Miles Franklin

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Miles Franklin
Miles franklin.jpg
Portrait of Franklin
Born Stella Maria Sarah Miles Franklin
14 October 1879 (1879-10-14)
Talbingo, New South Wales
Died 19 September 1954 (1954-09-20) (aged 74)
Drummoyne, New South Wales
Cause of death
Coronary occlusion
Other names Brent of Bin Bin, An Old Bachelor, Vernacular, Ogniblat, Mr and Mrs Ogniblat L'Artsau, PINGas
Known for Novelist, Writer, Feminist
Website
http://www.milesfranklin.com.au/

Stella Maria Sarah Miles Franklin, known as Miles Franklin (14 October 1879 – 19 September 1954) was an Australian writer and feminist who is best known for her novel My Brilliant Career, self published in 1901. While she wrote throughout her life, her other major literary success, All That Swagger, was not published until 1936.

She was committed to the development of a uniquely Australian form of literature, and she actively pursued this goal by supporting writers, literary journals, and writers' organisations. She has had a long-lasting impact on Australian literary life through her endowment of a major literary award known as the Miles Franklin Award.

Life and career[edit]

Franklin's parents Suzannah and John Franklin

Franklin was born at Talbingo, New South Wales, and grew up in the Brindabella Valley on a property called Brindabella Station.[1] She was the eldest child of Australian-born parents, John Maurice Franklin and Susannah Margaret Eleanor Franklin, née Lampe,[2] who was the great-granddaughter of Edward Miles (or Moyle) who had arrived with the First Fleet in the Scarborough with a seven years sentence for theft.[3] Her family was a member of the squattocracy. She was educated at home until 1889 when she attended Thornford Public[1] During this period she was encouraged in her writing by her teacher, Mary Gillespie (1856–1938) and Tom Hebblewhite (1857–1923) editor of the local Goulburn newspaper.[4]

Her best known novel, My Brilliant Career, tells the story of an irrepressible teenage girl, Sybylla Melvyn, growing to womanhood in rural New South Wales. It was published in 1901 with the support of Australian writer, Henry Lawson.[5] After its publication, Franklin tried a career in nursing, and then as a housemaid in Sydney and Melbourne. Whilst doing this she contributed pieces to The Daily Telegraph and The Sydney Morning Herald under the pseudonyms "An Old Bachelor" and "Vernacular." During this period she wrote My Career Goes Bung in which Sybylla encounters the Sydney literary set, but it was not released to the public until 1946.

In the USA and England[edit]

Was made staff cook against my will. ... Then Miss Brown made a row with everyone & insisted on being head. I just let 'em muddle along and take no notice as I've had a year's training in London of English ways. Will think my own thoughts and write a book if the plot comes into my head.

Miles Franklin (personal diary), describing her wartime service[6]

In 1906, Franklin moved to the US and undertook secretarial work for Alice Henry, another Australian, at the National Women's Trade Union League in Chicago, and co-edited the league's magazine, Life and Labor. Her years in the US are reflected in On Dearborn Street (not published until 1981), a love story that uses American slang in a manner not dissimilar to the early work of Dashiell Hammett. Also while in America she wrote Some Everyday Folk and Dawn (1909), the story of a small-town Australian family, which uses purple prose for deliberate comic effect. She suffered regular bouts of ill health and entered a sanatorium for a period in 1912[4] In 1915, she travelled to England and worked as a cook and earned some money from journalism.[4] In March 1917 Franklin volunteered for war work in the Ostrovo Unit of the Scottish Women's Hospitals during the Serbian campaigns of 1917–18. She served as a cook in a 200-bed tent hospital attached to the Serbian army near Lake Ostrovo in Macedonia Greece from July 1917 to February 1918.[4] From 1919 to 1926 Franklin worked as Secretary with the National Housing and Town Planning Association in London. She organised a women's international housing convention in 1924.[7] Her life in England in the 1920s gave rise to Bring the Monkey (1933), a satire on the English country house mystery novel. Unfortunately the book was a literary and commercial failure.

Return to Australia[edit]

Franklin resettled in Australia in 1932 after the death of her father in 1931. During that decade she wrote several historical novels of the Australian bush, although most of these were published under the pseudonym "Brent of Bin Bin". New South Wales State Librarian, Dagmar Schmidmaier, said "Miles increasingly feared that nothing she wrote matched the success of My Brilliant Career and resorted to writing under different names, including the bizarre pseudonym Brent of Bin Bin, to protect herself from poor reviews."[8] However, All That Swagger was published under her own name in 1936.

Throughout her life, Franklin actively supported literature in Australia. She joined the Fellowship of Australian Writers in 1933 and the Sydney P.E.N. Club in 1935. She encouraged young writers such as Jean Devanny, Sumner Locke Elliott and Ric Throssell and she supported the new literary journals, Meanjin and Southerly.[5] Miles entertained literary figures at her home in Carlton, NSW. An autograph book known as Miles Franklin's Waratah Book held by the State Library of NSW was used for autographs and inscriptions. Guests were encouraged to drink tea from the Waratah Cup[9] and to write in the Waratah Book.[10]

Miles Franklin's waratah cup and saucer 1904. This cup is part of the collection of the State Library of NSW

In 1937, Franklin declined appointment as an Officer of the Order of the British Empire.[11]

Collaborations[edit]

Miles Franklin engaged in a number of literary collaborations throughout her life. In addition to co-editing the journal Life and Labor with Alice Henry in the US, she also wrote Pioneers on Parade in collaboration Dymphna Cusack[12] and Joseph Furphy (1944) "in painful collaboration with Kate Baker".[5] Previously, in 1939, she and Baker had won the Prior Memorial prize for an essay on Furphy.[5]

Dever writes that the letters between Dymphna Cusack and Miles Franklin that are published in Yarn Spinners "provide a see-sawing commentary on the delicate art of literary collaboration".[13]

While Miles Franklin had many suitors, she never married. She died on 19 September 1954, aged 74 and her ashes were scattered in Jounama Creek, Talbingo close to where she was born.[4]

Legacy[edit]

In her will she made a bequest for her estate to establish an annual literary award known as The Miles Franklin Award. The first winner was Patrick White with Voss in 1957.

The Canberra suburb of Franklin and the nearby primary school Miles Franklin Primary School are named in her honour. The school holds an annual writing competition in her memory. During her lifetime Miles Franklin donated several items to the Mitchell Library. Manuscript material was presented over the period 1937–1942. The various drafts of "Pioneers on Parade" were presented in 1940. She bequeathed her printed books collection, correspondence and notes as well as the poems of Mary Fullerton[14]

A revival of interest in Franklin occurred in the wake of the Australian New Wave film My Brilliant Career (1979), which won several international awards.

In 2014, Google Doodle celebrates her 135th birthday.[15]

Awards[edit]

Selected works[edit]

Novels[edit]

Under the pseudonym of "Brent of Bin Bin"[edit]

  • Up the Country (1928)
  • Ten Creeks Run (1930)
  • Back to Bool Bool (1931)
  • Prelude to Waking (1950)
  • Cockatoos (1955)
  • Gentleman at Gyang Gyang (1956)

Non-fiction[edit]

  • Joseph Furphy: The Legend of a Man and His Book (1944)
  • Laughter, Not for a Cage (1956)
  • Childhood at Brindabella (1963)

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Barnard, Marjorie (1967) Miles Franklin: The Story of a Famous Australian
  • Brunton, Paul (ed) (2004) The diaries of Miles Franklin, Allen and Unwin
  • Coleman, Verna (1981) "Her Unknown (Brilliant) Career: Miles Franklin in America" Angus and Robertson
  • Martin, Sylvia (2001) Passionate Friends: Mary Fullerton, Mabel Singleton, Miles Franklin, Only Women Press
  • North, Marilla (ed) (2001) Yarn Spinners: A Story in Letters – Dymphna Cusack, Florence James, Miles Franklin, University of Queensland Press
  • Roe, Jill (ed) (1993) Congenials: Miles Franklin and Friends in Letters, Vol. 1 & 2, Angus and Robertson

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Franklin, Stella Maria Sarah Miles". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 14 February 2013. 
  2. ^ State Library of New South Wales
  3. ^ "Franklin, Stella Maria Sarah Miles". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d e "Miles Franklin a brilliant career". Retrieved 14 February 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d Roe (1981)
  6. ^ Miles Franklin personal diary, 5 June 1917 – 16 February 1918
  7. ^ "Miles Franklin: A Brilliant Career?". Retrieved 14 February 2013. 
  8. ^ Miles Franklin: Her Brilliant Yet Troubled Life Revealed
  9. ^ "Miles Franklin's waratah cup and saucer (catalogue entry)". State Library of NSW. Retrieved 13 March 2013. 
  10. ^ "Miles Franklin – The Book of the Waratah Cup, 1902–1908, 1944–1954 (catalogue entry)". State Library of NSW. 
  11. ^ Roe (2004)
  12. ^ Spender (1988) p.219
  13. ^ Dever (2001?)
  14. ^ Guide to the papers and books of Miles Franklin in the Mitchell Library of NSW. Sydney: Library Council of NSW. 1980. pp. ii. 
  15. ^ [1]

References[edit]