 2004.

In March 2005 the Line 2 Abbiategrasso station (south branch from Famagosta) and the Line 1 Rho Fiera station opened. The intermediate station of Pero opened on December 2005. A north extension of Line 3 to Comasina (4 stations) and a new south branch on the Line 2 to Assago (2 stations) opened in early 2011.

The metro replaced several interurban tramroutes of the original Società Trazione Elettrica Lombarda (STEL) tramlines. In particular the Line 2 to Gessate. The only remaining suburban tram line to Limbiate is shortened to Comasina, the endpoint of Line 3.

Timeline[edit]

Network evolution
A line 1 train
Inside a Line 1 train
date section line
1 November 1964 Lotto - Sesto Marelli Milano linea M1.svg
2 April 1966 Pagano - Gambara Milano linea M1.svg
27 September 1969 Caiazzo - Cascina Gobba Milano linea M2.svg
27 April 1970 Caiazzo - Centrale Milano linea M2.svg
12 July 1971 Centrale - Porta Garibaldi Milano linea M2.svg
4 December 1972 Cascina Gobba - Gorgonzola Milano linea M2.svg
18 April 1975 Gambara - Inganni Milano linea M1.svg
8 November 1975 Lotto - QT8 Milano linea M1.svg
3 March 1978 Porta Garibaldi - Cadorna Milano linea M2.svg
12 April 1980 QT8 - San Leonardo Milano linea M1.svg
7 June 1981 Cascina Gobba - Cologno Nord Milano linea M2.svg
30 October 1983 Cadorna - Porta Genova Milano linea M2.svg
13 April 1985 Gorgonzola - Gessate
Porta Genova - Romolo
Milano linea M2.svg
28 September 1986 San Leonardo - Molino Dorino
Sesto Marelli - Sesto 1° Maggio FS
Milano linea M1.svg
3 May 1990 Centrale - Porta Romana Milano linea M3.svg
16 December 1990 Porta Romana - Lodi TIBB Milano linea M3.svg
12 May 1991 Centrale - Sondrio
Lodi TIBB - San Donato
Milano linea M3.svg
21 March 1992 Inganni - Bisceglie Milano linea M1.svg
1 November 1994 Romolo - Famagosta Milano linea M2.svg
16 December 1995 Sondrio - Zara Milano linea M3.svg
8 December 2003 Zara - Maciachini Milano linea M3.svg
17 March 2005 Famagosta - Abbiategrasso Milano linea M2.svg
19 December 2005 Molino Dorino - Rho Fiera Milano linea M1.svg
20 February 2011 Famagosta - Milanofiori Forum Milano linea M2.svg
26 March 2011 Maciachini - Comasina Milano linea M3.svg
10 February 2013 Zara - Bignami Milano linea M5.svg
1 March 2014 Zara - Porta Garibaldi Milano linea M5.svg

Network[edit]

Line Terminals Opened[3][6] Newest
extension
Length[citation needed] Stations Avg. station distance
km mi km mi
Milano linea M1.svg Rho Fiera / Bisceglie Sesto 1° Maggio 1964 2005 26.9 16.7 38 0.727 0.452
Milano linea M2.svg Assago Milanofiori Forum / Abbiategrasso Cologno Nord / Gessate 1969 2011 39.4 24.5 35 1.159 0.720
Milano linea M3.svg Comasina San Donato 1990 2011 16.7 10.4 21 0.835 0.519
Milano linea M5.svg Porta Garibaldi Bignami 2013 2014 6.1 3.8 9 0.763 0.474

All the lines run underground except for the northern part of Line 2 and the Line 2 Assago branch.

There are 6 interchange stations, each with 2 lines: Centrale (Line 2 and 3), also Milan's main train station; Duomo (Line 1 and 3), considered the center of the city; Loreto (Line 1 and 2); Cadorna (Line 1 and 2), city terminus for northbound suburban and regional railways; Zara (Line 3 and 5); Garibaldi (Line 2 and 5), also a major railway station.

Lines run in the Milan municipality for the 80% of the total length (75 stations).[10] However, other 11 municipalities are served: Assago, Bussero, Cassina de' Pecchi, Cernusco sul Naviglio, Cologno Monzese, Gessate, Gorgonzola, Pero, Rho, Sesto San Giovanni, Vimodrone. The network covers about 20% of Milan's total area.[10]

The metro network is also linked with the suburban rail service, with 11 interchange stations.[11]

Service[edit]

Cascina Burrona station on Line 2 Gessate branch, an example of a surface suburban station.
An entrance to Porta Venezia station. The station is an interchange with the Suburban rail, as showed by the S sign.

Tickets[edit]

A Milan urban ticket from Trenord (up left) and the same ticket from ATM (bottom left). On the right, an Itinero smart card: the name on the bottom left, the photo and the card number on the right have been covered.

An urban single journey ticket costs €1.50, and is valid for buses, trams and suburban and metro lines inside the Milan municipality (urban fare limit).[12] Other tickets are available, including 24h, 48h and night ticket.[12] The cost of interurban tickets (for journeys outside the urban fare limits) depends on the journey and ranges from €1.90 to €4.10.[13]

Between 2004 and 2007 ATM introduced Itinero smartcard, a proximity card which can be charged with season tickets, replacing paper for this type of tickets. At the beginning of 2010, a new smartcard, RicaricaMi, was introduced. The new card can be charged up with credit and can be used for travel in place of magnetic paper tickets, on the model of London's Oyster card. Different fare plans exist.[14]

Opening hours[edit]

The service starts at about 6 am and ends at about 0:30. During Sundays and holidays service usually starts later and ends later, depending on the occasion.[15] A night service during weekends is carried out by buses, following the same route and stopping at the same stations of the underground.

Headways at peak hours vary from 2 minutes on the Line 1 (central part) to 3 minutes on Line 3. On branch lines (of lines 1 and 2) the headway is usually double.[15]

Technical summary[edit]

The LED screen announcing waiting time in Italian

The first 3 lines are heavy rapid-transit lines, with 6-cars trains, about 105 m in length. Line 5 is a light rail line, with 4-cars trains, about 50 m long. The track gauge for all lines is the 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge.

Most of the network has no platform screen doors, except for the newest line 5, where screen doors are present in all stations.

Power supply[edit]

Lines 2 and 3 use overhead lines to supply the electric current to the train and are electrified at 1500 V. Line 1, electrified at 750 V, uses a fourth rail system, although the same line also supports overhead lines in some stretches and depots; this allows Line 2 and 3 trains to use Line 1 tracks to reach a depot placed on the line.

Passenger information[edit]

Stations are provided with LED screens showing the destination and waiting time of coming trains. In every station, a recorded voice announces the station at the platform. While older trains have no on-train information, new Meneghino trains and the driverless trains on lines 5 are equipped with LCD screens and recorded announcements in Italian and in English.

Mobile phone coverage[edit]

Since December 2009 all stations and trains of the Milan metro have full UMTS and HSDPA connectivity.[16]

The future network[edit]

Expansions[edit]

An expansion of the Line 1 from Sesto 1° Maggio to Monza Bettola, towards the city of Monza is currently under construction. The track will be 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) long with intermediate station at Sesto Restellone. The completion was originally scheduled for 2009.[17] There is a proposal for a further expansion of Line 1 from Bisceglie to Baggio neighborhood: 3 km (1.9 mi) with intermediate station at Valsesia.

An extension of Line 2 from Cologno Nord to Vimercate is planned. The section will be 10.8 kilometres (6.7 mi) long with 6 stations (Brugherio, Carugate, Agrate Colleoni, Concorezzo, Vimercate Torri Bianche, Vimercate). The track will be mostly underground (83%).[18]

Line 3 is planned to be extended on the south-east from San Donato Milanese to Paullo: 14.8 kilometres (9.2 mi) with intermediate stations in the city of San Donato, Peschiera Borromeo, Mediglia, Caleppio Cerca, Paullo and Paullo East, the first 3 being underground and the other on the surface.[18] The project is currently on hold.

New lines[edit]

Garibaldi Station on line 5
Istria station on line 5.

Since Milan won the bid for the World Exposition in 2015, the city received special funds for the construction of 2 new lines, M4 (probably orange) and M5 (lilac), which are going to be completed between 2013 and 2015.

Line Terminals Planned
1st phase
Planned
complete
Length Stations
Logo M4.png Lorenteggio Linate Airport 2015 beyond 2020 15.2 km 21
Milano linea M5.svg Bignami San Siro Stadium 2013
(first section already in operation)
2015 12.6 km[19] 19

The new Line 4 will run from the western suburb of Lorenteggio to the eastern side of the city to Linate Airport. The line has been approved by the Italian Government in March 2006, and funded in November 2009. On the western end, the line was planned to be extended from San Cristoforo railway station, to the suburban comuni of Corsico, Cesano Boscone and Trezzano sul Naviglio. Preliminary prospections begun in mid-2010. Construction had been put on hold again in April 2011 until autumn; Construction eventually started in late 2011, but financial and legal troubles are likely to force the City of Milan to complete only the Linate - Forlanini section before the Expo 2015.[20]

Line 5 is divided in two sections. The first section will run from the northern city limits (via Bignami) to Porta Garibaldi railway station, connecting with line M3 at Zara and to both M2 and suburban railways at Porta Garibaldi. The first part from Bignami to Zara opened in February 2013 and the portion between Zara and Garibaldi opened in March 2014. The second section will stretch from Porta Garibaldi to San Siro Stadium running north-west of the city. The second section is under construction and is expected to be completed by 2015.

Both M4 and M5 trains are completely automatic and driverless, similar to those of Copenhagen metro, and fed through a third rail system, thus marking the third different feeding on Milan Metro (after the fourth rail of M1, and the catenary on M2 and M3).

Vision[edit]

Following the new PGT of Milan (Government plan of the territory), will change also metro lines, for the transportation of passengers. With this plan, the city should have 11 subway lines (13 if we consider separately branches of the MM1 and MM2) for a total of 259 stops. New metro lines: [21]

  • MM6: from San Donato to Rho Pero (scheduled stops: San Donato, Porta Romana, Piazza Trento, Parco Solari, Cadorna, Domodossola, Certosa).
  • MM7: from Cascina Gobba to Viale Certosa (scheduled stops: Cascina Gobba, Precotto, Bicocca, Bovisa, Viale Certosa).
  • MM8: from Viale Certosa to San Cristoforo.
  • MM9: from Rogoredo to San Cristoforo.
  • MM10: from Noverasco to Segrate (scheduled stops: Noverasco, Ripamonti, Quaranta, Trento, Porta Romana, Porta Venezia, Lambrate, Segrate).
  • MM11: from Molino Dorino to Via Stephenson.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "L'opera che ha fatto di Milano una grande metropoli" [The work that has made a great metropolis of Milan] (in Italian). Metropolitane Milanesi SpA. Retrieved 2014-03-03. 
  2. ^ a b "Atm, un piano da 524 milioni per 500mila passeggeri un più". la Repubblica. 3 September 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "ATM's History". ATM. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  4. ^ "ATM in Figures". ATM. 10 February 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  5. ^ See Rome Metro.
  6. ^ a b "La storia" [The history] (in Italian). ATM. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  7. ^ a b c d "La storia della linea 1". Metropolitana Milanese Spa. Retrieved 31 October 2011. 
  8. ^ Ogliari, Francesco (2006). Milano in tram : storia del trasporto pubblico milanese. Milano: Ulrico Hoepli. ISBN 978-88-203-3719-3. 
  9. ^ a b c "La cronistoria della metropolitana di Milano". Cityrailways. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  10. ^ a b "Metropolitane a Milano - L'opera che ha fatto di Milano una grande metropoli". Metropolitana Milanese. Retrieved 10 February 2012. 
  11. ^ at Affori, Cadorna, Garibaldi, Lambrate, Lodi, Porta Venezia, Repubblica, Rho FIera, Rogoredo, Romolo, Sesto 1° Maggio, see List of Milan Metro stations.
  12. ^ a b "Biglietti urbani". www.atm-mi.it. Retrieved 2 October 2011. 
  13. ^ "Biglietti interurbani". www.atm-mi.it. Retrieved 2 October 2011. 
  14. ^ "ANCHE MILANO HA LA SUA OYSTER CARD: ITINERO RICARICAMI". Partodamilano. Retrieved 2 October 2011. 
  15. ^ a b "Orari e calendario ATM". Azienda Trasporti Milanesi. Retrieved 2 November 2011. 
  16. ^ "Telefonini in metrò: copertura al 100%". Azienda Trasporti Milanesi. Retrieved 26 February 2012. 
  17. ^ Baron, Ferdinando (5 July 2011). "M1 fino a Monza, partiti i lavori". Corriere della Sera. Retrieved 5 October 2011. 
  18. ^ a b "Prolungamento linee Metropolitane e Nodo Interscambio Fiera". Comune di Milano. Retrieved 2 October 2011. 
  19. ^ "Home Page". Metro 5. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  20. ^ "Metrò, cantieri per la linea 5". Corriere della Sera. Retrieved 20 September 2011. 
  21. ^ "Le nuove linee metropolitane nel 2030". 

External links[edit]