|Mortal Kombat character|
Mileena's alternate costume in Mortal Kombat X (2015)
|First game||Mortal Kombat II (1993)|
|Created by||John Tobias (with brainstorming input from Ed Boon)|
|Designed by||John Tobias (MKII, UMK3/MKT)
Steve Beran (MK:D, MK:A)
Mark Lappin (MK:SM)
Atomhawk Design (MK2011)
Justin Murray (MKX)
Jennifer L. Parsons (Annihilation)
Beverly Safier & Lee Grimes (Konquest)
Allisa Swanson (Legacy s.1)
Lisa Tomczeszyn (Legacy s.2)
|Voiced by||Lita Lopez (MK:SM)
Johanna Añonuevo (MK:D, MK:A)
Karen Strassman (MK2011, MKX)
|Motion capture||Carlos Pesina (MK:D, MK:A)
Lorrisa Julianus (MK2011)
|Portrayed by||Katalin Zamiar (MKII)
Becky Gable (UMK3, MKT)
Dana Hee (Annihilation)
Jennifer DeCosta, Lexi Alexander (Live Tour)
Audie England, Megan Brown (Konquest)
Danni Levy (MK2011 promotion)
Jolene Tran (Legacy s.1)
Michelle Lee (Legacy s.2)
|Fighting styles||Ying Yeung (MK:D)
Mian Chuan (MK:D, MK:A)
Tae Kwon Do, Ninjitsu (Konquest)
|Weapon||Sai (all media)
Mileena[note 1] is a player and one-time boss character from the Mortal Kombat series of fighting games. Since her introduction as Princess Kitana's palette swap for Mortal Kombat II in 1993, Mileena has gained significant popularity and became one of the series' most iconic characters.
In the games, Mileena was originally known as a dual sai-wielding assassin in service of the dark emperor of Outworld, Shao Kahn, and an evil twin sister of his stepdaughter Kitana. However, she was soon revealed to be just a monstrously deformed and mentally unbalanced clone of Kitana, created for Kahn by Shang Tsung. In the later games, Mileena also uneasily serves other masters, namely Shinnok and Onaga, and is a central character to the plot of the game Mortal Kombat: Deception. In the backstory of the upcoming Mortal Kombat X, Mileena, the sole surviving heir of Shao Kahn, vies for the Outworld throne with warlord Kotal Kahn.
Mileena's traits in the original timeline are traditionally defined by her fierce rivalry with Kitana, as well as her own lust for power and cannibalistic urges. The series' 2011 reboot made her ever more unstable but also very immature, and her relationship to Kitana is more ambiguous. In the various other media in the franchise, Mileena's appearances have been relatively rare and minor as compared to these of Kitana, and she is usually positioned in them as an adversary of Earthrealm champion Sonya Blade. She has often appeared in Mortal Kombat merchandise and was also extensively used to promote later games in the series as its semi-ironic sex symbol.
Gameplay-wise, she is considered a generally strong fighter, including being widely regarded as the best choice in Mortal Kombat II. In relation to her other aspects, Mileena received a diverse and often mixed, largely due to the character's unbalanced deranged personality and conflicting messages from the dualism of her design, but in most cases favorable critical reaction, along with some negative criticism as well.
- 1 Appearances
- 2 Reception
- 3 See also
- 4 Notes
- 5 References
- 6 External links
In video games
After the ruler of the other dimensional realm Outworld, Shao Kahn, conquered the realm of Edenia and merged it with his own, he decided he would keep the former king's daughter Kitana alive and raise her as his own. Though she grew up knowing nothing of her origin, the emperor nonetheless feared that one day Kitana would discover her true parentage and turn against him, and so he ordered Shang Tsung to bring to life a more vicious and loyal version of Kitana that could take her place if necessary. This was done by fusing her essence with a Tarkatan warrior from Baraka's race. The process was not a complete success, however, as the hybrid clone was disfigured with the hideous mouth of the Tarkata. Instead of replacing Kitana, as originally planned, Mileena would be used to spy on her and to ensure her allegiance to him, and so Shao Kahn introduced Mileena to Kitana as her supposedly lost twin sister. The two thus grew up together as his daughters and elite personal assassins, although Mileena grew to harbor a great bitterness and jealousy towards Kitana, whom Kahn favored over her.
As Kahn feared, Kitana did finally find the truth about her past and so Mileena was ordered to keep close watch over her rival when Kitana secretly allied with Earthrealm warriors during the events of Mortal Kombat II (1993). Mileena has a secret companion in Baraka. Determined to stop her twin at any cost, she is then murdered by Kitana, her soul descending into the Netherrealm. In Mortal Kombat: Shaolin Monks, the 2005 beat'em up retelling of Mortal Kombat II, Mileena fights against Liu Kang and Kung Lao alongside Jade and Kitana, but is defeated by the two Shaolin warriors and flees to the Wasteland to seek help from Goro.[note 2]
Damned to the Netherealm after her death, Mileena swears fealty to its ruler Shinnok. During the events of Ultimate Mortal Kombat 3 (1996), Shao Kahn decides to resurrect Mileena so her skills as a vicious fighter would help him defeat Earth's chosen warriors, also magically granting her the ability to read Kitana's thoughts. Shinnok sees this as an opportunity to covertly monitor the events unfolding in Earthrealm and so he allows her to return to life. After Kahn is defeated, Mileena is summoned back to the Netherealm.[note 3] In Mortal Kombat Gold (1999), she assists in Shinnok's invasion of Edenia, but allows her sister to escape from a dungeon. Following Shinnok's defeat, Mileena comes to Kitana's palace and demands the power over Edenia be shared with her. Kitana refuses and, when attacked, traps Mileena and locks her away in a dungeon.
Mileena remains imprisoned for years, until Onaga the Dragon King began his own invasion of Edenia, during which she is freed from her imprisonment by her ally Baraka. During the events of Mortal Kombat: Deception (2004), Mileena is ordered by Onaga to pose as Kitana in order to confuse and misdirect his enemies. However, as Mileena begins the game's titular deception, she develops a hidden agenda and decides to take control of both the forces of Edenia and Onaga's own undead army for herself. In the game's story mode (Konquest), Mileena also trains the young Shujinko in Outworld and fights against Jade.
In Mortal Kombat: Armageddon (2006), Mileena seizes Shao Kahn's fortress, still under the guise of Kitana, and decides to continue her charade until the Edenian forces were corrupted enough to follow her under the true identity. Though at first confident that Outworld is hers to rule, Mileena is forced to reveal herself and surrender to the returning Shao Kahn when he mounts an offensive against the fortress to re-instate himself as the ruler. The emperor then commands her to capture Shujinko, who would be used as a bargaining chip in gaining Onaga as an ally. Mileena, pretending to be Kitana, succeeds in capturing Shujinko, taking him to Shao Kahn's palace. But having tasted power for herself, she is no longer content with being his minion and still plans to get the throne of Edenia back for herself. She is later killed by Shang Tsung during the final all-out battle at the Pyramid.[note 4]
Mileena returns in Mortal Kombat (2011), an alternative-timeline retelling of the original Mortal Kombat trilogy that brought some major changes to her character. In this game, Mileena was created by Shang Tsung in the "Flesh Pit" and introduced during the second tournament, instead of many years earlier. Meant to be a loyal replacement for Kitana, she is physically and mentally damaged, her animalistic rage controlled only by Shao Kahn as she uses her lascivious behavior to lure victims and then slaughter and devour them. In the game's story mode, she serves as an opponent for Kitana, Jade, Stryker and Kabal, and is referred to by Shao Kahn as his "true daughter"; after Kahn's apparent death, his minions even discuss making her new ruler of Outworld. Her very immature personality and behavior is in sharp contrast to the scheming Mileena of the previous games. The game's Challenge Tower mode has Mileena develop unrequited feelings for Scorpion, while Kitana's uncanonical ending shows her as being unusually sympathetic towards Mileena.
Mileena returned as a playable character in Mortal Kombat X (2015). She was the empress of Outworld after Shao Kahn's death, but due to her questionable decision making (such as not seeking Earthrealm's aid in the Netherealm War) she was overthrown by Kotal Kahn. In flashbacks throughout the game's story mode, her reasoning for being ruler has been questioned, with Ermac stating that she is an artificial creation and therefore cannot be considered Shao Kahn's official heir. Mileena confronts Kotal Kahn, D'Vorah, and Reptile as they conspire to overthrow her, and attacks them with a small horde of Tarkatan soldiers (including Baraka), but they are quickly slaughtered. Her present-day appearance revolves around her continuing feud with Kotal Kahn and his generals, and her efforts to reclaim the throne by way of possessing Shinnok's amulet. Allying herself with Rain, Tanya, and Kano, Mileena launches an unsuccessful surprise attack on Kotal Kahn in Outworld and is captured. She uses the amulet to protect herself from execution, but is overcome by its power before being rescued and taken away by Rain. She is later tracked down by the Special Forces, who work with D'Vorah in apprehending Mileena again and recovering the amulet. Mileena fights D'Vorah but is defeated, and she is brought before Kahn before D'Vorah kills her with flesh-eating parasites she spits into Mileena's mouth.
Mileena was the first evil female character to appear in the series, created by John Tobias just to accommodate another palette swapped character. Tobias recalled: "I took advantage of Kitana and Mileena being masked sisters to make a play on the veil myth… One sister is beautiful. One is ugly. One is good. One is evil. Choose wisely before asking one on a date." According to Acclaim Entertainment's producer Robert O'Farrell, the game was given two female fighters so it would better compete against Capcom's Street Fighter II, which had only one. Mortal Kombat co-creator and producer Ed Boon described the sisters as the "female versions of Scorpion and Sub-Zero". Since Mileena's debut in Mortal Kombat II, her characteristic weapon is a pair of sharpened, dagger-like sai,[note 5] that at first she has been using in combat only as projectiles and during some of her finishing moves (eventually, the sai were given more use in Mortal Kombat 2011). Only in Mortal Kombat Gold she uses also a European-style longsword (Scorpion's weapon in both versions of Mortal Kombat 4). Her MK2011 X-ray attack was altered to incorporate sai stabbings after fan feedback "to fit Mileena as far as her style, her brutality."
Physically, Mileena is largely identical to Kitana, the most glaring exception being her half-Tarkata face with large and exposed fang-like teeth (which got noticeably downsized for Deception and Armageddon). Boon described Mileena as "Anti-Kitana" and said that her large "sharp, nasty teeth" have been not originally planned and were only drawn for her infamous Fatality "Man-Eater" (featured in Ultimate Mortal Kombat 3, too), in which she sucks up the entire body of her victims and then regurgitates their clean bones. After Mortal Kombat II, her teeth were almost never used again during gameplay until Mortal Kombat 2011 (in a leap attack to bite an opponent in the neck and in one Fatality to gnaw on the killed enemy's severed head), with a sole exception of one Fatality in Deception in which she uses them to tear off the opponent's head. Mileena's skin color appears to be at times mildly darker than Kitana's, but is always lighter than Jade's. After the two were given more varying appearances in Mortal Kombat Gold (hairstyle for Kitana-derived characters is loose in Mortal Kombat II and pinned back in Ultimate MK3), Mileena's hair is usually much shorter than Kitana's and is most often worn gathered in a ponytail. One element of Mileena's anatomy that has often changed is her eyes. As her supposed twin sister, Mileena shared Kitana's eyes in Mortal Kombat II; her eyes then became "undead" style all-white (similar to the eyes of Scorpion and Noob Saibot) in Ultimate MK3. In Deception, Armageddon and Shaolin Monks, Mileena's eyes return to normal, but with yellow pupils (Kitana's eyes are brown). In Mortal Kombat 2011, however, she has Baraka-like yellow eyes with slit pupils (her eyes are also sometimes seen as glowing whole), except of her alternate Ultimate MK3 style costume (available through pre-order bonuses and later in a DLC package) in which she has human eyes once again.
Just like Kitana and Jade, Mileena was originally portrayed by Katalin Zamiar in Mortal Kombat II, who was using her own sai. After this game, Mileena was officially declared by Tobias and Boon to be "gone" and not returning, yet was brought back due to popular demand, with Becky Gable taking over the role in Ultimate Mortal Kombat 3. Mileena's main color has been either a shade of purple or magenta in various installments (including when masquerading as Kitana in Deception) and their outfits did not differ in a significant way (more than just having different color patterns) until Mortal Kombat Gold. Since then, her costumes have been generally getting more skimpy with every new game, including always having an exposed midriff since Deception. Mileena's main costume in Deception and Armageddon is actually mostly black and features long flowing arm sleeves, a back-only loincloth and a partially transparent veil. Her motion capture actor in these games was Carlos Pesina. In Shaolin Monks, Mileena appears half-naked (her costume made largely of just belts of leather and scraps of fabric), barefoot (with a bandaged midfoot), and again wearing a veil in place of a mask (the veil also returns as part of her formal outfit in Mortal Kombat 2011). In the 2011 reboot game, her prime costume is based on her famous provocative alternate from Deception, but more detailed and again featuring a mask. In all, in this game she has the largest number of costumes out of all characters in the entire series. Her "Flesh Pit" alternate costume in the 2011 game is made of just some loose bandages put around her otherwise completely naked body,[note 7] marking the first time that she has appeared unmasked by default. In this game, her motion capture actress was a woman. In Mortal Kombat X, her facial appearance has undergone drastic changes on her facial appearance based on those from Mortal Kombat Legacy live-action, such as having a human-like mouth, yet still retain most of her Tarkatan mouth, as seen on both of her cheeks.
Mileena was commonly perceived as the best character of Mortal Kombat II. In the test by GamePro, this "queen of the hill" was effective against all characters, and especially versus Jax (who shared tier 1 with her in their ranking), Reptile and Shang Tsung. GamePro declared: "Although Jax is the better overall characters against Tiers 2-4, Mileena's massive advantage over him makes her number one. Neither suffers disadvantages against anyone else. With her rapid sai-throwing ability, teleport attacks, and deadly combos, this beautiful assassin lands atop our rankings."' Amiga Format similarly noted that she and Kitana were always "so much faster" that "poor Jax...ended getting his head kicked in every time." She was also ranked as the game's best overall fighter by Sega Visions for her high speed and reach, and for her teleport kick that can dodge projectiles. According to CU Amiga, Mileena was "third only to Jax and Liu Kang for sheer brilliance," being a "somewhat misleading character" whose moves need to be "learnt the right way to put them all together to be devastating;" EGM opined this "deadly woman...can hold her own against any man in the game" and her players can use her "lightning speed" and the sai blasts to overcome other players; C+VG evaluated all of Mortal Kombat II characters as "well-balanced" and "potentially excellent", but still the teleport kick of the "very fast" Mileena was singled out as "the best surprising move in the game."
She is a hidden playable character in Ultimate Mortal Kombat 3, in which she needs to be unlocked using a special "Kombat Kode", but is available from the start in the compilation game Mortal Kombat Trilogy (appearing as seen in Ultimate MK3). She is not playable in Shaolin Monks, but she appears as a sub-boss character alongside Kitana and Jade (as well as an optional boss in a secret stage encounter). Mileena also appears in the super deformed-style "cute" form in every minigame through the series ("Chess Kombat", "Puzzle Kombat" and "Motor Kombat").[note 8] Mileena utilises sai in most of her Fatalities, including to immobilize her opponents during the killing sequence, and in some of them she pretends to kiss her victims. There was a popular but completely false urban legend style rumor regarding a supposed "Nudality" finishing move in Mortal Kombat II. Mileena's Animality in UMK3 and Trilogy sees her transform into a skunk that sprays her opponent. According to Nintendo Power, Mileena's original powers "may prove insufficient" for using her with same effectiveness in UMK3 in which most of the other characters got some additional special moves. Sega Saturn Magazine wrote that "she's pretty much identical to the last time." On the other hand, Total 64 wrote that Mileena of Trilogy (directly based on UMK3 version) is "a damn good fighter, has got plenty of powerful moves" and is "an all round classy fighting star!" EGM Strategy Guide for UMK3 noted she has largely retained her ability to "zone" the opponent with her sai projectiles, which had contributed to making her "one of the toughest" characters in MKII.
According to GameSpy's guide to Deception, in this game Mileena "has some solid offensive tools" and "a few solid combos up her sleeve, as well as a few pop-up attacks that are extremely quick and open up brief juggle opportunities," but also severe weaknesses such as a very short range of her sai and poor ranged attack abilities. Prima Games' official guide for Armageddon gave Mileena an overall rating of 6/10, calling her a "punisher" type character and a better fighter than Kitana ("seems to have the upper hand between the two"), but while she "is able to punish from any range and even interrupt high attacks and projectiles, the damage she inflicts is minor." In Prima Games' official guide for the 2011's Mortal Kombat, Mileena was judged to be well-balanced and universal, displaying neither particular weaknesses nor advantages that would result in a one-sided battle against anyone else. In their test, Mileena always won around half of fights against any character (in the range of 40–60%, wins depending on an opposing character).
In her appearance in Mortal Kombat X, Mileena's style of fighting is translated into her three variations: "Ravenous", "Piercing", and "Ethereal". In "Ravenous", as the name suggests, Mileena gains an expanded number of biting and pouncing attacks, highlighting her beastly and cannibalistic tendencies and turning her into a more aggressive fighter. In "Piercing", her main trait is her sai, which she uses for both projectiles and extensive combination attacks. Her "Ethereal" variation focuses on her ability to teleport, and allows her to disappear for extended periods of time in order to strike stealthily.
Film and television
Mileena appeared briefly in the 1997 film Mortal Kombat: Annihilation, and was played by stuntwoman Dana Hee. She was featured in one scene in which she ambushes Sonya Blade from behind in a desert. The two duel before Sonya traps Mileena on the ground and kicks her in the head, snapping her neck. After this, Mileena's shoulder tattoo comes to life and flies away. Mileena herself was never mentioned by name but was acknowledged in the closing credits. Her pink-and-black costume was a palette swap of Kitana's main film attire (a sleeveless corset-like top and tights) with an added mask and matching headband, and has blue eyes. Mileena has only one spoken line in the film ("You wish" in response to Sonya confusing her with Kitana) and it was the only time she has ever been shown with her hair in a plait, similar to Kitana's in-film hairstyle. Hee, who employed her own stunt double for that scene, described her role as "an evil, mysterious figure that leaves you wondering, 'Who is she?'" The fight was shot in -3° Celsius (26° Fahrenheit) weather at a copper mine in Wales, and the crew had trucked in synthetic mud for the scene, but a hurricane struck near the set a day before filming and left both actresses and their stunt performers fighting in actual mud that had consequently washed away the synthetic material.
Mileena appeared in the 1999 episode "Shadow of a Doubt" of the television series Mortal Kombat: Konquest, in which she had no direct relation to Kitana and was here depicted as an initially very repulsive and aggressive Outworld warrior sent by Shao Kahn to assassinate the weakened Kung Lao, with a magic spell placed over her to give her Kitana's look (for a while, he even called her his "new daughter"). Mileena, wearing a green costume, succeeded in seducing Kung Lao, but could not bring herself to kill him during their night of passion and was also explicitly warned by Shang Tsung to not do it. She makes excuses for Kahn and later fights an inconclusive duel against Kitana, broken by Shao Kahn. As punishment for her taking too much time in her mission, Kahn allows Mileena to keep her beauty with the exception of making her teeth exaggeratedly pointed. She then starts to wear her signature mask, which Kahn gives her before banishing her from his sight. In Konquest, Mileena was portrayed by Meg Brown and Audie England played Mileena pretending to be Kitana.
Another alternative and younger version of Mileena appears in the 2011 live-action webisode series Mortal Kombat: Legacy, portrayed by martial artist Jolene Tran in her acting debut. Their story is told in the two-part episode "Kitana & Mileena," which featured both animated and live-action sequences. Mileena is shown to be a Shang Tsung-created clone like in the games, but of an age similar to Kitana's, as they were together since their infancy, and her scarred but otherwise normal-looking mouth (with lips, except as a baby) changes as her teeth grow when she is overcome by a cannibalistic rage. The adolescent Mileena is clad in violet, does not appear to be Kitana's twin, and is seen wearing a mask only in some of the animated sections (in which both of them are wearing outfits similar to those in Mortal Kombat II). She is shown spar-dueling against Kitana and losing to her, then killing and devouring a palace guard in a fit of insanity, as well as killing impostors of King Jerrod, Kitana's biological father, in a team together with Kitana. When the two are eventually sent by Shao Kahn on a mission to assassinate the actual King Jerrod, Mileena kills him with a double sai throw to the chest when he was talking to Kitana. That episode received a Writers Guild of America Award nomination for "Outstanding Achievement in Writing Derivative New Media."
Mileena returned for the 2013 second season of Legacy with actress Michelle Lee (Ada Wong in Resident Evil 6) replacing Tran, who had posted on Twitter without explanation that she would not be returning. Lee called Mileena "such an awesome character" while playing her was her "dream come true." In a scene from the fifth episode that was shown at San Diego Comic-Con, Mileena fights and beats Johnny Cage before being defeated and decapitated by Kitana, who rescues an injured Cage just as he is about to die. Lee additionally filmed a short gag clip for Machinima.com titled "Mileena's Lunch," as part of the promotion of the second season of Legacy.
Mileena was a minor character in the Mortal Kombat: Live Tour stage show in 1995, where she was played mostly by Jennifer DeCosta and Lexi Alexander in a dual role. Alexander primarily played Kitana but wore Mileena's costume underneath for a quick wardrobe change. In a short story prequel to Mortal Kombat 3, sponsored by CD Projekt and published by Polish magazine Secret Service, Mileena is Shao Kahn's assassin who attempts to ambush Sonya Blade at a metro station, but is intercepted with a drop kick and promptly beaten down by Johnny Cage.
Mileena had a brief role in the 1994 Midway-produced Mortal Kombat II comic book that was written and illustrated by John Tobias, and took place prior to the second tournament. She joins Kitana, Baraka, Kintaro and Shang Tsung in being sent to attack Earthrealm by Shao Kahn, and kills Jax's Special Forces partner Beran (modeled after Midway art director Steve Beran) by performing her "Maneater" Fatality off-panel. She was a recurring secondary character in Malibu Comics' Mortal Kombat series that was published from 1994 to 1995. Making her debut in the first issue of the Goro: Prince of Pain miniseries, she is part of a team led by Kitana with orders to find the missing Goro in Outworld. She additionally has reservations about Kitana's true loyalty to Kahn (though she never speaks about it to anyone) and considers herself to be "Shao Kahn's true daughter." Mileena duels Sonya twice—including the first "Tournament Edition" finale in which she stabs Sonya with her sai—but she loses both times. She was also featured in a one-shot special entitled Kitana and Mileena: Sister Act, which explained their past: Mileena is a creation ordered by Shao Kahn, though he would never let her replace Kitana.
In Jerome Preisler's novelization of Annihilation, based off an early draft of the film's script, Mileena has teamed up with Smoke, but she is still killed by Sonya after an ensuing fight scene, albeit by different means. In Preisler's novel, Mileena appears in a scene similar to this in the film, but instead set in a mist-covered jungle wilderness. She ambushes Sonya while Smoke attacks Jax, and she is depicted as being unmasked, laughing an insane and inhuman laughter. Mileena scissor-grips Sonya’s neck with "her powerful thigh muscles" before being thrown off by Sonya. She then introduces herself after this initial confrontation, adding that she does not appreciate being confused with her "virtuous half-sister." Sonya fatally strangles Mileena with the handle of her own sai after a second fight, and when she and Jax examine Mileena's corpse, Sonya wonders if Mileena was just "another cyborg" after spotting a shoulder tattoo similar to the mark found on Cyrax.
In DC Comics' 2015 Mortal Kombat X prequel miniseries, Sonya is asked by Emperor Kotal Kahn to help him defeat Mileena, his rival to the throne of Outworld. She has joined forces with Reiko, who becomes her advisor and lover. When Goro disappears after being sent in pursuit of Mileena, Kotal Kahn sends his father, Kotal K'etz—armed with Shao Kahn's magic hammer—to kill both her and Reiko. However, Kotal's most trusted warriors are ambushed and slaughtered by Mileena's forces that include Mavado's Red Dragon mercenaries. K'etz himself is then killed by Goro, whom Mileena had also recruited.
In October 2004, Mileena was featured in a spread in the special edition of Playboy magazine that spotlighted provocative video game characters. A famous promotional picture of her, known as "Sexy Mileena" (a topless picture in her alternative Deception costume) was created for this purpose by Midway Games artist Pav Kovacic. This image did not actually appear in Playboy (in which a fairly common picture of Mileena in her primary costume in Deception was published instead) but was used as an unlockable picture for an in-game gallery. Another Mileena pin-up picture was created in 2011 for Playboy by Justin Murray (who designed Mileena's alternate costume in Mortal Kombat X), along with these of Kitana, Sheeva, and Jade. It was, however, rejected for being "Hustler slutty" instead of "Playboy classy," according to Beran. A full-clothed image of Mileena was used as one of two alternative cover arts for "Kollector Edition" limited version of Deception for the Xbox video game console and a pin-up of Mileena was featured in IGN's Hotlist publication in 2006.
Mileena was extensively used to promote the Mortal Kombat reboot game in 2011-2012. She was one of the only four playable characters in the demo version and was featured in several trailers, including "A Night Out With Mileena" in which several NetherRealm Studios employees tongue-in-cheek-style answered the question where they would take her on a date. As part of this promotional campaign, fitness model Danni Levy portrayed Mileena in the live-action trailer "Kasting" and a photo session, attending The Gadget Show: World Tour for the European 2011 championship in Mortal Kombat. Levy also portrayed Mileena in the 2012 live-action commercial for the PlayStation Vita version of the game (first in a teaser trailer, and then in the full trailer together with Kitana). Playboy model Jo Garcia dressed up in Mileena's colors to play as her in a sponsored photo session and video in 2011. Another model dressed as Mileena also promoted the 2011 game in Brazil for Warner Bros. and Saraiva Mega Store. A Mortal Kombat II style costume for Mileena was first added exclusively for the Vita version of MK2011, before being later included in the Komplete Edition release for the other platforms.
A figurine of Mileena ("the evil twin") from the Mortal Kombat II series came out exclusively with a special issue of the Argentinian magazine Top Kids in 1995. A 7.5-inch action figure that was also based on her design in this game was released by Infinite Concepts in 1999, with a detachable mask. An electronic music track called "Mileena's Theme" by Tokimonsta was released on iTunes in January 2011 as the first of three singles that were compiled on the album Mortal Kombat: Songs Inspired by the Warriors. Mileena was one of several MK characters featured on 2.5" x 3.5" collectible magnets by Ata-Boy Wholesale in 2011, and a ten-inch polystone statue of her Mortal Kombat 2011 incarnation was released in the Enchanted Warriors series by Syco Collectibles in May 2012. A "Klassic" UMK3 1:4 scale statue of Mileena was announced by Pop Culture Shock Collectibles to come in early 2015.
Mileena is featured in the 1995 collectible card game Mortal Kombat Kard Game, as well as in the 2006 crossover collectible card game Epic Battles where she is one of the characters representing the Mortal Kombat universe that were featured already in the Premiere Edition. Io9's Charlie Jane Anders included Mileena dress-up apparel among 2011's "sluttiest and weirdest" store-bought Halloween costumes, but Justin Amirikhani of Complex praised it as one of "last-minute video game costumes that actually look cool" and Brian Altano of IGN included it among "ten ridiculous (or ridiculously sexy) video game inspired Halloween costumes" of 2012.
Mileena has made several homage cameo appearances outside of the franchise, including in the comic book series Gen¹³ in 1995,[note 9] in the 1996 martial arts film Book of Swords (a nod/tribute to Mileena in a minor role by Katalin Zamiar),[note 10] and in the episode "Another Bad Thanksgiving" of the animated series The Cleveland Show in 2010.[note 11] In 2009, The Birthday Massacre vocalist Chibi described Mileena as one of her "heroes," and announced her plan of getting a tribute tattoo: "I like the character because she's pretty insane and vicious and seems like she'd be very attractive, but then has this mouth full of heinous sharp teeth." Those who dressed up Mileena included Sylvia Soska at Fantastic Fest 2011, Adrianne Curry at the 2013 San Diego Comic-Con International and later at Fan Expo Canada 2014, and Cody Rhodes' wife Brandi for Halloween in 2013.
Mileena's addition to the series was well received and she quickly became one of the most popular and recognizable Mortal Kombat characters. Her debut appearance in Mortal Kombat II was met with a favorable critical reception: The Miami Herald called Kitana and Mileena, "leggy ladies who wear masks", to be "an interesting step toward political correctness" as "a far cry from Little Miss Muffet," Austin American-Statesman described them as "far nastier than that martial-artless aerobics instructor from the first game," while Nintendo Power called her "beautiful, graceful, beguiling and strong, but most of all, deadly." In 1996, Marcin Górecki of Secret Service ranked her as the ninth-best female fighter in the genre's history. In the early 2010s, a retrospective article by IGN's Richard George listed "the hot chicks" as one of the reasons why Mortal Kombat II "is considered by many to be the pinnacle of the series," and UGO named "the busty ninja sisters Kitana and Mileena" as front characters of the Mortal Kombat franchise.
UGO rated Mileena seventeenth on their 2012 list of the top 50 Mortal Kombat characters, citing her then-rare presence as an evil female player character (a taboo-breaking novelty in video games at the time of her 1993 MKII debut) while stating that her brutal attacks and "slutty" outfits made her a fan favorite. Gavin Jasper of Den of Geek placed Mileena fifth—fourteen spots ahead of Kitana—in his 2015 rating of the series' 73 playable characters, describing her as "playful, entitled, psychotic, and completely unpredictable." IGN, in 2011, listed her as one of the series' "four main characters" alongside mainstays Liu Kang, Scorpion and Sub-Zero. Anurag Ghosh and Bill Fulks of Bright Hub included her among the "top ten awesome" Mortal Kombat characters as well as one of the sexiest ("second only to the gorgeous Kitana"), and CraveOnline's Dread Central called her "without question" one of the "most beloved" characters in the Mortal Kombat universe. In some rankings, however, Mileena placed lower, such as when fans voted her the series' 20th greatest character in a 2013 online poll hosted by Dorkly, or in the "Supreme Mortal Kombat Champion" polls held by Mortal Kombat Online, where she was eliminated prior to the final rounds after losing to Jade and Shang Tsung in 2012 and 2013, respectively, and was eliminated by Kitana in the first round of the 2014 edition.
Looks and attitude
In spite of her disfigured face, some considered Mileena among the most attractive characters in all video games. In 2010, Larry Hester of Complex made her share the eighth place with Kitana and Sonya on the list of "hottest women in video games". UGO counted Mileena among the best looking female ninja type characters in all media. and also ranked her as the number eight "hottest" video game character in 2012, declaring: "Mileena is what some guys would call a paper bagger. Her body is crazy but the face doesn't really work for us." UGO's Aubrey Sitterson ranked her as the seventh finest female fighter in fighting games in 2010, but advised to "be careful around that big scary demon mouth she keeps under the skarf." In 2011, American model Tara Babcock ranked her as the 11th "hottest video game babe," adding that in the reboot game "Mileena embodies a childish character through her fighting style and behavior." Mileena's breasts placed 31st and ninth on the 2011 lists of the finest chests in gaming by GameFront's Ross Lincoln and Complex 's Drea Avellan, respectively. In 2012, Gadget Review's Kristie Bertucci rated Mileena as the sixth "hottest" female video game character and noted her being "usually always at the top of the list as one of the most popular female characters (not to mention sexy)" in all video games.
Much of the reception was mixed due to the character's conflicting looks and psychotic behavior, although these elements were often also regarded positively for a variety of reasons, including a sheer shock value. For her signature Fatality, which CU Amiga called "the kiss of death to end all kisses", Mileena shared the seventh place with Kitana on GamesRadar's Mikel Reparaz's 2006 list of top seven "girls kissing girls" in 2006; "Kitana's and Mileena's deadly kisses" were also chosen as his favourite Fatalities by Paul Drury of Retro Gamer. In 2011, Topless Robot's Ryan Aston ranked Mileena as the sixth most goofy Mortal Kombat character as "a pretty succinct commentary on the deplorable image of women in videogames" and for her absurd "Man-Eater" finisher, but nevertheless calling her "quite the looker". That same year, Ben Kendrick of Game Rant ranked Mileena as the fourth "most awesome" character of the series, praising her for her disturbing style, and called her one of "the most disgusting yet alluring" game characters ever created, also rating her "Be Mine" Fatality as sixth best from that game ("it’s like Ed Boon is constantly saying 'yeah, I dare you to be attracted to this character!'"). In 2013, Sean Hinz of ScrewAttack named Mileena as the worst ever "hot chick" in video games for how she "can make you feel bad when you have a boner," Kevin Wong of Complex ranked Mileena's biting off an opponent's head as the eight best finishing move in Mortal Kombat, noting "a sexual element that was creepily out of context," while Stuart W. Bedford of WhatCulture placed her fourth on his list of "most sexually charged" female characters in gaming history, stating she "has been confusing penises the world over since her creation" two decades earlier. Belgian G MAG noted Mileena for her large cup size and miniscule outfits in an article sexual themes in video games but joked they would not "jump in for a blowjob" from her.
Mileena, initially described by Nintendo Power as "a dangerous enemy: cruel, cold and calculating," has also been renowned as a notable female villain in video game history. In 2009, Gelo Gonzales of FHM listed her among the nine sexiest "bad girls of videogame land", adding that "perhaps no one is as menacing as Mileena." In 2011, Complex ranked her as eight on their list of the "most diabolical video game she-villains," while Polish web portal Wirtualna Polska featured Mileena among the top ten villainesses in gaming, describing her as "absolutely phenomenal, simply dripping with sex" but advising to skip trying to check under her mask. That same year, the staff of Gameranx rated "this Mortal Kombat femme fatality" as the second sexiest female villain in gaming, writing: "She’s gorgeous, packs a punch, and is infused with evil from birth. How much more badass can you go?" Placing Mileena 18th on his 2013 list of the most brutal fighters in Mortal Kombat, Hanuman Welch of Complex described her as a "deadly mixture of Kitana's agility and seduction, and Baraka's impulsive behavior." Mileena was included alongside Kitana among the top ten "hottest" female villains in gaming and "old school hotties that still got it" by Travis Hubert of Cheat Code Central in 2014. That same year, Márcio Pacheco Alexsandro of Brazil's Game Hall also placed them both at second spot of his top list of female ninja characters in games, commenting about the "beautiful and monstrous" Mileena that there is nothing more 'cool' than a ninja who is both sexy and insane.
Several publications commented on her cannibalistic tendencies. In a VentureBeat humor article by Jason Lomberg, Mileena "tried her hand at stripping, modeling, and a stint on The View. But none of them could satisfy her insatiable desire for carnage and human flesh," so she became Donald Trump’s co-host on The Apprentice. Ranking 1992's Mortal Kombat as the second most controversial violent video game in history, CNN's Doug Gross noted that in the reboot "options include eating an opponent's head." In 2012, Game Rant ranked Mileena's "just sick" Deception finishing move "Yummy" as the second-best Fatality ever, and X360 chose her Mortal Kombat reboot Fatality "in which she tears a man's head off then chows down upon it" to represent cannibalism on the list of top ten video game crimes. In a feature about Tommy Wiseau's 2011 web series The Tommy-Wi Show, Carl Lyon of Fearnet described Wiseau therein as "an ambiguously-accented, sleepy eyed 'actor' who chews scenery like Mileena on an opponent's throat." In a humor article about the prospects of dating video game women, Grant Howitt of FHM described the sex with Mileena as "gratifying and frequent, although she did try and chew our knob off at one point." Praising the 2011 reboot game for its includion of "iconic" characters and "the quite remarkable violence," GamesMaster opined one "simply cannot watch Mileena throw swords into Johnny Cage, decapitate him and then take repeated bites out of his face like a dog on death row without deeply desiring this game."
Mileena was described by Computer and Video Games as "equally erotic and repulsive". According to IGN, "at first blush she seems like your quintessential sultry video-game vixen, but the mask comes off and she's got a gaping mouth filled to the brim with dagger-like teeth." In 2008, IGN's Scott Collura listed "Mileen-ewwwwww" as one of "top 50 chicks behaving badly," while GamesRadar included her on the list of "gaming's most repellent anti-babes". Comparing the Mortal Kombat characters to the seven deadly sins in Dante's Inferno, Chris Holt of GamePro chose Mileena to represent Envy. The magazine's Aaron Koehn placed Mileena and Kitana at 11th place on his 2009 list of the best palette-swapped video game characters, but wrote that "if you gauge Mileena's attractiveness simply based on the size of her baby-feeders, be ready for some disappointment when she removes her mask." That same year, ScrewAttack ranked her as seventh on the list of top "ugly chicks in games" for her horrific looks when unmasked, but otherwise calling her "like, the ultimate woman," while Virgin Media included her on the list of ten "game girls you wouldn't dare to date" for being attractive "until she rips off her veil and reveals her monstrous form beneath." Destructoid's Nick Chester commented: "Her story, as far as I'm concerned, is that she needs to see a dentist." On the other hand, EGM's Eric L. Patterson, stating his preference of Mileena over Kitana, wrote that Mileena's face is actually one of the reasons why he likes her. Reviewing the Vita version of MK2011, GamesRadar's Jack DeVries called it "as pretty as Mileena minus mask, but overall, just as viciously fun." Ranking Mileena as second on his 2013 list of ugliest video game characters, Alex Langley of Arcade Sushi wrote: "If ever there were a time to use the term 'butterface' it would be with Mileena, because everything about her is hot... but her face. Her face will friggin' bite your face off, which is never a sign of a good date." French magazine Retropolis placed Mileena second in a 2013 ranking of the sexiest girls in fighting games in which her bust was the criteria for her "reverse décolleté" approach to fashion after Mortal Kombat II, while comparing the character to shrimp in regards to her physical appearance: "Everything is good except for the head."
Mileena was noted for her alternate costume apparel, in particular her unmasked and near-naked "Flesh Pits" outfit from MK2011 that Destructoid's Hamza Aziz called "the new winner for skimpiest 'outfit' in a videogame ever." GamesRadar's Matt Bradford included it on his 2012 list of gaming's "most ridiculous" alternate fighting costumes, commenting that it "overclocks our [absurd]-o-meter." IGN featured the unmasked Mileena on their list of worst-dressed video game characters of 2011, commenting that "the term 'butter face' doesn't even begin to describe this nightmare." On the other hand, UGO ranked the "Sexy Mileena" from Deception as second best on the 2011 list of the gaming's "most stylin' alternate costumes" and called her one of the most interesting characters in the game for having "a perfect 10 body" but "a -22 face," adding that this outfit "basically ramps up the sex appeal to volcanic levels." Including Mileena's supposed "Nudality" in Mortal Kombat II on her 2014 list of top seven nude code rumors, Ashley Reed of GamesRadar said it was "the talk of middle school hallways and sleepovers everywhere" and FHM opined that this actually non-existent prospect of Mileena taking off her clothes was one of the things that helped sell the game.
Mileena was one of the characters cited by Guy Aoki as allegedly perpetuating existing stereotypes of Asians as martial arts experts. In the 1996 moral panic themed book Interacting With Video, which condemned violence of video games as supposedly affecting social behaviour and causing real-life violence, Patricia Marks Greenfield and Rodney R. Cocking used the "two Asian twin sisters, Mileena and Kitana," as an example of a "highly eroticized dragon lady" trope, with Mileena's "Man-Eater" Fatality described as "a high powered kiss that evokes vagina dentata." The authors wrote that despite the inclusion of "characters of color" such as the two and Jax, "we cannot assume that this greater diversity represents a more progressive identity politics, for one could argue that it merely increases the racist and sexist potential of individual fights." Critical studies professor Marsha Kinder similarly accused Mortal Kombat II of "allowing you to have a misogynistic aspect of combat," alleging that "some of the most violent possibilities are against women," whose own "fatality moves are highly eroticised." Kinder singled out Mileena to describe how the character can kill her opponent "by sucking him in and spitting out his bones. Talk about Spider Woman!"
Joystiq's Alexander Sliwinski wrote about Mileena that instead of "focusing on her fighting style, or assets," they simply could not "get past one thing: how does she pronounce the letter P without touching her lips together?" In 2008, Destructoid's Brad Nicholson called her "the worst character ever created in a fighting game," without elaborating. In 2010, Game Informer included her among the palette swap characters not wanted by them in the future Mortal Kombat games, later describing her in the 2011 game as being "as creepy as ever." When American radio host Howard Stern mocked a Mortal Kombat fan who admitted that he masturbates to Mileena, Matt Helgeson of Game Informer called the latter "insane" as "onanism and Mileena should not mix." Mike Harradence of PlayStation Universe wrote that "as for the date theme [in the reboot game's trailer], frankly we can’t really see the appeal – she’s not a patch on Sheeva, after all." GameDaily praised the "superb fashion sense" of Soulcalibur 's Taki by contrasting her with Mileena. Writing about "outdated and cringe-worthy representations of women in video games" in 2012, MMGN's Nathan Misa stated: "Look, I like Lara Croft's booty shorts or Mileena's two...deadly sais as much as every other guy, but why not have more than virtual polygons to ogle at?" Discussing what she perceived as video games' popular misconceptions about women, Sarah Ditum wrote in PlayStation Official Magazine that same year: "Relax—we don’t really bite. Well, not unless we have a face full of hell fangs at the top of an impossibly hot bod. Hellooo, Mileena."
- The name of Mileena is variably pronounced as either "Ma-lee-na" (Mortal Kombat II to Mortal Kombat Trilogy) or // (later games) through the series. Her name appears to be a form of East European first name Milena, which is derived from a Slavic word that means "gracious" in English.
- Another, optional secret stage encounter against Mileena ends with her tossing Kitana into a portal and then following after her, where they presumably fought to the death. In the game, Mileena shares her Fatality with Jade, while Liu Kang uncanonically kills Jade by stabbing her in the eyes with Mileena's sai.
- A special Mortal Kombat issue of Brazilian magazine SuperGamePower strangely described Mileena's role in UMK3 as seeking revenge against Kahn for her death, from which she had returned as a spirit controlling Scorpion's body.
- In Mileena's uncanonical ending in Armageddon, she defeats Blaze, causing herself and Kitana to fuse together momentarily. When separated, Mileena finds that she has taken Kitana's facial features, while Kitana has been cursed with Mileena's Tarkatan jaw visage. Mileena is now able to take her "rightful" place as princess of Edenia and rules in Kitana's place, locking her sister away in the Edenian palace dungeon, where she eventually goes insane.
- Contrary to a popular opinion (and many appearances in pop culture) the traditional sai is a blunt, round-pointed melee weapon that was not designed for neither stabbing or cutting, and which thus can be used well for non-lethal combat. Mileena's sai are nevertheless clearly dull-pointed in much of the non-gameplay parts of Deception, including the intro sequence and the VS screen picture.
- Another publicly released early concept art, created for Shaolin Monks, had Mileena wear the outfit that appears to be combining her old costumes from Mortal Kombat II and Mortal Kombat Gold. An early concept art of Mileena for the 2011 game, which was "directed by the team" to look what she did in MKII, was also published by character design artist Vincent Proce in 2011.
- Players who unlock the Flesh Pit costume receive the achievement / trophy called "Best... Alternate... EVER!" Mileena (or possibly some earlier clone) was also shown as having Tarkatan blades on her arms in Mileena's promotional trailer for the same game.
- Mileena's Kombat Karting special weapon is a brief speed boost that is very useful to save her from a Fatality in a death trap or at the finish line, and makes her a "great character" to use in the arena Speedster. When playing offline, it also allows the player to "steal first place right at the finish line before the AI gets its own miraculous speed boost".
- In which Mileena-inspired character Keiko is shown defeating and killing Raiden-like Ronan in what then turns out to be a match in an arcade game called "Mortal Conflict" (a pun on Mortal Kombat), as played and commented on by Roxy (Freefall) and Grunge, two of the comic's main characters. The issue was written by Brandon Choi and drawn by J. Scott Campbell.
- Zamiar, who has portrayed Mileena in Mortal Kombat II, plays a black-and-purple outfit clad, sai-wielding, masked, silent character identified only as "Female Ninja" in the film's credits. Her character appears briefly in a few scenes, appearing to attack Ho-Sung Pak's (Liu Kang in the original Mortal Kombat and Mortal Kombat II) character Lang before mysteriously disappearing.
- In a short spoof scene parody-referencing the Mortal Kombat games, guest character Janet dressed up as Mileena and was killed Fatality-style by Cleveland Brown, who was dressed as Scorpion. The scene appears at around the 7 minute mark.
- "Mileena". Uk.ign.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "Mortal Kombat: Shaolin Monks - Credits". Allgame.com. 2010-10-03. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "Characters". Atomhawk.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Mortal Kombat X Mileena alternate costume and mouth sketches - Mortal Kombat Online, April 15, 2015. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
- "Credits" (PDF). Karenstrassman.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Midway (October 11, 2006). "Mortal Kombat: Armageddon Premium Edition". Midway. Level/area: "The History of Fatalities" commentary.
- "Official Xbox Magazine Issue 86". Archive.org. Retrieved 2014-05-04.
- "Geode Press LLC - Continued Interview with Lorrisa Julianus AKA Zenobia". Geodepress.com. 2013-01-08. Retrieved 2015-04-06.
- Mark Ryan Sallee, Mortal Kombat: Deception - xbox - Walkthrough and Guide - p. 15, GameSpy, January 8, 2004.
- Bryan Dawson, Mortal Kombat: Armageddon (Prima Official Game Guide), Prima Games 2006 (p. 221–224).
- "Warriors:Mileena". Replay.waybackmachine.org. Retrieved 2013-11-15.
- Bryan Dawson, Mortal Kombat: Armageddon (Prima Official Game Guide), Prima Games 2006 (p.101).
- Mortal Kombat Warehouse: Mortal Kombat II: Mileena, Mortal Kombat Online network.
- Mortal Kombat II Game Gear manual (p. 20).
- Ultimate Mortal Kombat 3 SNES manual (p. 25).
- Mortal Kombat Trilogy PlayStation manual, p.19.
- "Mortal Kombat: Shaolin Monks Cheats". GameSpot. 2005-09-16. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "Ultimate Mortal Kombat 3 - Bios". Mksecrets.net. 2009-10-22. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Baby Betinho (Roberto Carnicelli) (December 1996). "Mortal Guide". SuperGamePower, p. 18. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- Bryan Dawson, Mortal Kombat: Armageddon (Prima Official Game Guide), Prima Games 2006 (p. 118).
- Mark Ryan Sallee, Mortal Kombat: Deception - xbox - Walkthrough and Guide - p. 25, GameSpy, January 8, 2004.
- Midway Games (2006). "Mortal Kombat: Armageddon". Level/area: Opening sequence.
- "Mortal Kombat: Armageddon: Mileena". Mortalkombatwarehouse.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Richard Mitchell, Video: Mileena gets stab-happy in Mortal Kombat, Joystiq, January 15, 2011.
- Tara Babcock (2008-08-02). "Tara's G-Spot - Games that hit the spot, according to Tara Babcock - 20 Hottest Video Game Babes by Tara Babcock". www.impulsegamer.com. Retrieved 2011-12-15.
- Mortal Kombat Kitana's Ending in High Definition, G4tv.com, April 25, 2011 ("Kitana had ended Shao Kahn's life for his betrayal. She had discovered the truth about Mileena...but rather than slay her as well, she took pity on her half-sister. She offered Mileena a home within the Edenian aristocracy. She was, after all, of royal blood. Mileena cautiously accepted her sister's invitation. With Mileena and Jade at her side, Kitana formed a fighting force dedicated to bringing justice to the realms. Never again would a warlord arise to create such terror.").
- Maiberg, Emanuel (2015-03-11). "New Mortal Kombat X Images Confirm Mileena and Johnny Cage". GameSpot.com. Retrieved 2015-04-06.
- Kitsune, Kitana's Origin - ClassicMK (based on a series posts by John Tobias (therealsaibot) on Twitter).
- "Immortal Kombat", The One Amiga 75 (December 1994), pp. 31–33.
- Kitana's Kombat Kard video for Mortal Kombat: Deception.
- "A Mortal Kombat Konversation with NetherRealm Studios". Psu.com. 2011-04-19. Retrieved 2015-04-06.
- "Mortal Kombat: Deception comic, p. 9". W.A.M. Entertainment. October 2004. Retrieved 2013-11-15.
- GamesRadar UK, Gaming's most repellent anti-babes, GamesRadar, July 10, 2008.
- The Evolution of Mortal Kombat Fatalities, IGN, April 7, 2011.
- Mileena's Kombat Kard video for Mortal Kombat: Deception.
- "Get Your Kicks With These", Albany Times Union, October 4, 1995.
- Mortal Kombat Mileena Examined, GameTrailers, January 20, 2011.
- Michael McWhertor, Mortal Kombat Adds Klassic Costumes, Klassic Fatalities and Skarlet With Its First DLK, Kotaku, May 26, 2011.
- GameStop Advertisement Shows Classic Scorpion and Mileena Outfits, Shoryuken, 03-22-2011.
- MILEENA CONCEPTS (Koffin ET 141 Jade Koins). Mortal Kombat: Deception, Midway Games 2004.
- "''MKSM'' concept art in question". Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "Vincent Proce art blog: MK9 Concepts & MK Redesigns". Vincentproceart.blogspot.com. 2011-08-25. Retrieved 2014-05-04.
- Benedykt Dziubałtowski, Interview with Katalin Ogren - an actress played a character of Kitana, Mileena and Jade in "Mortal Kombat 2", PPA.pl, 09.11.2012.
- Video Games The Ultimate Gaming Magazine 75 (April 1995) p. 49.
- Hamza CTZ Aziz, The new winner for skimpiest 'outfit' in a videogame ever, Destructoid, 4.22.2011.
- "Mortal Kombat - Best...Alternate...Ever! Achievement". Xbox360achievements.org. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "Mortal Kombat - Best...Alternate...Ever! Trophy". Ps3trophies.org. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "Twitter / noobde: RT @FlayGunnar Did Carlos Pesina". Twitter.com. Retrieved 2014-05-04.
- "Mortal Kombat II Tournament - GamePro rankings analysis". Gaminginsurrection.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "Mortal Kombat II Pro--Strategy Guide", GamePro 59 (June 1994), p. 82–83.
- Amiga Format 67 (January 1995), p. 92.
- "Sega Saturn Features: Mortal Kombat II". Sega Visions 21 (October/November 1994), p. 25.
- "Player's Guide: Mortal Kombat II". CU Amiga Magazine, February 1995, p. 62.
- EGM's Complete Guide to Mortal Kombat II (supplement to Electronic Gaming Monthly).
- "Tougher than the best: Mortal Kombat II", Computer + Video Games 154 (September 1994), p. 48–51.
- "Ultimate Mortal Kombat Cheats, Ultimate Mortal Kombat Walkthrough". Gamespot.com. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
- Bryan Dawson, Mortal Kombat: Armageddon (Prima Official Game Guide), Prima Games 2006 (pp. 38&80).
- Alex Vo, Mortal Kombat: Armageddon - xbox - Walkthrough and Guide - Page 5, GameSpy, January 7, 2006.
- Scalza, John (2003-04-01). "April Fool's Day Scams". Gaming Target. Retrieved 2010-10-23.
- Jason Wilson, Adam Hernandez, Mortal Kombat: Prima Official Game Guide, Prima Games 2011 (p. 7).
- "Full Coverage: Ultimate Mortal Kombat 3". Nintendo Power 91 (December 1996), p. 71.
- "Showcases: Mortal Kombat 3". Official Sega Saturn Magazine 6 (April 1996), p. 48.
- Total 64 2/97 (p. 59).
- Jason Wilson, Adam Hernandez, Mortal Kombat: Prima Official Game Guide, Prima Games 2011 (p. 157).
- Ninja Chicks are So Freakin' Hot, UGO.com, January 5, 2011.
- Current Biography Yearbook 2008, H. W. Wilson Co., 2008 (p.217).
- "Dana Hee in Mortal Kombat: Annhilation". Ugo.com. 2010-09-14. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
- Black Belt Vol. 36, No. 1 (January 1998), p.85.
- Mortal Kombat II - Cory Doctorow, SciFi Entertainment, 11/97; reprinted on craphound.com.
- Mileena Unmasked - The Kombat Pavilion. Retrieved December 15, 2013.
- "Episodes:Shadow of a Doubt". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2008-09-14. Retrieved 2013-11-15.
- Luke Plunkett, That Incredible Mortal Kombat Trailer Is Now A Series, Kotaku, January 14, 2011.
- Ian Fisher, Find Out Who's Playing Mileena In The Mortal Kombat Web Series, Shogun Gamer, 03/29/2011.
- "Mortal Kombat: Legacy: Ep. 4 - Kitana & Mileena (Part 1)". Youtube.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "Mortal Kombat: Legacy - Ep. 5 - Kitana & Mileena (Part 2)". Youtube.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Mortal Kombat: Legacy Episode 4 Now Online, Screen Rant, May 3, 2011.
- Steve Pond at TheWrap, 'Mortal Kombat' Scores in Writers Guild's New Media and Videogame Nominations, Reuters, January 11, 2012.
- Eric Goldman, Comic-Con: Mortal Kombat Legacy Season 2 is Coming, IGN, July 14, 2012.
- Ian Fisher, Mortal Kombat: Legacy Season 2 Official Cast Announcements/First Set Pic + Comprehensive Cast Roster, Shogun Gamer, 12/03/2012.
- Jolene Tran (@JoleneTran) on Twitter - November 30, 2012. Retrieved February 9, 2015.
- "Michelle Lee Interview (Part 2): Pacific Rim & Mortal Kombat: Legacy 2". YouTube. 2013-09-25. Retrieved 2013-10-15.
- "Get Over Here! Visiting the Set of Mortal Kombat: Legacy II - IGN". Uk.ign.com. 2013-09-25. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Jim McMahon, Comic-Con: Mortal Kombat: Legacy Season 2 and Season 3 Info: Get Ready for Fatalities, IGN, July 19, 2013.
- "Mileena's Lunch - This is Mortal Kombat". YouTube. 2013-09-28. Retrieved 2013-10-15.
- "Lexi Alexander on Twitter". Twitter.com.
- Secret Service Kompendium Wiedzy 1.
- John Tobias, Mortal Kombat II Official Kollector's Edition Comic Book, 1994.
- Charles Marshall (w), Roy Burdine (p), Jack Snider (i). "Mortal Kombat: Goro: Prince of Pain #1" Mortal Kombat (September 1994), Malibu Comics
- Charles Marshall (w), Patrick Rolo (p), Richard Emond, Abraham Madison, Larry Welch (i). "Mortal Kombat: Tournament Edition #1" Mortal Kombat 1 (December 1994), Malibu Comics
- Charles Marshall (w), Greg Horn (p), Larry Welch (i). "Mortal Kombat: Kitana & Mileena" Mortal Kombat 1 (August 1995), Malibu Comics
- Chapter 11, page 3: "an angular, exotic-looking woman with eyes like burning coals, and a body as tautly well-conditioned as her smile was vicious".
- Walker, Ian (January 26, 2015). "Frost, Reptile, Mileena, Reiko, and Jax Make Appearances in Mortal Kombat X Comic". Shoryuken. Retrieved February 9, 2015.
- Shawn Kittelsen (w), Dexter Soy (p), Oclair Albert (i). "Betrayal in Outworld" Mortal Kombat X (chapter #7) (February 2015), DC Comics
- Thompson, Zac (February 13, 2015). "Exclusive Comic Preview: Mortal Kombat X". Bloody-Disgusting.com. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
- "Mortal Kombat X #7 Review: War Comes To Outworld". Tech Times.
- Benjamin Golze, BloodRayne, others confirmed for Playboy spread, GameSpot, August 27, 2004.
- "Sexy Mileena". Ugo.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "Mortal Kombat Deception Krypt Guide". Mortalkombat.net. 1996-10-31. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Justin Murray (2012-04-30). "Mileena Playboy Pinup". Justinsaneart.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Midway Announces Limited Edition Mortal Kombat: Deception; Bonus Features to Include Exclusive Character Videos, Limited Trading Cards and More., Business Wire, August 3, 2004.
- Simon Carless, IGN's Hotlist Is Hot, Also Hot, Additionally Hot, GameSetWatch, June 2, 2006.
- Mortal Kombat Video Game, Sub-Zero Vs Mileena Demo Gameplay HD, GameTrailers.com, 03/09/2011.
- Mortal Kombat "A Night Out With Mileena" Trailer, G4tv.com, January 7, 2011.
- "Biographies". Web.archive.org. 2012-03-23. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
- Who Is The Hot Girl In Mortal Kombat’s ‘Mileena’ Commercial?, GyuySpeed, April 30, 2012.
- Nikole Zivalich, Mortal Kombat Sexy Cosplay -- Sonya Blade, Kitana And Mileena, G4tv.com, April 8, 2011.
- Kuchnio, Jakub (April 12, 2011). "Sexy models promote Mortal Kombat" (in Polish). Gamestar.pl. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- The Ultimate Mortal Kombat Experience: Live-Action Jade & Skarlet Featured in Russian Vita Advertising, Mortal Kombat Online, 05/18/2012.
- Ben Gilbert, Mortal Kombat Vita ad brings Mileena to the middle of the desert, leaves her there, Joystiq, April 19th 2012.
- Eric L. Patterson, Full Length Live-Action Mileena vs. Kitana Mortal Kombat Vita Video, EGMNOW, April 19, 2012.
- "Jo Garcia in Mortal Kombat vs. UFC Octagon Girl Brittney Palmer (Video) - Sexy Photo Gallery". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2011-04-22. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
- Anthony Severino, Flawless Playboy Vixens Fight For Mortal Kombat Victory, Game Revolution, April 19, 2011.
- Ruptura 1, page 9.
- Jordan Mallory, Mortal Kombat Vita also includes exclusive klassic kostumes for female ninjas, Joystiq, April 27th 2012.
- TOP Kids 12 (cover).
- Juan Quaglia (2013-05-31). "Muñecos de Mortal Kombat Top Kids | Guía del coleccionista". Juguetesdecoleccion.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Captain Coder. "Mileena Action Figure Gallery". Figurerealm.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- ""Mileena's Theme" by Tokimonsta". Itunes.apple.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Sophia Tong, Sound Byte: Mortal Kombat - Songs Inspired by The Warriors, GameSpot, April 18, 2011.
- Mileena 2.5" x 3.5" Magnet - Ata-Boy Wholesale, 2011. Retrieved 2014-02-26
- "Interview with Mortal Kombat Online". Sycocollectibles.com. 2011-09-26. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Luke Plunkett, This Mortal Kombat Statue Isn’t Afraid to Show a Little Skin, Kotaku, February 1, 2012.
- "Mileena Polystone Statue". Sycocollectibles.com. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
- "Pop Culture Shock Collectibles - MORTAL KOMBAT ‘MILEENA’ 1:4 STATUE -". Pop Culture Shock Collectibles.
- "Epic Battles Card List". Viciousmk.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Charlie Jane Anders, This Year’s Sluttiest and Weirdest Store-Bought Halloween Costumes, io9, October 24, 2011.
- Justin Amirikhani, 15 Last-Minute Video Game Game Costumes That Actually Look Cool, Complex.com, October 23, 2012.
- Brian Altano, The Most Ridiculous, Sexy Video Game Costumes of 2012, October 22, 2012.
- Phil Owen, Mortal Kombat: The Very Best/Worst Jade, Mileena & Kitana Cosplay (PICS), GameFront, April 18, 2011.
- "Crossroads residents can dress as favorite character for Victoria Comic Con". Victoria Advocate. Retrieved 2014-01-10.
- "20 Pics of Incredible Fighting Game Cosplay | Page 2". HEAVY. 2014-01-15. Retrieved 2014-02-05.
- Gen13 Vol 2, #1 ("Among Friends and Enemies").
- "Reviews - Book Of Swords". Fareastfilms.com. 2010-08-22. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Nando Rohner, Alessandro Bertolotti. Under the Skin of Rock ́n ́ Roll (p.229).
- "INKED Girls of Rock". Scribd.com. 2011-05-27. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "Chibi". Myspace.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "A Candid Interview with The Twisted Twins!". bloody-mess.net. January 10, 2013. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Fantastic Fest Fighting Fail, American Mary and Mumblecore - YouTube, October 11, 2012. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Aly Weisman (2013-07-11). "Adrianne Curry's Revealing Comic-Con Costumes". Business Insider. Retrieved 2013-11-15.
- "Adrianne Curry And Pal Alicia Marie Dress Up As Sexy 'Mortal Kombat' Characters For Comic-Con". Starpulse.com. Retrieved 2013-07-22.
- Chelsea White. "Adrianne Curry once again ignites every geek's fire in a barely there Mortal Kombat costume at Comic-Con 2013 | Mail Online". Dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-07-22.
- "Ed Boon on Twitter". Twitter.com.
- "Twitter / NetherRealm: #MKInjusticeHalloween RT". Twitter.com. 2013-11-03. Retrieved 2014-05-13.
- The Miami Herald, August 26, 1994.
- Austin American-Statesman, September 8, 1994.
- "Game Reviews: Mortal Kombat II" (SNES). Nintendo Power 64 (September 1994), p.15.
- Richard George, Mortal Kombat II - #25 Top 100 SNES Games, IGN, 2011.
- Kano Vs. Sonya Blade, UGO, February 23, 2012.
- "Top 11 Mortal Kombat Characters". Web.archive.org. 2009-01-23. Archived from the original on 2009-01-23. Retrieved 2013-11-15.
- Jasper, Gavin (January 30, 2015). "Mortal Kombat: Ranking All the Characters". Den of Geek. Retrieved February 9, 2015.
- Anurag Ghosh and Bill Fulks, Ten Awesome Mortal Kombat Characters: Mileena, Bright Hub, October 27, 2011.
- Uncle Creepy, Mortal Kombat - A Toothy Look at Mileena, Dread Central, January 16th, 2011.
- Bridgman, Andrew. "Toplist Results: The 20 Greatest Mortal Kombat Kharacters of All-Time". Dorkly. Retrieved 2013-12-19.
- The Supreme Mortal Kombat Champion - Mortal Kombat Online, May 12, 2012. Retrieved December 19, 2013.
- Tournament 2013: Who is the Supreme Mortal Kombat Champion? - Mortal Kombat Online, May 29, 2013. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
- Who's Next? Supreme Mortal Kombat Champion Tournament 2014! - Mortal Kombat Online, May 31, 2014. Retrieved July 25, 2014.
- Larry Hester, The 50 Hottest Women In Video Games, Complex.com, November 8, 2010 (re-uploaded on June 27, 2012).
- Larry Hester, The 50 Hottest Video Game Characters, Complex.com, June 27, 2012.
- Aubrey Sitterson, Fighting Games' Hottest Women - Mileena, UGO.com, January 14, 2011.
- Ross Lincoln (May 5, 2011). "The Greatest Boobs In Video Game History (Gallery)". GameFront.
- Drea Avellan, The 20 Best Pairs Of Boobies In Video Games, Complex.com, June 20, 2012.
- Kristie Bertucci, 20 hottest female video game characters (list), Gadget Review, 5 July 2012.
- CU Amiga 12/94 (p.41).
- Mikel Reparaz, The Top 7... Girl-on-girl kisses, GamesRadar, November 28, 2006.
- "The Retrobates: Best Mortal Kombat Fatality" in Retro Gamer 40.
- Ryan Aston, 8 Mortal Kombat Characters That Are Goofy Even by Mortal Kombat Standards, Topless Robot, 14 April 2011.
- Ben Kendrick, 10 Most Awesome Mortal Kombat Characters, Game Rant, April 18, 2011.
- "Top 10 Fatalities Of Mortal Kombat 9 (2011)". Game Rant. Retrieved 2011-12-21.
- ScrewAttack, The Worst EVER: Sexy Chick, The Escapist, 19 June 2013.
- "8. Bite Your Head Off — The Best "Mortal Kombat" Finishing Moves in Video Game History". Complex. 2013-10-01. Retrieved 2014-01-14.
- "10 Most Sexually Charged Women in Gaming History » Page 8 of 11". Whatculture.com. 2012-10-25. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
- G MAG, page 35.
- "Game Reviews: Mortal Kombat II" (Game Boy). Nintendo Power 65 (October 1994), p. 92.
- Gelo Gonzales, The bad girls of videogame land, FHM, September 11, 2009.
- Bad Girls Club: The 25 Most Diabolical Video Game She-Villains, Complex.com, June 30, 2011.
- "Mileena – Mortal Kombat - 10 najseksowniejszych negatywnych bohaterek" (in Polish). Gry.wp.pl. Retrieved 2014-05-13.
- Gameranx Staff, Top 11 Hottest Female Villains: #2 Mileena, Gameranx, 13th September 2013.
- Hanuman Welch, The Most Brutal Fighters In "Mortal Kombat", Complex.com, July 21, 2013.
- Huber, Travis (January 10, 2014). "Top 10 Hottest Female Villains in Gaming". Cheat Code Central. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
- Huber, Travis (May 7, 2014). "10 Old School Hotties That Still Got It". Cheat Code Central. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- "Top 10 – Kunoichis (Ninjas Femininas) dos Games « GameHall Network" (in Portuguese). Gamehall.uol.com.br. Retrieved 2014-04-12.
- Jason Lomberg, Mortal Kombat II warriors: Where are they now?, VentureBeat, May 13, 2012.
- Doug Gross, most controversial violent video games, CNN, August 26, 2013.
- "Top 10 Best Mortal Kombat Fatalities - Page 2". Game Rant. 2011-04-19. Retrieved 2011-12-21.
- The X360 Magazine Team (2011-09-19). "10 Of The Best…Notorious Videogame Crimes". X360magazine.com. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
- Lyon, Carl (September 25, 2011). "Mortal Kombat vs. Tommy Wiseau?". Fearnet.com. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- Grant Howitt, Dating Videogame Girls: Part Two, FHM, 18 July 2011.
- GamesMaster (2011-04-12). "Mortal Kombat: A successful return to its classic roots? - CVG". Computerandvideogames.com. Retrieved 2014-05-21.
- Tom Pakinkis CVG UK (2011-01-10). "Mortal Kombat Mileena trailer talks first dates - CVG". Computerandvideogames.com. Retrieved 2014-05-21.
- Scott Collura, Top 50 Chicks Behaving Badly: Round 1, IGN, 2008-05-31.
- Chris Holt, Scalia clearly doesn’t play Mortal Kombat, read Dante, GamePro, June 27, 2011.
- Aaron Koehn, Palette Swapping: 17 Games that Did it Right, GamePro, January 13, 2009.
- ScrewAttack, Top 10 Ugly Chicks in Games, GameTrailers, August 21, 2009.
- "Mileena (Mortal Kombat) - Bad Date - Games". Virginmedia.com. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
- Nick Chester, Mileena looks for new playmate in new Mortal Kombat vid, Destructoid, 01.21.2011.
- Jack DeVries, Mortal Kombat PS Vita review, GamesRadar, May 1, 2012.
- "The 11 Ugliest Video Game Characters". Arcadesushi.com. 2013-06-28. Retrieved 2014-01-14.
- Retropolis 27, page 45.
- Matt Bradford, Gaming's most ridiculous alternate fighting costumes: The weird, wacky, and wtf?! of fighting game wardrobes, GamesRadar, December 4, 2012.
- Jack DeVries, 2011's Worst Dressed Video Game Characters, IGN, December 29, 2011.
- The Most Stylin' Alternate Costumes, UGO.com, February 27, 2011.
- "Video game nude codes (that people thought worked)". GamesRadar. 2014-05-09. Retrieved 2014-05-13.
- FHM (Spain) 07/2014.
- "Do Fighting Video Games Prolong Stereotypes of Asian Americans?", AsianWeek, September 23, 1994.
- Patricia Marks Greenfield, Rodney R. Cocking, Interacting With Video, Greenwood Publishing Group 1996 (p.34).
- "Women, of a sort, enter Mortal Kombat", Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, May 29, 1995.
- Alexander Sliwinski, Video: Mortal Kombat's Mileena pops Ps without lips, Joystiq, January 21, 2011.
- Brad Nicholson, Fatality: Mortal Kombat II disappears from PSN, Destructoid, 10.19.2008.
- Dan Ryckert, Who We Want (And Don’t Want) In The New Mortal Kombat, Game Informer, June 21, 2010.
- Jeff Cork, Mileena Is As Creepy As Ever In New Trailer, Game Informer, January 21, 2011.
- Matt Helgeson, Howard Stern Mocks Video Game Convention Attendees, Game Informer, May 12, 2011.
- Mike Harradence, New Mortal Kombat trailer puts Mileena in the spotlight, PSU.com, January 10, 2011.
- Babe of the Week: Taki | Namco's demon huntress demands your attention, GameDaily, October 19, 2007.
- Nathan Misa, The 5 Most Hottest and Modest Female Protagonists in Gaming, MMGN, 12/07/2012.
- Sarahditum, 8 things games don’t understand about girls, PlayStation Official Magazine, September 25, 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mileena.|