Portrait of Franklin, circa 1940s
|Born||Stella Maria Sarah Miles Franklin
14 October 1879
Talbingo, New South Wales
|Died||19 September 1954 ( aged 74 )
Drummoyne, New South Wales
|Cause of death||Coronary occlusion|
|Other names||Brent of Bin Bin, An Old Bachelor, Vernacular, Ogniblat, Mr and Mrs Ogniblat L'Artsau|
Stella Maria Sarah Miles Franklin, known as Miles Franklin (14 October 1879 – 19 September 1954) was an Australian writer and feminist who is best known for her novel My Brilliant Career, published in 1901. While she wrote throughout her life, her other major literary success, All That Swagger, was not published until 1936.
She was committed to the development of a uniquely Australian form of literature, and she actively pursued this goal by supporting writers, literary journals, and writers' organisations. She has had a long-lasting impact on Australian literary life through her endowment of a major literary award known as the Miles Franklin Award.
Life and career
Franklin was born at Talbingo, New South Wales, and grew up in the Brindabella Valley on a property called Brindabella Station. She was the eldest child of Australian-born parents, John Maurice Franklin and Susannah Margaret Eleanor Franklin, née Lampe, who was the great-granddaughter of Edward Miles (or Moyle) who had arrived with the First Fleet in the Scarborough with a seven years sentence for theft. Her family was a member of the squattocracy. She was educated at home until 1889 when she attended Thornford Public During this period she was encouraged in her writing by her teacher, Mary Gillespie (1856-1938) and Tom Hebblewhite (1857-1923) editor of the local Goulburn newspaper.
Her best known novel, My Brilliant Career, tells the story of an irrepressible teenage feminist growing to womanhood in rural New South Wales. This heroine, Sybylla Melvyn, is one of the most endearing characters in Australian literature and obviously has much in common with Franklin herself, who wrote the novel while she was still a teenager. It was published in 1901 with the support of Australian writer, Henry Lawson. After its publication, Franklin tried a career in nursing, and then as a housemaid in Sydney and Melbourne. Whilst doing this she contributed pieces to The Daily Telegraph and The Sydney Morning Herald under the pseudonyms "An Old Bachelor" and "Vernacular." During this period she wrote My Career Goes Bung in which Sybylla encounters the Sydney literary set. The book proved too hot to publish and did not become available to the public until 1946.
In the USA and England
In 1906, Franklin moved to the US and undertook secretarial work for Alice Henry, another Australian, at the National Women's Trade Union League in Chicago, and co-edited the league's magazine, Life and Labor. Her years in the US are reflected in On Dearborn Street (not published until 1981), a love story that uses American slang in a manner not dissimilar to the early work of Dashiell Hammett. Also while in America she wrote Some Everyday Folk and Dawn (1909), the story of a small-town Australian family, which uses purple prose for deliberate comic effect. She suffered regular bouts of ill health and entered a sanatorium for a period in 1912 In 1915, she travelled to England and worked as a cook and earned some money from journalism. In March 1917 Franklin volunteered for war work in the Ostrovo Unit of the Scottish Women's Hospitals during the Serbian campaigns of 1917–18. She served as a cook in a 200 bed tent hospital attached to the Serbian army near Lake Ostrovo in Macedonia Greece from July 1917 to February 1918. From 1919 to 1926 Franklin worked as Secretary with the National Housing and Town Planning Association in London. She organised a women's international housing convention in 1924. Her life in England in the 1920s gave rise to Bring the Monkey (1933), a spoof (but with dark undertones) on the English country house mystery novel. Unfortunately Franklin had no understanding of the genre and the book was a literary and commercial failure.
Return to Australia
Franklin resettled in Australia in 1932 after the death of her father in 1931. During that decade she wrote several historical novels of the Australian bush. Although most of these were published under the pseudonym "Brent of Bin Bin," her masterpiece All That Swagger (1936) – a family chronicle novel packed with memorable characters – was published under her own name. New South Wales State Librarian, Dagmar Schmidmaier, said that "Miles increasingly feared that nothing she wrote matched the success of My Brilliant Career and resorted to writing under different names, including the bizarre pseudonym Brent of Bin Bin, to protect herself from poor reviews."
Throughout her life, Franklin actively supported literature in Australia. She joined the Fellowship of Australian Writers in 1933 and the Sydney P.E.N. Club in 1935. She encouraged young writers such as Jean Devanny, Sumner Locke Elliott and Ric Throssell and she supported the new literary journals, Meanjin and Southerly. Miles entertained literary figures at her home in Carlton, NSW. An autograph book known as Miles Franklin's Waratah Book held by the State Library of NSW was used for autographs and inscriptions. Guests were encouraged to drink tea from the Waratah Cup  and to write in the Waratah Book. 
Miles Franklin engaged in a number of literary collaborations throughout her life. In addition to co-editing the journal Life and Labor with Alice Henry in the US, she also wrote Pioneers on Parade in collaboration Dymphna Cusack and Joseph Furphy (1944) "in painful collaboration with Kate Baker". Previously, in 1939, she and Baker had won the Prior Memorial prize for an essay on Furphy.
Dever writes that the letters between Dymphna Cusack and Miles Franklin that are published in Yarn Spinners "provide a see-sawing commentary on the delicate art of literary collaboration".
While Miles Franklin had many suitors, she never married. She died on 19 September 1954, aged 74 and her ashes were scattered in Jounama Creek, Talbingo close to where she was born.
The Canberra suburb of Franklin and the nearby primary school Miles Franklin Primary School are named in her honour. The school holds an annual writing competition in her memory. During her lifetime Miles Franklin donated several items to the Mitchell Library. Manuscript material was presented over the period 1937-1942. The various drafts of "Pioneers on Parade" were presented in 1940. She bequeathed her printed books collection, correspondence and notes as well as the poems of Mary Fullerton
A revival of interest in Franklin occurred in the wake of the Australian New Wave film My Brilliant Career (1979), which won several international awards. This film has resulted in students studying the author and film about its feminist messages. Significant readership for Franklin's other novels remains restricted to Australia.
- 1936: S. H. Prior Memorial Prize awarded by The Bulletin for All that Swagger
- 1939: S. H. Prior Memorial Prize for Joseph Furphy: The Legend of a Man and His Book
- My Brilliant Career (1901)
- Some Everyday Folk and Dawn (1909)
- Old Blastus of Bandicoot (1931)
- Bring the Monkey (1933)
- All That Swagger (1936)
- Pioneers on Parade (1939) - with Dymphna Cusack
- My Career Goes Bung (1946)
- On Dearborn Street (1981)
Under the pseudonym of "Brent of Bin Bin"
- Up the Country (1928)
- Ten Creeks Run (1930)
- Back to Bool Bool (1931)
- Prelude to Waking (1950)
- Cockatoos (1955)
- Gentleman at Gyang Gyang (1956)
- Joseph Furphy: The Legend of a Man and His Book (1944)
- Laughter, Not for a Cage (1956)
- Childhood at Brindabella (1963)
- Works by Miles Franklin at Project Gutenberg
- Works by Miles Franklin at Project Gutenberg Australia
- Great Rural Speeches: Miles Franklin
- Miles Franklin: A Brilliant Career? : State Library of New South Wales exhibition guide
-  Interview with biographer Jill Roe, author of Stella Miles Franklin: A Biography, with Ramona Koval, The Book Show, ABC Radio National, 20/11/08.
- MP3 audiobook of My Brilliant Career from LibriVox
- Barnard, Marjorie (1967) Miles Franklin: The Story of a Famous Australian
- Brunton, Paul (ed) (2004) The diaries of Miles Franklin, Allen and Unwin
- Coleman, Verna (1981) "Her Unknown (Brilliant) Career: Miles Franklin in America" Angus and Robertson
- Martin, Sylvia (2001) Passionate Friends: Mary Fullerton, Mabel Singleton, Miles Franklin, Only Women Press
- North, Marilla (ed) (2001) Yarn Spinners: A Story in Letters - Dymphna Cusack, Florence James, Miles Franklin, University of Queensland Press
- Roe, Jill (ed) (1993) Congenials: Miles Franklin and Friends in Letters, Vol. 1 & 2, Angus and Robertson
- "Franklin, Stella Maria Sarah Miles". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 2013-02-14.
- State Library of New South Wales
- "Franklin, Stella Maria Sarah Miles". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- "Franklin, Stella Maria Sarah Miles". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
- "Miles Franklin a brilliant career". Retrieved 14 February 2013.
- Roe (1981)
- "Miles Franklin a brillant career". Retrieved 14 February 2013.
- Miles Franklin: Her Brilliant Yet Troubled Life Revealed
- "Miles Franklin's waratah cup and saucer (catalogue entry)". State Library of NSW. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- "Miles Franklin - The Book of the Waratah Cup, 1902-1908, 1944-1954 (catalogue entry)". State Library of NSW.
- Roe (2004)
- Spender (1988) p.219
- Dever (2001?)
- Guide to the papers and books of Miles Franklin in the Mitchell Library of NSW. Sydney: Library Council of NSW. 1980. pp. ii.
- Australian Women Biographical Entry Franklin, Stella Maria ( Marian) Sarah Miles (1879 - 1954) Accessed: 2007-09-01
- Dever, Maryanne (2001?) The Complexities of Female Friendship: Review of "Yarn Spinners' and "Passionate Friends" Accessed: 2007-09-01
- Miles Franklin: Her Brilliant Yet Troubled Life Revealed (Media Release for State Library of New South Wales exhibition, Miles Franklin: A brilliant career?), 26 February 2004 Accessed: 2007-09-01
- Roe, J. I. (1981) "Franklin, Stella Maria Sarah Miles (1879 - 1954)" in Australian Dictionary of Biography online Accessed: 2007-09-01
- Roe, Jill (2004) "The diaries of Miles Franklin" in theage.com.au, 13 March 2004 Accessed: 2007-09-01
- Spender, Dale (1988) Writing a New World: Two Centuries of Australian Women Writers, London: Pandora
- State Library of New South Wales Australian Feminist Manuscripts: Miles Franklin (1879-1954) Accessed: 2007-09-01