Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France

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Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France
Militärverwaltung in Belgien und Nordfrankreich
Territory under German military administration

 

1940–1944
Flag Emblem
Capital Brussels
Languages Dutch
French
German
Political structure Military administration
Military Commander
 -  1940 Gerd von Rundstedt
 -  1940–1944 Alexander von Falkenhausen
Administrator
 -  1940–1944 Eggert Reeder
Historical era World War II
 -  Established 1940
 -  Disestablished 1944
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Belgium
French Third Republic
Provisional Government of the French Republic
Belgium
District of Brussels
Reichsgau Wallonien
Reichsgau Flandern
Reichskommissariat
Belgien-Nordfrankreich
Reichskommissariat of Germany

1944
 

Flag Emblem
Capital Brussels
Languages German (official)
Dutch
French (local)
Government Civil administration
Reichskommissar
 -  1944 Josef Grohé
Historical era World War II
 -  Führer Decree 12 July 1944
 -  Allied liberation begins September 1944
 -  Annexation to Germany December 1944
Currency RKK (de facto)

The Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France (German: Militärverwaltung in Belgien und Nordfrankreich) was an interim occupation authority established by Nazi Germany that included present-day Belgium and the French departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais.[1] It remained in existence until July 1944. Plans to transfer Belgium from the military administration to a civilian administration were promoted by the SS, and Hitler had been ready to do so until Autumn 1942, when he put off the plans for the time being.[2] The SS had suggested either Josef Terboven or Ernst Kaltenbrunner as the Reich Commissioner of the civilian administration.[3] On 18 July 1944 Gauleiter Josef Grohé was named the Reichskommissar of the Reichskommissariat of Belgium and Northern France (Reichskommissariat Belgien und Nordfrankreich or Reichskommissariat für die besetzten Gebiete von Belgien und Nordfrankreich).[1][4]

The Nazi administration was assisted by fascist Flemish, Walloon, and French collaborationists. In binational Belgian territory, the predominantly French region of Wallonia, the collaborationist Rexists provided aide to the Nazis while in Flemish-populated Flanders, the Flemish National Union supported the Nazis. In Northern France, Flemish separatist tendencies were stirred by the pro-Nazi Vlaamsch Verbond van Frankrijk led by priest Jean-Marie Gantois.[5]

The attachment of the departments Nord and Pas-de-Calais to the military administration in Brussels was initially made on military considerations, and was supposedly done in preparation for the planned invasion of Britain.[6] Ultimately, the attachment was based on Hitler's intention to move the Reich's border westward, and was also used to maintain pressure on the Vichy regime - which protested the curtailment of its authority in what was still de jure national French territory - to ensure its good behavior.[7]

Command structure[edit]

 
 
 
 
 
 
Nazi Germany
Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France
Militärverwaltung in Belgien und Nordfrankreich
Part of the Wehrmacht
Militärbefehlshaber: Alexander von Falkenhausen
 
 
 
 
 
Nazi Germany
Sipo-SD
Part of the Sicherheitspolizei-Sicherheitsdienst
Independent of the Military Administration and directed from Berlin.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nazi Germany
Military Administrative Staff
Militärverwaltungsstab
Militärverwaltungschef: Eggert Reeder
 
 
 
 
Nazi Germany
Command Staff
Kommandostab
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Belgium
Committee of Secretaries-General
Representatives of the Belgian civil administration
 
 
 
 
Nazi Germany
Economic Department
Wirtschaftsabteilung
 
 
Nazi Germany
Feldgendarmerie
 
Nazi Germany
Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo)
Part of the SS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Belgium
Belgian civil service:
Burgomasters and local government;
Belgian police and state security
 
Nazi Germany
Regional and district headquarters:
Oberfeld- or Feldkommandanten;
Kreiskommandanten
 
 
 
 
 

Belgian collaborationist groups
Principally the Vlaams Nationaal Verbond (VNV) or Rex;
Each with internal command structure.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Based on description in Van den Wijngaert, Mark; Dujardin, Vincent (2006). "La Belgique sans Roi, 1940-1950". Nouvelle Historie de Belgique, 1905-1950 (vol.2) (Brussels: Éd. Complexe). pp. 19–20. ISBN 2-8048-0078-4. 


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b http://territorial.de/belgnord/reikobel.htm
  2. ^ Kroener, Müller & Umbreit (2003) Germany and the Second World War V/II, p. 26
  3. ^ Kroener, Müller & Umbreit (2003) Germany and the Second World War V/II, p. 27
  4. ^ Kroener, Müller & Umbreit (2003) Germany and the Second World War V/II, p. 29
  5. ^ Kroener, Bernhard R.; Müller, Rolf-Dieter; Umbreit, Hans (2000). Germany and the Second World War:Organization and mobilization of the German sphere of power. Wartime administration, economy, and manpower resources 1939-1941. Oxford University Press. p. 84. ISBN 0198228872. 
  6. ^ Jackson, Julian (2003). France: the dark years, 1940-1944. Oxford University Press. p. 169. ISBN 0199254575. 
  7. ^ Kroener et al. (2000), p. 84