Military Intelligence Directorate (Syria)

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Military Intelligence Directorate
شعبة المخابرات العسكرية
Agency overview
Formed 1969
Preceding Agency Deuxième Bureau
Jurisdiction President of Syria
Headquarters Defense Ministry headquarters, Umayyad Square, Damascus, Syria
33°30′50.58″N 36°16′42.58″E / 33.5140500°N 36.2784944°E / 33.5140500; 36.2784944Coordinates: 33°30′50.58″N 36°16′42.58″E / 33.5140500°N 36.2784944°E / 33.5140500; 36.2784944
Agency executive Rafiq Shahadah, Director
Parent agency Military of Syria

The Military Intelligence Directorate (Arabic: شعبة المخابرات العسكرية‎, Shu'bat al-Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya) is the military intelligence service of Syria.[1] Although its roots go back to the French mandate period (1923–1943), its current organization was established in 1969.[2][3] Its predecessor organisation was called the Deuxième Bureau.[3][2] It is headquartered at the Defense Ministry headquarters in Damascus.

The military intelligence service, or the Mukhabarat in Arabic, is very influential in Syrian politics and is controlled by the President.[4][5] It is suspected of providing support to different radical groups.[6] Additionally, the service monitors dissidents of the government outside Syria.[7] During the Syrian occupation of Lebanon, the Mukhabarat exercised political authority in Lebanon.

Late Assef Shawqat, the brother-in-law of Bashar Al-Assad, became director in 2005 replacing General Hassan Khalil.[8] From 2009 to 2012, the military intelligence service was headed by Abdel-Fatah Qudsiyeh, who like Syrian President Assad is a member of the Alawite community.[9][10]

Heads of Military Intelligence[edit]

  • Deputy director: Hassan Khalil (1993–2000)[14]
  • Hassan Khalil (2000–2005)[13]
  • Deputy director: Assef Shawkat (2000–2005)[14][15]
  • Abdel-Fatah Qudsiyeh (2009–July 2012)[10][18][19]
    • Head of Internal Affairs (branch 293): Rafiq Shahadah (2011), the European Union sanctioned him for being directly involved in repression and violence against the civilian population in Damascus during the Syrian uprising. Advisor to President Bashar Al-Assad for strategic questions and military intelligence.[19]
  • Rafiq Shahadah (July 2012–present)[20]

Regional Heads of Military Intelligence[edit]

  • Damascus (branch 215): Brig. Gen. Sha’afiq (2012) accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.[21]
  • Damascus (branch 235): Brig. Gen. Muhammad Khallouf (2012) accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.[21]
  • Damascus (branch 291): Brig. Gen. Yousef Abdou (2012) accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.[21]
  • Damascus (branch 291): Brig. Gen. Burhan Qadour (past–2012) accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.[21]
  • Hama city branch: Mohammad Mufleh (2011), the European Union sanctioned him for being involved in the crackdown on demonstrators during the Syrian uprising.[19]
  • Deir ez-Zor branch: Jami Jami (2011), the European union sanctioned him for being directly involved in repression and violence against the civilian population in Dayr az-Zor and Alboukamal during the Syrian uprising.[19]
  • Idlib (branch 271): Brig. Gen. Nawful Al-Husayn (2011), the European Union sanctioned him for being directly involved in repression and violence against the civilian population in Idlib province during the Syrian uprising.[19] Accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.[21]
  • Homs branch: Muhammed Zamrini (2011), the European Union sanctioned him for being directly involved in repression and violence against the civilian population in Homs during the Syrian uprising.[19] Accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.[21]
  • Daraa (branch 245): Col. Lu’ai al-Ali (2011), the European Union sanctioned him for being responsible for the violence against protesters in Daraa during the Syrian uprising.[19] Accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.[21]
  • Suwayda branch: Wafiq Nasser (2011), head of regional branch assumed position after Brig. Gen. Suheir Ramadan.[22]

Other Syrian intelligence agencies[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Syria Intelligence and Security Agencies". Global Security. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 
  2. ^ a b Wege, Carl Anthony (2011). "Hizbollah–Syrian Intelligence Affairs: A Marriage of Convenience". Journal of Strategic Security 4 (3): 1–14. doi:10.5038/1944-0472.4.3.1. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 
  3. ^ a b Conflict Studies Journal at the University of New Brunswick. Lib.unb.ca. Retrieved on 19 October 2010.
  4. ^ Robert G. Rabil Syria, the United States, and the war on terror in the Middle East, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, ISBN 0-275-99015-X p.214
  5. ^ TFJD990-01-210480.tex. (PDF). Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  6. ^ Syria, Intelligence and Security. Espionageinfo.com. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  7. ^ Paul Todd, Jonathan Bloch Global intelligence: the world's secret services today, Zed Books, 2003 ISBN 1-84277-113-2 p. 167
  8. ^ Print - ESISC : European Strategic Intelligence & Security Center. ESISC (22 October 2005). Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  9. ^ Ahed Al Hendi (3 May 2011). "The Structure of Syria's Repression". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 
  10. ^ a b Black, Ian (28 April 2011). "Six Syrians who helped Bashar al-Assad keep iron grip after father's death". The Guardian (London). 
  11. ^ Cite error: The named reference http:.2F.2Fbooks.google.com.lb.2Fbooks.3Fid.3D6D9EiJKRTHcC.26pg.3DPA151.26lpg.3DPP1.26focus.3Dviewport.26output.3Dhtml_text was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  12. ^ Moubayed, Sami (2005). Steel & silk: Men and women who shaped Syria 1900-2000. Seattle, Wash: Cune. p. 83. ISBN 1885942400. 
  13. ^ a b c Bar, Shmuel (2006). "Bashar's Syria: The Regime and its Strategic Worldview". Comparative Strategy 25: 424. doi:10.1080/01495930601105412. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  14. ^ a b MEIB (July 2000). "Syria's Intelligence Services: A Primer". Middle East Intelligence Bulletin 2 (6). Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  15. ^ Gambil, Gary (February 2002). "The Military-Intelligence Shakeup in Syria". Middle East Intelligence Bulletin 4 (2). Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  16. ^ "The List: The Middle East's Most Powerful Spooks". Foreign Policy. 20 July 2009. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 
  17. ^ Bar, Shmuel (2006). "Bashar's Syria: The Regime and its Strategic Worldview". Comparative Strategy 25: 390. doi:10.1080/01495930601105412. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  18. ^ Rainer, Hermann (26 April 2011). "Geheimdienste in Syrien: Teile, herrsche, morde". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h "Joint Proposal for a COUNCIL REGULATION concerning restrictive measures in view of the situation in Syria and repealing Regulation (EU) No 442/2011". EuroLex. 52011PC0887. 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2012. 
  20. ^ "Assad reshuffles top security posts after bombing that killed four senior officials". The Times of Israel (Damascus). 24 July 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h "Torture Archipelago". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 3 July 2012. 
  22. ^ "By All Means Necessary". Human Rights Watch. 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 

External links[edit]