Milecastle 1

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Coordinates: 54°59′01″N 1°33′02″W / 54.983494°N 1.550492°W / 54.983494; -1.550492

Milecastle 1
A187 road in the vicinity of Milecastle 1
A187 road in the vicinity of Milecastle 1
Milecastle 1 is located in Tyne and Wear
Milecastle 1
Milecastle 1
 Milecastle 1 shown within Tyne and Wear
OS grid reference NZ28866552
List of places
UK
England
Tyne and Wear

Milecastle 1 (Stott's Pow) was a milecastle of the Roman Hadrian's Wall. It was located near the (now disappeared) valley of Stott's Pow. Its remains are covered over, and are located beneath the recreation ground at Miller's Dene.[1] Early excavations and investigations of Turret 0B were mistakenly interpreted as Milecastle 1.[2]

Construction[edit]

Milecastle 1 was a short-axis milecastle of unknown gateway type. Short-axis milecastles were thought to have been constructed by the legio II Augusta who were based in Isca Augusta (Caerleon).[3]

Excavations and investigations[edit]

  • 1732 - Horsley recorded the milecastle as short-axis and also its proximity to Stott's Pow.[4]
  • 1848 - Collingwood Bruce studied the wall[1] and wrote:[5]
  • 1852-4 - Henry MacLauchlan surveyed the milecastle's position and recorded it as a short-axis milecastle.[6]
  • 1928 - F G Simpson tested the site and found only Roman occupation soil and debris remained, assuming that even the foundations had been robbed away. Simpson measured from outside edge of the east gate of Segedunum to the centre of Milecastle 1 at 1,443 yards (1,319 m). His measurements between the centres of Milecastle 1 and Milecastle 2 was ed 1,453 yards (1,329 m).[5]
  • 1947 - The recreation ground which now covers the site of Milecastle 1 was leveled in 1947. Part of the "Wall Ditch" and traces of the milecastle were still according to Grace Simpson. She also stated in her notes (circa 1978) that the fragment of Wall Ditch had now completely disappeared but the trace of the milecastle was still faintly discernible.[5]

Associated Turrets[edit]

Each milecastle on Hadrian's Wall had two associated turret structures. These turrets were positioned approximately one-third and two-thirds of a Roman mile to the west of the Milecastle, and would probably have been manned by part of the milecastle's garrison. The turrets associated with Milecastle 1 are known as Turret 1A and Turret 1B.

Turret 1A[edit]

Turret 1A was probably located very near to what is now the junction of the A187 Fossway, and Coutts Road. This is based on measurement, and no evidence of the turret has been identified.[7] An alternative location would be a third of a Roman mile between the site of Horsely's Milcastle 1 (Turret 0B) and Milecastle 2 (location also doubtful).[8]
Location on Ordnance Survey 1:25 000 map: 54°58′55″N 1°33′25″W / 54.981990°N 1.557071°W / 54.981990; -1.557071 (Turret 1B)
Alternative location on Ordnance Survey 1:25 000 map: 54°59′01″N 1°32′57″W / 54.983713°N 1.549161°W / 54.983713; -1.549161 (Turret 1B)

Turret 1B[edit]

Turret 1B was probably located just west of the junction of the A187 Fossway, and Roman Avenue. This location was suggested by FG Simpson, and is based on measurements from Milecastle 2 (the location of which is also in doubt). No evidence of the turret has been identified.[9]
Location on Ordnance Survey 1:25 000 map: 54°58′52″N 1°33′48″W / 54.981069°N 1.563253°W / 54.981069; -1.563253 (Turret 1B)

Monument Records[edit]

Monument Monument Number English Heritage Archive Number
Milecastle 1 24837 NZ 26 NE 24
Turret 1A 24781 NZ 26 NE 4
Turret 1A
(alternative)
24778 NZ 26 NE 3
Turret 1B 24786 NZ 26 NE 5

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Breeze, David J (1934), Handbook to the Roman Wall (14th Revised edition - Nov 2006), Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne, p. 141, ISBN 0-901082-65-1 
  2. ^ "Turret 0B". Pastscape. English Heritage. Retrieved 17 May 2010. 
  3. ^ David J Breeze and Brian Dobson (1976). Hadrian's Wall. Allen Lane. pp. 14–15. ISBN 0-14-027182-1. 
  4. ^ Horsley, John (1732), Britannia Romana or the Roman Antiquities of Britain, Frank Graham (published 1974), ISBN 0-85983-090-X 
  5. ^ a b c d "Milecastle 1". Pastscape. English Heritage. Retrieved 17 May 2010. 
  6. ^ Maclauchlan, Henry (1858), Memoir Written During A Survey Of The Roman Wall: Through The Counties Of Northumberland And Cumberland, In The Years 1852-1854, Kessinger Publishing Co, ISBN 1-4370-5803-5 
  7. ^ "Turret 1A". Pastscape. English Heritage. Retrieved 17 May 2010. 
  8. ^ "Alternative Turret 1A". Pastscape. English Heritage. Retrieved 17 May 2010. 
  9. ^ "Turret 1B". Pastscape. English Heritage. Retrieved 18 May 2010.