|Mortal Kombat character|
A concept art for Mileena in Mortal Kombat (2011)
|First game||Mortal Kombat II (1993)|
|Created by||John Tobias (with brainstorming input from Ed Boon)|
|Designed by||John Tobias (MKII, UMK3/MKT)
Jennifer L. Parsons (Annihilation)
Steve Beran (MK:D, MK:A)
Mark Lappin (MK:SM)
Allisa Swanson (Legacy)
Atomhawk Design (MK2011)
|Voiced by||Lita Lopez (MK:SM)
Johanna Añonuevo (MK:D, MK:A)
Karen Strassman (MK2011)
|Motion capture||Katalin Zamiar (MKII)
Becky Gable (UMK3, MKT)
Carlos Pesina (MK:D)
|Portrayed by||Dana Hee (Annihilation)
Jennifer DeCosta (Live Tour)
Audie England, Megan Brown (Konquest)
Danni Levy (MK2011 promotion)
Jolene Tran, Michelle Lee (Legacy)
|Fighting styles||Ying Yeung (MK:D)
Mian Chuan (MK:D, MK:A)
Tae Kwon Do, Ninjitsu (Konquest)
|Weapon||Sai (all media)
Long Sword (MKG)
Mileena[note 1] is a player and one-time boss character from the Mortal Kombat series of fighting video games. Since her introduction as Kitana's palette swap for Mortal Kombat II in 1993, Mileena gained significant popularity and became one of the series' most iconic characters.
In the games, Mileena was originally known as a dual sai-wielding assassin in service of the dark emperor of Outworld, Shao Kahn, and an evil twin sister of his stepdaughter, Princess Kitana. Soon after, however, she was revealed to be just a monstrously deformed and mentally unbalanced clone of Kitana, created for Kahn by Shang Tsung. In the later games, she also uneasily serves other masters, namely Shinnok and Onaga. Mileena's traits in the original timeline are traditionally defined by her fierce rivalry with Kitana, as well as her own lust for power and cannibalistic urges. The series' 2011 reboot game made her ever more unstable but also very immature, and her relationship to Kitana is more ambiguous.
Mileena was a central character to the plot of the game Mortal Kombat: Deception and has often appeared in Mortal Kombat merchandise. She was also extensively used to promote later games in the series as its semi-ironic designated sex symbol. However, her appearances in the various other media in the franchise have been relatively rare and minor as compared to these of Kitana.
Gameplay-wise, Mileena is considered a generally strong fighter, including being widely regarded as the best choice in Mortal Kombat II. In relation to her other aspects, Mileena received a diverse and often mixed—largely due to the character's unbalanced deranged personality and conflicting messages from the dualism of her design—but in most cases favorable critical reception.
In video games
After the ruler of the other dimensional realm Outworld, Shao Kahn, conquered the realm of Edenia and merged it with his own, he decided he would keep the former king's daughter Kitana alive and raise her as his own. Though she grew up knowing nothing of her origin, the emperor nonetheless feared that one day Kitana would discover her true parentage and turn against him, and so he ordered Shang Tsung to bring to life a more vicious and loyal version of Kitana that could take her place if necessary. This was done by fusing her essence with a Tarkatan warrior from Baraka's race. The process was not a complete success, however, as the hybrid clone was disfigured with the hideous mouth of the Tarkata. Instead of replacing Kitana, as originally planned, Mileena would be used to spy on her and to ensure her allegiance to him, and so Shao Kahn introduced Mileena to Kitana as her supposedly lost twin sister. The two thus grew up together as his daughters and personal assassins, though Mileena (who has become a companion of Baraka) privately grew to harbor a great bitterness and jealousy towards Kitana, whom Kahn favored over her.
As Kahn feared, Kitana did finally find the truth about her past and so Mileena was ordered to keep close watch over her rival when Kitana secretly allied with Earthrealm warriors during the events of Mortal Kombat II (1993). Mileena has a secret companion in Baraka. Determined to stop her twin at any cost, she is then murdered by Kitana, her soul descending into the Netherrealm. In Mortal Kombat: Shaolin Monks (2005), the beat'em up retelling of Mortal Kombat II, Mileena (voiced by Lita Lopez) fights against Liu Kang and Kung Lao alongside Jade and Kitana, but is defeated by the two Shaolin warriors and flees to the Wasteland to seek help from Goro.[note 2]
Damned to the Netherrealm after her death, Mileena swears fealty to its ruler Shinnok. During the events of Ultimate Mortal Kombat 3 (1996), Shao Kahn decides to resurrect Mileena so her skills as a vicious fighter would help him defeat Earth's chosen warriors, also magically granting her the ability to read Kitana's thoughts. Shinnok sees this as an opportunity to covertly monitor the events unfolding in Earthrealm and so he allows her to return to life. After Kahn is defeated, Mileena is summoned back to the Netherrealm. In Mortal Kombat Gold (1999), she assists in Shinnok's invasion of Edenia, but allows her sister to escape from a dungeon. Following Shinnok's defeat, Mileena comes to Kitana's palace and demands the power over Edenia be shared with her. Kitana refuses and, when attacked, traps Mileena and locks her away in a dungeon.
Mileena remains imprisoned for years, until Onaga the Dragon King began his own invasion of Edenia, during which she is freed from her imprisonment by her ally Baraka. During the events of Mortal Kombat: Deception (2004), Mileena (voiced by Johanna Añonuevo) is ordered by Onaga to pose as Kitana in order to confuse and misdirect his enemies. However, as Mileena begins the game's titular deception, she develops a hidden agenda and decides to take control of both the forces of Edenia and Onaga's own undead army for herself. In the game's story mode (Konquest), Mileena also trains the young Shujinko in Outworld and fights against Jade.
In Mortal Kombat: Armageddon (2006), Mileena seizes Shao Kahn's fortress, still under the guise of Kitana, and decides to continue her charade until the Edenian forces were corrupted enough to follow her under the true identity. Though at first confident that Outworld is hers to rule, Mileena is forced to reveal herself and surrender to the returning Shao Kahn when he mounts an offensive against the fortress to re-instate himself as the ruler. The emperor then commands her to capture Shujinko, who would be used as a bargaining chip in gaining Onaga as an ally. Mileena, pretending to be Kitana, succeeds in capturing Shujinko, taking him to Shao Kahn's palace. But having tasted power for herself, she is no longer content with being his minion and still plans to get the throne of Edenia back for herself. She is later killed by Shang Tsung during the final all-out battle at the Pyramid.[note 3]
Mileena returns in Mortal Kombat (2011), an alternative-timeline retelling of the original Mortal Kombat trilogy that brought some major changes to her character. In this game, Mileena (voiced by Karen Strassman, who was also hired for the next sequel) was created by Shang Tsung in the "Flesh Pit" and introduced during the second tournament, instead of many years earlier. Meant to be a loyal replacement for Kitana, she is physically and mentally damaged, her animalistic rage controlled only by Shao Kahn as she uses her lascivious behavior to lure victims and then slaughter and devour them. In the game's story mode, she serves as an opponent for Kitana, Jade, Kurtis Stryker and Kabal, and is referred to by Shao Kahn as his "true daughter"; when Kahn appears to be killed, his minions even discuss making her new ruler of Outworld. Her very immature personality and behaviour is in sharp contrast to the scheming Mileena of the previous games. The game's Challenge Tower mode has Mileena develop unrequited feelings for Scorpion, while Kitana (in her own uncanonical ending) is shown to be unusually sympathetic towards her.
Mileena was the first evil female character to appear in the series, created by John Tobias just to accommodate another palette swapped character. Tobias recalled: "I took advantage of Kitana and Mileena being masked sisters to make a play on the veil myth… One sister is beautiful. One is ugly. One is good. One is evil. Choose wisely before asking one on a date." According to Acclaim Entertainment's producer Robert O'Farrel, the game was given two female fighters so it would better compete against Capcom's Street Fighter II, which had only one. Mortal Kombat co-creator and producer Ed Boon described the sisters as the "female versions of Scorpion and Sub-Zero". Since Mileena's debut in Mortal Kombat II, her characteristic weapon is a pair of sharpened, dagger-like sai,[note 4] that at first she has been using in combat only as projectiles and during some of her finishing moves (eventually, the sai were given more use in Mortal Kombat 2011). Only in Mortal Kombat Gold she uses also a European-style longsword (Scorpion's weapon in both versions of Mortal Kombat 4).
Physically, Mileena is largely identical to Kitana, the most glaring exception being her half-Tarkata face with large and exposed fang-like teeth (which got noticeably downsized for Deception and Armageddon). Boon described Mileena as "Anti-Kitana" and said that her large "sharp, nasty teeth" have been not originally planned and were only drawn for her infamous Fatality "Man-Eater" (featured in Ultimate Mortal Kombat 3, too), in which she sucks up the entire body of her victims and then regurgitates their clean bones. After Mortal Kombat II, her teeth were almost never used again during gameplay until Mortal Kombat 2011 (in a leap attack to bite an opponent in the neck and in one Fatality to gnaw on the killed enemy's severed head), with a sole exception of one Fatality in Deception in which she uses them to tear off the opponent's head. Mileena's skin color appears to be at times mildly darker than Kitana's, but is always lighter than Jade's. After the two were given more varying appearances in Mortal Kombat Gold (hairstyle for Kitana-derived characters is loose in Mortal Kombat II and pinned back in Ultimate MK3), Mileena's hair is usually much shorter than Kitana's and is most often worn gathered in a ponytail. One element of Mileena's anatomy that has often changed is her eyes. As her supposed twin sister, Mileena shared Kitana's eyes in Mortal Kombat II; her eyes then became "undead" style all-white (similar to the eyes of Scorpion and Noob Saibot) in Ultimate MK3. In Deception, Armageddon and Shaolin Monks, Mileena's eyes return to normal, but with yellow pupils (Kitana's eyes are brown). In Mortal Kombat 2011, however, she has Baraka-like yellow eyes with slit pupils (her eyes are also sometimes seen as glowing whole), except of her alternate Ultimate MK3 style costume (available through pre-order bonuses and later in a downloadable content package) in which she has human eyes once again.
Just like Kitana and Jade, Mileena was originally portrayed by Katalin Zamiar in Mortal Kombat II, who was using her own sai. After this game, Mileena was officially declared by Tobias and Boon to be "gone" and not returning, yet was brought back due to popular demand, with Becky Gable taking over the role in Ultimate Mortal Kombat 3. Mileena's main color has been either a shade of purple or magenta in various installments (including when masquerading as Kitana in Deception) and their outfits did not differ in a significant way (more than just having different color patterns) until Mortal Kombat Gold. Since then, her costumes have been generally getting more skimpy with every new game, including always having an exposed midriff since Deception. Mileena's main costume in Deception and Armageddon is actually mostly black and features long flowing arm sleeves, a back-only loincloth and a partially transparent veil. In Shaolin Monks, Mileena appears half-naked (her costume made largely of just belts of leather and scraps of fabric), barefoot (with a bandaged midfoot), and again wearing a veil in place of a mask (the veil also returns as part of her formal outfit in Mortal Kombat 2011). In the 2011 reboot game, her prime costume is based on her famous provocative alternate from Deception, but more detailed and again featuring a mask. In all, in this game she has the largest number of costumes out of all characters in the entire series. Her "Flesh Pit" alternate costume in 2011 game is made of just some loose bandages put around her otherwise completely naked body,[note 6] marking the first time that she has appeared unmasked by default.
Mileena is a hidden playable character in Ultimate Mortal Kombat 3, in which she needs to be unlocked using a special "Kombat Kode", but is available from the start in the compilation game Mortal Kombat Trilogy (appearing as seen in Ultimate MK3). She is not playable in Shaolin Monks, but she appears as a sub-boss character alongside Kitana and Jade (as well as an optional boss in a secret stage encounter). Mileena also appears in the super deformed-style "cute" form in every minigame through the series ("Chess Kombat", "Puzzle Kombat" and "Motor Kombat").[note 7] Mileena utilises sai in most of her Fatalities, including to immobilize her opponents during the killing sequence, and in some of them she pretends to kiss her victims. There was a popular but completely false urban legend style rumor regarding a supposed "Nudality" finishing move in Mortal Kombat II. Mileena's Animality in UMK3 and Trilogy sees her transform into a small skunk that sprays her opponent.
Mileena was commonly perceived as the best character of Mortal Kombat II. In the test by GamePro, this "queen of the hill" was effective against all characters, and especially versus Jax (who shared tier 1 with her in their ranking), Reptile and Shang Tsung. GamePro declared: "Althrough Jax is the better overall characters against Tiers 2-4, Mileena's massive adventage over him makes her number one. Neither suffers disadventages against anyone else. With her rapid sai-throwing ability, teleport attacks, and deadly combos, this beautiful assassin lands atop our rankings."' Amiga Format similarily noted that she and Kitana were always "so much faster" that "poor Jax...ended getting his head kicked in every time." She was also ranked as the game's best overall fighter by Sega Visions for her high speed and reach, and for her teleport kick that can dodge projectiles. According to CU Amiga, Mileena was "third only to Jax and Liu Kang for sheer brilliance," being a "somewhat misleading character" whose moves need to be "learnt the right way to put them all together to be devastating;" EGM opined this "deadly woman...can hold her own against any man in the game" and her players can use her "lightning speed" and the sai blasts to overcome other players; C+VG evaluated all of Mortal Kombat II characters as "well-balanced" and "potentially excellent", but still the teleport kick of the "very fast" Mileena was singled out as "the best surprising move in the game."
In Ultimate Mortal Kombat 3, however, according to Nintendo Power, Mileena's original powers "may prove insufficient" for using her with same effectiveness in this game in which most of the other characters got some additional special moves. Sega Saturn Magazine wrote that "she's pretty much identical to the last time." On the other hand, Total 64 wrote that Mileena of Mortal Kombat Trilogy (directly based on UMK3 version) is "a damn good fighter, has got plenty of powerful moves" and is "an all round classy fighting star!" EGM Strategy Guide for UMK3 noted she has largely retained her ability to "zone" the opponent with her sai projectiles, which had contributed to making her "one of the toughest" characters in MKII.
According to GameSpy's guide to Deception, in this game Mileena "has some solid offensive tools" and "a few solid combos up her sleeve, as well as a few pop-up attacks that are extremely quick and open up brief juggle opportunities," but also severe weaknesses such as a very short range of her sai and poor ranged attack abilities. Prima Games' official guide for Armageddon gave Mileena an overall rating of 6/10, calling her a "punisher" type character and a better fighter than Kitana ("seems to have the upper hand between the two"), but while she "is able to punish from any range and even interrupt high attacks and projectiles, the damage she inflicts is minor."
In Prima Games' official guide for the 2011's Mortal Kombat, Mileena was judged to be well-balanced and universal, displaying neither particular weaknesses nor advantages that would result in a one-sided battle against anyone else. In their test, Mileena always won around half of fights against any character (in the range of 40–60%, wins depending on an opposing character).
In other media
Mileena was a minor character in Mortal Kombat: Live Tour stage show in 1995, where she was played by Jennifer DeCosta. Mileena is a recurring secondary character in Malibu's Mortal Kombat comic books published in 1994-1995. In the comics, she has first appeared the miniseries Goro: Prince of Pain as part of a team led by Kitana with orders to find the missing Goro in Outworld. She is shown having reservations about Kitana's true loyalty (though she never speaks about it to anyone) and considers herself to be "Shao Kahn's true daughter". Mileena duels Sonya Blade twice, losing both times. She was also featured in a one-shot special entitled Kitana and Mileena: Sister Act, which explained their past: Mileena is shown in this comic as a creation ordered by Shao Kahn, though he would never let her replace Kitana.
Mileena appeared briefly in the 1997 film Mortal Kombat: Annihilation, and was played by stuntwoman Dana Hee. She was featured in one scene in which she ambushes Sonya from behind in a desert. The two duel before Sonya traps Mileena on the ground and kicks her in the head, snapping her neck. After this, Mileena's shoulder tattoo comes to life and flies away. Mileena herself was never mentioned by name but was acknowledged in the closing credits. Her pink-and-black costume was a palette swap of Kitana's main film attire (a sleeveless corset-like top and tights) with an added mask and matching headband, and has blue eyes. Mileena has only one spoken line in the film ("You wish" in response to Sonya confusing her with Kitana) and it was the only time she has ever been shown with her hair in a plait, similar to Kitana's in-film hairstyle. Hee described her role as "an evil, mysterious figure that leaves you wondering, 'Who is she?'" Despite being the stunt double for Talisa Soto (Kitana) in both films, Hee employed her own double for that scene. Hee also doubled for three other Annihilation actresses and Kristanna Loken (Taja) in Mortal Kombat: Konquest. The fight was shot in -3° Celsius (26° Fahrenheit) weather at a copper mine in Wales, and the crew had initially trucked in synthetic mud for the scene, but a hurricane struck near the set a day before filming and left Hee and a stuntswoman for Sandra Hess (Sonya) fighting in actual mud that had consequently washed away the synthetic material.
In the film's novelization penned by Jerome Preisler, based off an early draft of the script, Mileena has teamed up with Smoke, but she is still killed by Sonya after an ensuing fight scene, albeit by different means. In Preisler's novel, Mileena appears in a scene similar to this in the film, but instead set in a mist-covered jungle wilderness. She ambushes Sonya while Smoke attacks Jax, and she is depicted as being unmasked, laughing an insane and inhuman laughter. Mileena scissor-grips Sonya’s neck with "her powerful thigh muscles" before being thrown off by Sonya. She then introduces herself after this initial confrontation, adding that she does not appreciate being confused with her "virtuous half-sister." Sonya fatally strangles Mileena with the handle of her own sai after a second fight, and when she and Jax examine Mileena's corpse, Sonya wonders if Mileena was just "another cyborg" after spotting a shoulder tattoo similar to the mark found on Cyrax.
Mileena appeared in the 1999 episode "Shadow of a Doubt" of the television series Mortal Kombat: Konquest, in which she had no direct relation to Kitana and was here depicted as an initially very repulsive and aggressive Outworld warrior sent by Shao Kahn to assassinate the weakened Kung Lao, with a magic spell placed over her to give her Kitana's look (for a while, he even called her his "new daughter"). Mileena, wearing a green costume, succeeded in seducing Kung Lao, but could not bring herself to kill him during their night of passion and was also explicitly warned by Shang Tsung to not do it. She makes excuses for Kahn and later fights an inconclusive duel against Kitana, broken by Shao Kahn. As punishment for her taking too much time in her mission, Kahn allows Mileena to keep her beauty with the exception of making her teeth even more exaggerated and pointy. She then starts to wear her signature mask, which Kahn gives her before banishing her from his sight. In Konquest, Mileena was portrayed by Meg Brown and Audie England played Mileena pretending to be Kitana.
Another alternative and younger version of Mileena appears in the 2011 live-action webisode series Mortal Kombat: Legacy, portrayed by the martial artist and debuting actress Jolene Tran. Their story is told in the two-part animated/live episode "Kitana & Mileena", during which Mileena is shown to be a Shang Tsung-created clone like in the games, but of the age more similar to Kitana's, as they were together since they both were infants, and her scarred but otherwise normal-looking mouth (with lips, except when she has been a baby) changes as her teeth grow when she becomes overcomed by a cannibalistic rage. In Legacy, the adolescent Mileena is clad in violet, does not appear to be Kitana's twin and is seen wearing a mask only in some of the animated sections (in which both of them are wearing outfits similar to these worn by them in Mortal Kombat II). She is shown spar-dueling against Kitana and losing to her, and killing and devouring a palace guard in a fit of insanity, as well as killing impostors of King Jerrod, Kitana's biological father, in a team together with Kitana. When the two are eventually sent by Shao Kahn on a mission to assassinate a man who is really King Jerrod, she kills hims with a double sai throw to the chest when he was talking to Kitana. The episode was nominated by the Writers Guild of America Award in the category "Outstanding Achievement in Writing Derivative New Media". Mileena returns in the second season of Legacy, portrayed by Michelle Lee (Ada Wong in Resident Evil 6) replacing Tran. Lee called her "such an awesome character" and said it was her "dream come true." In a scene shown at San Diego Comic-Con, Mileena fights and defeats Johnny Cage before being defeated and decapitated by Kitana.
In October 2004, Mileena was featured in a spread in the special edition of Playboy magazine that spotlighted provocative video game characters. A famous promotional picture of her, known as "Sexy Mileena" (a topless picture in her alternative Deception costume) was created for this purpose by a Midway Games artist Pav Kovacic. This image did not actually appear in Playboy (in which a fairly common picture of Mileena in her primary costume in Deception was published instead) but was used as an unlockable picture for an in-game gallery. Another Mileena pin-up picture was created for Playboy by Justin Murray in 2011, along with these of Kitana, Sheeva, and Jade. It was, however, rejected for being "Hustler slutty" instead of "Playboy classy" (in the words of the game's art director Steve Beran). A full-clothed image of Mileena was used as one of two alternative cover arts for "Kollector Edition" limited version of Deception for the Xbox video game console and a pin-up of Mileena was featured in IGN's Hotlist in 2006. Michelle Lee starred in Machinima.com's clip "Mileena's Lunch" promoting the second season of Legacy.
In 2011-2012, Mileena was extensively used to promote the Mortal Kombat reboot game. She was one of the only four playable characters in the demo version and was featured in several trailers, including "A Night Out With Mileena" in which several NetherRealm Studios employees tongue-in-cheek-style answered the question where they would take her on a date. As part of this promotional campaign, fitness model Danni Levy cosplayed as Mileena in the live-action trailer "Kasting" and a photo session, attending The Gadget Show: World Tour for the European 2011 championship in Mortal Kombat. Levy also portrayed Mileena in the 2012 live-action commercial for the PlayStation Vita version of the game (first in a teaser trailer, and then in the full trailer together with Kitana). Playboy's model Jo Garcia dressed up in Mileena's colors to play as her in a sponsored photo session and video in 2011. A Mortal Kombat II style costume for Mileena was first added exclusively for the Vita version of MK2011, before being later included in the Komplete Edition release for the other platforms.
A figurine of Mileena ("the evil twin") from the Mortal Kombat II series came out exclusively with a special issue of the Argentinian magazine Top Kids in 1995. A 7.5-inch action figure that was also based on her design in this game was released by Infinite Concepts in 1999, with a detachable mask. An electronic music track called "Mileena's Theme" by Tokimonsta was released on iTunes in January 2011 as the first of three singles that were compiled on the album Mortal Kombat: Songs Inspired By The Warriors. Mileena was one of several MK characters featured on 2.5" x 3.5" collectible magnets by Ata-Boy Wholesale in 2011, while a ten-inch polystone statue of her Mortal Kombat 2011 incarnation was released in the Enchanted Warriors series by Syco Collectibles in May 2012. "Klassic" UMK3 1:4 statues of Mileena were announced by Pop Culture Shock Collectibles as being available for pre-order starting in February 2014.
Mileena is featured in the 1995 collectible card game Mortal Kombat Kard Game, as well as in the 2006 crossover collectible card game Epic Battles where she is one of the characters representing the Mortal Kombat universe that were featured already in the Premiere Edition. Io9's Charlie Jane Anders included Mileena dress-up apparel among 2011's "sluttiest and weirdest" store-bought Halloween costumes, but Justin Amirikhani of Complex.com praised it as one of "last-minute video game costumes that actually look cool" and Brian Altano of IGN included it among "ten ridiculous (or ridiculously sexy) video game inspired Halloween costumes" of 2012.
Mileena has made several homage cameo appearances outside of the franchise, including in the comic book series Gen¹³ in 1995,[note 8] in the 1996 martial arts film Book of Swords (a nod/tribute to Mileena in a minor role by Katalin Zamiar),[note 9] and in the episode "Another Bad Thanksgiving" of the animated series The Cleveland Show in 2010.[note 10] In 2009, Chibi, vocalist of The Birthday Massacre, said she was planning to get a Mileena tattoo;[note 11] she also listed Mileena as one of her "heroes". Model Adrianne Curry dressed up as Mileena for the 2013 San Diego Comic-Con International.
Mileena's addition to the series was well received and she quickly became one of the most popular and recognizable Mortal Kombat characters. Her debut appearance in Mortal Kombat II was met with a favorable critical reception: The Miami Herald called Kitana and Mileena, "leggy ladies who wear masks", to be "an interesting step toward political correctness" as "a far cry from Little Miss Muffet," Austin American-Statesman described them as "far nastier than that martial-artless aerobics instructor from the first game," while Nintendo Power called her "beautiful, graceful, beguiling and strong, but most of all, deadly." Nearly two decades later, a retrospective article by IGN's Richard George listed "the hot chicks" as one of the reasons why Mortal Kombat II "is considered by many to be the pinnacle of the series," and UGO's K. Thor Jensen named "the busty ninja sisters Kitana and Mileena" as front characters of the Mortal Kombat franchise.
UGO staff ranked Mileena as fifth on their 2009 top list of Mortal Kombat characters, citing her at that time rare presence as an evil female player character (a taboo-breaking novelty in video games in 1993) and stating that her brutal attacks, revealing outfits and slutty attitude made her a fan favorite. In 2011, IGN listed Mileena as one of the series' "four main characters" alongside the central protagonist Liu Kang and the iconic characters Scorpion and Sub-Zero, Anurag Ghosh and Bill Fulks of Bright Hub included her among the "top ten awesome" Mortal Kombat characters as well as one of the sexiest ("second only to the gorgeous Kitana"), and CraveOnline's Dread Central called her "without question" one of the "most beloved" characters in the Mortal Kombat universe. In some rankings, however, Mileena placed lower, such as when the readers of Dorkly voted her the series' 20th greatest character in a 2013 poll, or in the "Supreme Mortal Kombat Champion" polls held by Mortal Kombat Online in 2012 and 2013, where she was eliminated prior to final rounds (losing to Jade and Shang Tsung).
Looks and attitude
In spite of her disfigured face, some considered Mileena among the most attractive characters in all video games. In 2010, Larry Hester of Complex made her share the eighth place with Kitana and Sonya on the list of "hottest women in video games". UGO counted Mileena among the best looking female ninja type characters in all media. and also ranked her as the number eight "hottest" video game character in 2012, declaring: "Mileena is what some guys would call a paper bagger. Her body is crazy but the face doesn't really work for us." UGO's Aubrey Sitterson ranked her as the seventh finest female fighter in fighting games in 2010, but advised to "be careful around that big scary demon mouth she keeps under the skarf." In 2011, American model Tara Babcock ranked her as the 11th "hottest video game babe," adding that in the reboot game "Mileena embodies a childish character through her fighting style and behavior." Mileena's breasts placed 31st and ninth on the 2011 lists of the finest chests in gaming by GameFront's Ross Lincoln and Complex's Drea Avellan, respectively. In 2012, Gadget Review's Kristie Bertucci rated Mileena as the sixth "hottest" female video game character and noted her being "usually always at the top of the list as one of the most popular female characters (not to mention sexy)" in all video games.
Much of the reception was mixed due to the character's conflicting looks and psychopathic behavior, although these elements were often also regarded positively for a variety of reasons, including a sheer shock value. For her signature Fatality, which CU Amiga called "the kiss of death to end all kisses", Mileena shared the seventh place with Kitana on GamesRadar's Mikel Reparaz's 2006 list of top seven "girls kissing girls" in 2006; "Kitana's and Mileena's deadly kisses" were also chosen as his favourite Fatalities by Paul Drury of Retro Gamer. In 2011, Topless Robot's Ryan Aston ranked Mileena as the sixth most goofy Mortal Kombat character as "a pretty succinct commentary on the deplorable image of women in videogames" and for her absurd "Man-Eater" finisher, but nevertheless calling her "quite the looker". That same year, Ben Kendrick of Game Rant ranked Mileena as the fourth "most awesome" character of the series, praising her for her disturbing style, and called her one of "the most disgusting yet alluring" game characters ever created, also rating her "Be Mine" Fatality as sixth best from that game ("it’s like Ed Boon is constantly saying 'yeah, I dare you to be attracted to this character!'"), while Game-Flush called her "the most sexual" (but not the sexiest) character in the Mortal Kombat reboot game and described her face reveal scene as "the most shocking moment" of Mortal Kombat II. In 2013, Sean Hinz of ScrewAttack named Mileena as the worst ever "hot chick" in video games for how she "can make you feel bad when you have a boner," Kevin Wong of Complex ranked Mileena's biting off an opponent's head as the eight best finishing move in Mortal Kombat, noting "a sexual element that was creepily out of context," while Stuart W. Bedford of WhatCulture placed her fourth on his list of "most sexually charged" female characters in gaming history, stating she "has been confusing penises the world over since her creation" two decades earlier. Sarah Ditum wrote in PlayStation Official Magazine about video games' popular misconceptions about women: "Relax—we don’t really bite. Well, not unless we have a face full of hell fangs at the top of an impossibly hot bod. Hellooo, Mileena."
Mileena, initially described by Nintendo Power as "a dangerous enemy: cruel, cold and calculating," has also been renowned as a notable female villain in video game history. In 2009, Gelo Gonzales of FHM listed her among the nine sexiest "bad girls of videogame land", adding that "perhaps no one is as menacing as Mileena." In 2011, Complex ranked her as eight on their list of the "most diabolical video game she-villains," while Polish web portal Wirtualna Polska featured Mileena among the top ten villainesses in gaming, describing her as "absolutely phenomenal, simply dripping with sex" but advising to skip trying to check under her mask. That same year, the staff of Gameranx rated "this Mortal Kombat femme fatality" as the second sexiest female villain in gaming, writing: "She’s gorgeous, packs a punch, and is infused with evil from birth. How much more badass can you go?" Placing Mileena 18th on his 2013 list of the most brutal fighters in Mortal Kombat, Hanuman Welch of Complex described her as a "deadly mixture of Kitana's agility and seduction, and Baraka's impulsive behavior." Ex aeqo with Kitana and Jade, Mileena was included among the top ten "hottest" female villains in gaming by Travis Huber of Cheat Code Central in 2014.
Several publications commented on her cannibalistic tendencies. In a VentureBeat humor article by Jason Lomberg, Mileena "tried her hand at stripping, modeling, and a stint on The View. But none of them could satisfy her insatiable desire for carnage and human flesh," so she became Donald Trump’s co-host on The Apprentice. Ranking 1992's Mortal Kombat as the second most controversial violent video game in history, CNN's Doug Gross noted that in the reboot "options include eating an opponent's head." In 2012, Game Rant ranked Mileena's "just sick" Deception finishing move "Yummy" as the second-best Fatality ever, and X360 chose her Mortal Kombat reboot Fatality "in which she tears a man's head off then chows down upon it" to represent cannibalism on the list of top ten video game crimes. In a feature about Tommy Wiseau's 2011 web series The Tommy-Wi Show, Carl Lyon of Fearnet described Wiseau therein as "an ambiguously-accented, sleepy eyed 'actor' who chews scenery like Mileena on an opponent's throat." In a humor article about the prospects of dating video game women, Grant Howitt of FHM described the sex with Mileena as "gratifying and frequent, although she did try and chew our knob off at one point."
According to IGN, "at first blush she seems like your quintessential sultry video-game vixen, but the mask comes off and she's got a gaping mouth filled to the brim with dagger-like teeth." In 2008, IGN's Scott Collura listed "Mileen-ewwwwww" as one of "top 50 chicks behaving badly," while GamesRadar included her on the list of "gaming's most repellent anti-babes". Comparing the Mortal Kombat characters to the seven deadly sins in Dante's Inferno, Chris Holt of GamePro chose Mileena to represent Envy. The magazine's Aaron Koehn placed Mileena and Kitana at 11th place on his 2009 list of the best palette-swapped video game characters, but wrote that "if you gauge Mileena's attractiveness simply based on the size of her baby-feeders, be ready for some disappointment when she removes her mask." That same year, ScrewAttack ranked her as seventh on the list of top "ugly chicks in games" for her horrific looks when unmasked, but otherwise calling her "like, the ultimate woman," while Virgin Media included her on the list of ten "game girls you wouldn't dare to date" for being attractive "until she rips off her veil and reveals her monstrous form beneath." Destructoid's Nick Chester commented: "Her story, as far as I'm concerned, is that she needs to see a dentist." On the other hand, EGM's Eric L. Patterson, stating his preference of Mileena over Kitana, wrote that Mileena's face is actually one of the reasons why he likes her. Reviewing the Vita version of MK2011, GamesRadar's Jack DeVries called it "as pretty as Mileena minus mask, but overall, just as viciously fun." Ranking Mileena as second on his 2013 list of ugliest video game characters, Alex Langley of Arcade Sushi wrote: "If ever there were a time to use the term 'butterface' it would be with Mileena, because everything about her is hot... but her face. Her face will friggin' bite your face off, which is never a sign of a good date."
Mileena was noted for her alternate costume apparel, in particular her unmasked and near-naked "Flesh Pits" outfit from MK2011 that Destructoid's Hamza Aziz called "the new winner for skimpiest 'outfit' in a videogame ever." GamesRadar's Matt Bradford included it on his 2012 list of gaming's "most ridiculous" alternate fighting costumes, commenting that it "overclocks our [absurd]-o-meter." IGN featured the unmasked Mileena on their list of worst-dressed video game characters of 2011, commenting that "the term 'butter face' doesn't even begin to describe this nightmare." On the other hand, UGO's K. Thor Jensen ranked the "Sexy Mileena" from Deception as second best on his 2011 list of the gaming's "most stylin' alternate costumes" and called her one of the most interesting characters in the game for having "a perfect 10 body" but "a -22 face," adding that this outfit "basically ramps up the sex appeal to volcanic levels."
Mileena was one of the characters cited by Guy Aoki as allegedly perpetuating existing stereotypes of Asians as martial arts experts. In the 1996 moral panic themed book Interacting With Video, which condemned violence of video games as supposedly affecting social behaviour and causing real-life violence, Patricia Marks Greenfield and Rodney R. Cocking used the "two Asian twin sisters, Mileena and Kitana," as an example of a "highly eroticized dragon lady" trope, with Mileena's "Man-Eater" Fatality described as "a high powered kiss that evokes vagina dentata." The authors wrote that despite the inclusion of "characters of color" such as the two and Jax, "we cannot assume that this greater diversity represents a more identity politics, for one could argue that it merely increases the racist and sexist potential of individual fights." Critical studies professor Marsha Kinder similarly accused Mortal Kombat II of "allowing you to have a misogynistic aspect of combat," alleging that "some of the most violent possibilities are against women," whose own "fatality moves are highly eroticised." She singled out Mileena to descibe how the character can kill her opponent "by sucking him in and spitting out his bones. Talk about Spider Woman!"
Joystiq's Alexander Sliwinski wrote about Mileena that instead of "focusing on her fighting style, or assets," they simply could not "get past one thing: how does she pronounce the letter P without touching her lips together?" In 2008, Destructoid's Brad Nicholson called her "the worst character ever created in a fighting game," without elaborating. In 2010, Game Informer included her among the palette swap characters not wanted by them in the future Mortal Kombat games, later describing her in the 2011 game as being "as creepy as ever." When American radio host Howard Stern mocked a Mortal Kombat fan who admitted that he masturbates to Mileena, Matt Helgeson of Game Informer called the latter "insane" as "onanism and Mileena should not mix." Mike Harradence of PlayStation Universe wrote that "as for the date theme [in the reboot game's trailer], frankly we can’t really see the appeal – she’s not a patch on Sheeva, after all." Writing about "outdated and cringe-worthy representations of women in video games" in 2012, MMGN's Nathan Misa stated: "Look, I like Lara Croft's booty shorts or Mileena's two...deadly sais as much as every other guy, but why not have more than virtual polygons to ogle at?"
- The name of Mileena is variably pronounced as either "Ma-lee-na" (Mortal Kombat II to Mortal Kombat Trilogy) or // (later games) through the series. Her name appears to be a form of East European first name Milena, which is derived from a Slavic word that means "gracious" in English.
- Another, optional secret stage encounter against Mileena ends with her tossing Kitana into a portal and then following after her, where they presumably fought to the death. In the game, Mileena shares her Fatality with Jade, while Liu Kang uncanonically kills Jade by stabbing her in the eyes with Mileena's sai.
- In Mileena's uncanonical ending in Armageddon, she defeats Blaze, causing herself and Kitana to fuse together momentarily. When separated, Mileena finds that she has taken Kitana's facial features, while Kitana has been cursed with Mileena's Tarkatan jaw visage. Mileena is now able to take her "rightful" place as princess of Edenia and rules in Kitana's place, locking her sister away in the Edenian palace dungeon, where she eventually goes insane.
- Contrary to a popular opinion (and many appearances in pop culture) the traditional sai is a blunt, round-pointed melee weapon that was not designed for neither stabbing or cutting, and which thus can be used well for non-lethal combat. Mileena's sai are nevertheless clearly dull-pointed in much of the non-gameplay parts of Deception, including the intro sequence and the VS screen picture.
- Another publicly released early concept art, created for Shaolin Monks, had Mileena wear the outfit that appears to be combining her old costumes from Mortal Kombat II and Mortal Kombat Gold. An early concept art of Mileena for the 2011 game, which was "directed by the team" to look what she did in MKII, was also published by character design artist Vincent Proce in 2011.
- Players who unlock the Flesh Pit costume receive the achievement / trophy called "Best... Alternate... EVER!" Mileena (or possibly some earlier clone) was also shown as having Tarkatan blades on her arms in Mileena's promotional trailer for the same game.
- Mileena's Kombat Karting special weapon is a brief speed boost that is very useful to save her from a Fatality in a death trap or at the finish line, and makes her a "great character" to use in the arena Speedster. When playing offline, it also allows the player to "steal first place right at the finish line before the AI gets its own miraculous speed boost".
- In which Mileena-inspired character Keiko is shown defeating and killing Raiden-like Ronan in what then turns out to be a match in an arcade game called "Mortal Conflict" (a pun on Mortal Kombat), as played and commented on by Roxy (Freefall) and Grunge, two of the comic's main characters. The issue was written by Brandon Choi and drawn by J. Scott Campbell.
- Zamiar, who has portrayed Mileena in Mortal Kombat II, plays a black-and-purple outfit clad, sai-wielding, masked, silent character identified only as "Female Ninja" in the film's credits. Her character is appearing briefly in a few scenes, appearing to attack Ho-Sung Pak's (Liu Kang in the original Mortal Kombat and Mortal Kombat II) character Lang and then mysteriously disappear.
- In a short spoof scene parody-referencing the Mortal Kombat games, the show's character Janet is depicted to be dressed as Mileena and killed Fatality-style by the main character Cleveland Brown dressed as Scorpion. The scene appears at around the 7 minute mark.
- Chibi was quoted as saying: "I like the character because she's pretty insane and vicious and seems like she'd be very attractive, but then has this mouth full of heinous sharp teeth."
- "Mileena". Uk.ign.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "Mortal Kombat: Shaolin Monks - Credits". Allgame.com. 2010-10-03. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "Characters". Atomhawk.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Midway (October 11, 2006). Mortal Kombat: Armageddon Premium Edition. Midway. Level/area: "The History of Fatalities" commentary.
- Mark Ryan Sallee, Mortal Kombat: Deception - xbox - Walkthrough and Guide - p. 15, GameSpy, January 8, 2004.
- Bryan Dawson, Mortal Kombat: Armageddon (Prima Official Game Guide), Prima Games 2006 (p. 221–224).
- "Warriors:Mileena". Replay.waybackmachine.org. Retrieved 2013-11-15.
- Bryan Dawson, Mortal Kombat: Armageddon (Prima Official Game Guide), Prima Games 2006 (p.101).
- Mortal Kombat Warehouse: Mortal Kombat II: Mileena, Mortal Kombat Online network.
- Mortal Kombat II Game Gear manual (p. 20).
- Ultimate Mortal Kombat 3 SNES manual (p. 25).
- Mortal Kombat Trilogy PlayStation manual, p.19.
- "Mortal Kombat: Shaolin Monks Cheats". GameSpot. 2005-09-16. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "Ultimate Mortal Kombat 3 - Bios". Mksecrets.net. 2009-10-22. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Bryan Dawson, Mortal Kombat: Armageddon (Prima Official Game Guide), Prima Games 2006 (p. 118).
- Mark Ryan Sallee, Mortal Kombat: Deception - xbox - Walkthrough and Guide - p. 25, GameSpy, January 8, 2004.
- "Mortal Kombat: Armageddon: Mileena". Mortalkombatwarehouse.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "Credits". Karenstrassman.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Richard Mitchell, Video: Mileena gets stab-happy in Mortal Kombat, Joystiq, January 15, 2011.
- Tara Babcock (2008-08-02). "Tara's G-Spot - Games that hit the spot, according to Tara Babcock - 20 Hottest Video Game Babes by Tara Babcock". www.impulsegamer.com. Retrieved 2011-12-15.
- Mortal Kombat Kitana's Ending in High Definition, G4tv.com, April 25, 2011 ("Kitana had ended Shao Kahn's life for his betrayal. She had discovered the truth about Mileena...but rather than slay her as well, she took pity on her half-sister. She offered Mileena a home within the Edenian aristocracy. She was, after all, of royal blood. Mileena cautiously accepted her sister's invitation. With Mileena and Jade at her side, Kitana formed a fighting force dedicated to bringing justice to the realms. Never again would a warlord arise to create such terror.").
- Kitsune, Kitana's Origin - ClassicMK (based on a series posts by John Tobias (therealsaibot) on Twitter).
- "Immortal Kombat", The One Amiga 75 (December 1994), pp. 31–33.
- Kitana's Kombat Kard video for Mortal Kombat: Deception.
- "Mortal Kombat: Deception comic, p. 9". W.A.M. Entertainment. October 2004. Retrieved 2013-11-15.
- GamesRadar UK, Gaming's most repellent anti-babes, GamesRadar, July 10, 2008.
- The Evolution of Mortal Kombat Fatalities, IGN, April 7, 2011.
- Mileena's Kombat Kard video for Mortal Kombat: Deception.
- "Get Your Kicks With These", Albany Times Union, October 4, 1995.
- Mortal Kombat Mileena Examined, GameTrailers, January 20, 2011.
- Michael McWhertor, Mortal Kombat Adds Klassic Costumes, Klassic Fatalities and Skarlet With Its First DLK, Kotaku, May 26, 2011.
- GameStop Advertisement Shows Classic Scorpion and Mileena Outfits, Shoryuken, 03-22-2011.
- MILEENA CONCEPTS (Koffin ET 141 Jade Koins). Mortal Kombat: Deception, Midway Games 2004.
- "''MKSM'' concept art in question". Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Vincent Proce art blog: MK9 Concepts & MK Redesigns
- Benedykt Dziubałtowski, Interview with Katalin Ogren - an actress played a character of Kitana, Mileena and Jade in "Mortal Kombat 2", PPA.pl, 09.11.2012.
- Video Games The Ultimate Gaming Magazine 75 (April 1995) p. 49.
- Hamza CTZ Aziz, The new winner for skimpiest 'outfit' in a videogame ever, Destructoid, 4.22.2011.
- "Mortal Kombat - Best...Alternate...Ever! Achievement". Xbox360achievements.org. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "Mortal Kombat - Best...Alternate...Ever! Trophy". Ps3trophies.org. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "Ultimate Mortal Kombat Cheats, Ultimate Mortal Kombat Walkthrough". Gamespot.com. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
- Bryan Dawson, Mortal Kombat: Armageddon (Prima Official Game Guide), Prima Games 2006 (pp. 38&80).
- Alex Vo, Mortal Kombat: Armageddon - xbox - Walkthrough and Guide - Page 5, GameSpy, January 7, 2006.
- Scalza, John (2003-04-01). "April Fool's Day Scams". Gaming Target. Retrieved 2010-10-23.
- Jason Wilson, Adam Hernandez, Mortal Kombat: Prima Official Game Guide, Prima Games 2011 (p. 7).
- Ultimate Mortal Kombat 3 - Animality - Mileena - YouTube, October 30, 2008. Retrieved February 8, 2014.
- "Mortal Kombat II Tournament - GamePro rankings analysis". Gaminginsurrection.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "Mortal Kombat II Pro--Strategy Guide", GamePro 59 (June 1994), p. 82–83.
- Amiga Format 67 (January 1995), p. 92.
- "Sega Saturn Features: Mortal Kombat II". Sega Visions 21 (October/November 1994), p. 25.
- "Player's Guide: Mortal Kombat II". CU Amiga Magazine, February 1995, p. 62.
- EGM's Complete Guide to Mortal Kombat II (supplement to Electronic Gaming Monthly).
- "Tougher than the best: Mortal Kombat II", Computer + Video Games 154 (September 1994), p. 48–51.
- "Full Coverage: Ultimate Mortal Kombat 3". Nintendo Power 91 (December 1996), p. 71.
- "Showcases: Mortal Kombat 3". Official Sega Saturn Magazine 6 (April 1996), p. 48.
- Total 64 2/97 (p. 59).
- Jason Wilson, Adam Hernandez, Mortal Kombat: Prima Official Game Guide, Prima Games 2011 (p. 157).
- Ninja Chicks are So Freakin' Hot, UGO.com, January 5, 2011.
- "Dana Hee in Mortal Kombat: Annhilation". Ugo.com. 2010-09-14. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
- Black Belt Vol. 36, No. 1 (January 1998), p.85.
- Current Biography Yearbook 2008, H. W. Wilson Co., 2008 (p.217).
- Mortal Kombat II - Cory Doctorow, SciFi Entertainment, 11/97; reprinted on craphound.com.
- Chapter 11, page 3: "an angular, exotic-looking woman with eyes like burning coals, and a body as tautly well-conditioned as her smile was vicious".
- "Episodes:Shadow of a Doubt". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2008-09-14. Retrieved 2013-11-15.
- Luke Plunkett, That Incredible Mortal Kombat Trailer Is Now A Series, Kotaku, January 14, 2011.
- Ian Fisher, Find Out Who's Playing Mileena In The Mortal Kombat Web Series, Shogun Gamer, 03/29/2011.
- "Mortal Kombat: Legacy: Ep. 4 - Kitana & Mileena (Part 1)". Youtube.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "Mortal Kombat: Legacy - Ep. 5 - Kitana & Mileena (Part 2)". Youtube.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Mortal Kombat: Legacy Episode 4 Now Online, Screen Rant, May 3, 2011.
- Steve Pond at TheWrap, 'Mortal Kombat' Scores in Writers Guild's New Media and Videogame Nominations, Reuters, January 11, 2012.
- Eric Goldman, Comic-Con: Mortal Kombat Legacy Season 2 is Coming, IGN, July 14, 2012.
- Ian Fisher, Mortal Kombat: Legacy Season 2 Official Cast Announcements/First Set Pic + Comprehensive Cast Roster, Shogun Gamer, 12/03/2012.
- "Michelle Lee Interview (Part 2): Pacific Rim & Mortal Kombat: Legacy 2". YouTube. 2013-09-25. Retrieved 2013-10-15.
- "Get Over Here! Visiting the Set of Mortal Kombat: Legacy II - IGN". Uk.ign.com. 2013-09-25. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Jim McMahon, Comic-Con: Mortal Kombat: Legacy Season 2 and Season 3 Info: Get Ready for Fatalities, IGN, July 19, 2013.
- Benjamin Golze, BloodRayne, others confirmed for Playboy spread, GameSpot, August 27, 2004.
- "Sexy Mileena". Ugo.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "Mortal Kombat Deception Krypt Guide". Mortalkombat.net. 1996-10-31. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Justinsane Art (2012-04-30). "Mileena Playboy Pinup". Justinsaneart.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Midway Announces Limited Edition Mortal Kombat: Deception; Bonus Features to Include Exclusive Character Videos, Limited Trading Cards and More., Business Wire, August 3, 2004.
- Simon Carless, IGN's Hotlist Is Hot, Also Hot, Additionally Hot, GameSetWatch, June 2, 2006.
- "Mileena's Lunch - This is Mortal Kombat". YouTube. 2013-09-28. Retrieved 2013-10-15.
- Mortal Kombat Video Game, Sub-Zero Vs Mileena Demo Gameplay HD, GameTrailers.com, 03/09/2011.
- Mortal Kombat "A Night Out With Mileena" Trailer, G4tv.com, January 7, 2011.
- "Biographies". Web.archive.org. 2012-03-23. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
- Who Is The Hot Girl In Mortal Kombat’s ‘Mileena’ Commercial?, GyuySpeed, April 30, 2012.
- Nikole Zivalich, Mortal Kombat Sexy Cosplay -- Sonya Blade, Kitana And Mileena, G4tv.com, April 8, 2011.
- "Mortal Kombat 9 - Mileena Cosplay (HD 720p)". Youtube.com. 2011-04-09. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- The Ultimate Mortal Kombat Experience: Live-Action Jade & Skarlet Featured in Russian Vita Advertising, Mortal Kombat Online, 05/18/2012.
- Ben Gilbert, Mortal Kombat Vita ad brings Mileena to the middle of the desert, leaves her there, Joystiq, April 19th 2012.
- Eric L. Patterson, Full Length Live-Action Mileena vs. Kitana Mortal Kombat Vita Video, EGMNOW, April 19, 2012.
- "Jo Garcia in Mortal Kombat vs. UFC Octagon Girl Brittney Palmer (Video) - Sexy Photo Gallery". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2011-04-22. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
- Anthony Severino, Flawless Playboy Vixens Fight For Mortal Kombat Victory, Game Revolution, April 19, 2011.
- Jordan Mallory, Mortal Kombat Vita also includes exclusive klassic kostumes for female ninjas, Joystiq, April 27th 2012.
- TOP Kids 12 (cover).
- Juan Quaglia (2013-05-31). "Muñecos de Mortal Kombat Top Kids | Guía del coleccionista". Juguetesdecoleccion.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Captain Coder. "Mileena Action Figure Gallery". Figurerealm.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- ""Mileena's Theme" by Tokimonsta". Itunes.apple.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Sophia Tong, Sound Byte: Mortal Kombat - Songs Inspired by The Warriors, GameSpot, April 18, 2011.
- Mileena 2.5" x 3.5" Magnet - Ata-Boy Wholesale, 2011. Retrieved 2014-02-26
- "Interview with Mortal Kombat Online". Sycocollectibles.com. 2011-09-26. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Luke Plunkett, This Mortal Kombat Statue Isn’t Afraid to Show a Little Skin, Kotaku, February 1, 2012.
- "Mileena Polystone Statue". Sycocollectibles.com. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
- Jerry Macaluso. "Pop Culture Shock Collectibles | Mortal Kombat Mileena". Popcultureshocktoys.com. Retrieved 2014-02-24.
- "Epic Battles Card List". Viciousmk.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Charlie Jane Anders, This Year’s Sluttiest and Weirdest Store-Bought Halloween Costumes, io9, October 24, 2011.
- Justin Amirikhani, 15 Last-Minute Video Game Game Costumes That Actually Look Cool, Complex.com, October 23, 2012.
- Brian Altano, The Most Ridiculous, Sexy Video Game Costumes of 2012, October 22, 2012.
- Gen13 Vol 2, #1 ("Among Friends and Enemies").
- "Reviews - Book Of Swords". Fareastfilms.com. 2010-08-22. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Nando Rohner, Alessandro Bertolotti. Under the Skin of Rock ́n ́ Roll (p.229).
- "INKED Girls of Rock". Scribd.com. 2011-05-27. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "Chibi". Myspace.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Aly Weisman (2013-07-11). "Adrianne Curry's Revealing Comic-Con Costumes". Business Insider. Retrieved 2013-11-15.
- "Adrianne Curry And Pal Alicia Marie Dress Up As Sexy 'Mortal Kombat' Characters For Comic-Con". Starpulse.com. Retrieved 2013-07-22.
- Chelsea White. "Adrianne Curry once again ignites every geek's fire in a barely there Mortal Kombat costume at Comic-Con 2013 | Mail Online". Dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-07-22.
- The Miami Herald, August 26, 1994.
- Austin American-Statesman, September 8, 1994.
- "Game Reviews: Mortal Kombat II" (SNES). Nintendo Power 64 (September 1994), p.15.
- Richard George, Mortal Kombat II - #25 Top 100 SNES Games, IGN, 2011.
- K. Thor Jensen, Kano Vs. Sonya Blade, UGO, February 23, 2012.
- "Top 11 Mortal Kombat Characters". Web.archive.org. 2009-01-23. Archived from the original on 2009-01-23. Retrieved 2013-11-15.
- Anurag Ghosh, Bill Fulks, Ten Awesome Mortal Kombat Characters: Mileena, Bright Hub, October 27, 2011.
- Uncle Creepy, Mortal Kombat - A Toothy Look at Mileena, Dread Central, January 16th, 2011.
- Bridgman, Andrew. "Toplist Results: The 20 Greatest Mortal Kombat Kharacters of All-Time". Dorkly. Retrieved 2013-12-19.
- The Supreme Mortal Kombat Champion - Mortal Kombat Online, May 12, 2012. Retrieved December 19, 2013.
- Tournament 2013: Who is the Supreme Mortal Kombat Champion? - Mortal Kombat Online, May 29, 2013. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
- Phil Owen, Mortal Kombat: The Very Best/Worst Jade, Mileena & Kitana Cosplay (PICS), GameFront, April 18, 2011.
- "Crossroads residents can dress as favorite character for Victoria Comic Con". Victoria Advocate. Retrieved 2014-01-10.
- "20 Pics of Incredible Fighting Game Cosplay | Page 2". HEAVY. 2014-01-15. Retrieved 2014-02-05.
- Larry Hester, The 50 Hottest Women In Video Games, Complex.com, November 8, 2010 (re-uploaded on June 27, 2012).
- Larry Hester, The 50 Hottest Video Game Characters, Complex.com, June 27, 2012.
- Aubrey Sitterson, Fighting Games' Hottest Women - Mileena, UGO.com, January 14, 2011.
- Ross Lincoln (May 5, 2011). "The Greatest Boobs In Video Game History (Gallery)". GameFront.
- Drea Avellan, The 20 Best Pairs Of Boobies In Video Games, Complex.com, June 20, 2012.
- Kristie Bertucci, 20 hottest female video game characters (list), Gadget Review, 5 July 2012.
- CU Amiga 12/94 (p.41).
- Mikel Reparaz, The Top 7... Girl-on-girl kisses, GamesRadar, November 28, 2006.
- "The Retrobates: Best Mortal Kombat Fatality" in Retro Gamer 40.
- Ryan Aston, 8 Mortal Kombat Characters That Are Goofy Even by Mortal Kombat Standards, Topless Robot, 14 April 2011.
- Ben Kendrick, 10 Most Awesome Mortal Kombat Characters, Game Rant, April 18, 2011.
- "Top 10 Fatalities Of Mortal Kombat 9 (2011)". Game Rant. Retrieved 2011-12-21.
- Character of the Month – Mileena (Mortal Kombat), Game-Flush, May 20, 2011.[dead link]
- ScrewAttack, The Worst EVER: Sexy Chick, The Escapist, 19 June 2013.
- "8. Bite Your Head Off — The Best "Mortal Kombat" Finishing Moves in Video Game History". Complex. 2013-10-01. Retrieved 2014-01-14.
- "10 Most Sexually Charged Women in Gaming History » Page 8 of 11". Whatculture.com. 2012-10-25. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
- sarahditum, 8 things games don’t understand about girls, PlayStation Official Magazine, September 25, 2012.
- "Game Reviews: Mortal Kombat II" (Game Boy). Nintendo Power 65 (October 1994), p. 92.
- Gelo Gonzales, The bad girls of videogame land, FHM, September 11, 2009.
- Bad Girls Club: The 25 Most Diabolical Video Game She-Villains, Complex.com, June 30, 2011.
- (Polish) Mileena – Mortal Kombat - 10 najseksowniejszych negatywnych bohaterek - Imperium gier, WP.PL, 2011-07-31.
- Gameranx Staff, Top 11 Hottest Female Villains: #2 Mileena, Gameranx, 13th September 2013.
- Hanuman Welch, The Most Brutal Fighters In "Mortal Kombat", Complex.com, July 21, 2013.
- "Top 10 Hottest Female Villains in Gaming - Cheat Code Central". Lists.cheatcc.com. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- Jason Lomberg, Mortal Kombat II warriors: Where are they now?, VentureBeat, May 13, 2012.
- Doug Gross, most controversial violent video games, CNN, August 26, 2013.
- "Top 10 Best Mortal Kombat Fatalities - Page 2". Game Rant. 2011-04-19. Retrieved 2011-12-21.
- The X360 Magazine Team (2011-09-19). "10 Of The Best…Notorious Videogame Crimes". X360magazine.com. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
- Lyon, Carl (September 25, 2011). "Mortal Kombat vs. Tommy Wiseau?". Fearnet.com. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- Grant Howitt, Dating Videogame Girls: Part Two, FHM, 18 July 2011.
- Scott Collura, Top 50 Chicks Behaving Badly: Round 1, IGN, 2008-05-31.
- Chris Holt, Scalia clearly doesn’t play Mortal Kombat, read Dante, GamePro, June 27, 2011.
- Aaron Koehn, Palette Swapping: 17 Games that Did it Right, GamePro, January 13, 2009.
- ScrewAttack, Top 10 Ugly Chicks in Games, GameTrailers, August 21, 2009.
- "Mileena (Mortal Kombat) - Bad Date - Games". Virginmedia.com. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
- Nick Chester, Mileena looks for new playmate in new Mortal Kombat vid, Destructoid, 01.21.2011.
- Jack DeVries, Mortal Kombat PS Vita review, GamesRadar, May 1, 2012.
- "The 11 Ugliest Video Game Characters". Arcadesushi.com. 2013-06-28. Retrieved 2014-01-14.
- Matt Bradford, Gaming's most ridiculous alternate fighting costumes: The weird, wacky, and wtf?! of fighting game wardrobes, GamesRadar, December 4, 2012.
- Jack DeVries, 2011's Worst Dressed Video Game Characters, IGN, December 29, 2011.
- K. Thor Jensen, The Most Stylin' Alternate Costumes, UGO.com, February 27, 2011.
- "Do Fighting Video Games Prolong Stereotypes of Asian Americans?", AsianWeek, September 23, 1994.
- Patricia Marks Greenfield, Rodney R. Cocking, Interacting With Video, Greenwood Publishing Group 1996 (p.34).
- "Women, of a sort, enter Mortal Kombat", Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, May 29, 1995.
- Alexander Sliwinski, Video: Mortal Kombat's Mileena pops Ps without lips, Joystiq, January 21, 2011.
- Brad Nicholson, Fatality: Mortal Kombat II disappears from PSN, Destructoid, 10.19.2008.
- Dan Ryckert, Who We Want (And Don’t Want) In The New Mortal Kombat, Game Informer, June 21, 2010.
- Jeff Cork, Mileena Is As Creepy As Ever In New Trailer, Game Informer, January 21, 2011.
- Matt Helgeson, Howard Stern Mocks Video Game Convention Attendees, Game Informer, May 12, 2011.
- Mike Harradence, New Mortal Kombat trailer puts Mileena in the spotlight, PSU.com, January 10, 2011.
- Nathan Misa, The 5 Most Hottest and Modest Female Protagonists in Gaming, MMGN, 12/07/2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mileena.|