Military academy

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This article is about educational institutions. For the 1940 American film, see Military Academy (Film).

A military academy or service academy (in American English) is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps of the army, the navy, air force or coast guard, which normally provides education in a service environment, the exact definition depending on the country concerned.

Three types of academy exists: high school-level institutions awarding academic qualifications, university-level institutions awarding bachelor's degree level qualification, and those preparing officer cadets for commissioning into the armed services of the state.

History[edit]

The first military academies were established in the 18th century to provide future officers for technically specialized corps, such as engineers and artillery, with scientific training.

The Royal Military Academy, Woolwich was set up in 1720[1] as the earliest military academy in Britain. Its original purpose was to train cadets entering the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. In France, the Ecole du Corps Royal du Geme at Mezieres was founded in 1748, followed by a non-technical academy in 1751, the Ecole Royale Militaire offering a general military education to the nobility. French military academies were widely copied in Prussia, Austria, Russia and even minor powers, including Turin and the Kingdom of Savoy, in the late 18th century.

Facade of the United Artillery and Engineering School, constructed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel.

By the turn of the century, under the impetus of the Napoleonic Wars and the strain that the armies of Europe subsequently came under, military academies for the training of commissioned officers of the army were set up in most of the combatant nations. These military schools had two functions; to provide instruction for serving officers in the functions of the efficient staff-officer, and to school youngsters before they gained an officer's commission.[2] The Kriegsakademie in Prussia was founded in 1801 and the Ecole Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr was created by order of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1802 as a replacement for the École Royale Militaire of the Ancien Regime (the institution that Napoleon himself had graduated from).

The Royal Military College, Sandhurst, in England was the brainchild of John Le Marchant in 1801,[3] who established schools for the military instruction of officers at High Wycombe and Great Marlow, with a grant of £30,000 from Parliament. The two original departments were later combined and moved to Sandhurst. In the United States, the military academy at West Point was founded in 1802 and became popular in the 1860s.

Afghanistan[edit]

Albania[edit]

Argentina[edit]

Argentine Army

Argentine Navy

Argentine Air Force

Australia[edit]

Austria[edit]

Bangladesh[edit]

Cadet Colleges in Bangladesh...

There are 12 Cadet Colleges in Bangladesh. Among these, nine for boys and three for girls. Four Cadet Colleges were established before 1971. Other cadet colleges were built after the Liberation War of Bangladesh.

No. Name Location Area (acre) Established
01 Faujdarhat Cadet College Chittagong 185 1958
02 Jhenaidah Cadet College Jhenaidah 110 1963
03 Mirzapur Cadet College Mirzapur, Tangail 95 1965
04 Rajshahi Cadet College Sardah, Rajshahi 110 1965
05 Sylhet Cadet College Sylhet 52.37 1978
06 Rangpur Cadet College Alamnagar, Rangpur 37 1979
07 Barisal Cadet College Rahmatpur, Barisal 50 1981
08 Pabna Cadet College Pabna 38 1982
09 Mymensingh Girls Cadet College Mymensingh town, Mymensingh 23 1983
10 Comilla Cadet College Kotbari, Comilla 57 1983
11 Joypurhat Girls Cadet College Joypurhat 7 2006
12 Feni Girls Cadet College Feni 49.5 2006

Belgium[edit]

Bolivia[edit]

Brazil[edit]

Has several military academies:

Bulgaria[edit]

Canada[edit]

Canada currently has one military-theme private boarding school open for students at the pre-university level, Robert Land Academy (RLA), which is located in West Lincoln, Ontario. Founded in 1978, it is an all-boys' institute whose funding arises solely from tuition fees. The Academy is an institute fully accredited by the province of Ontario, which accepts students from Grade 6 to Grade 12 (the Ontario Academic Credit level).

Canada formerly had three university level service academies, the Canadian Military Colleges. These included the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC) in Kingston, Ontario, Royal Roads Military College (RRMC) in Victoria, British Columbia and the Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean (CMR) in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Québec. RMC was founded in 1876, RRMC in 1941 and CMR in 1954.[4] By the 60s all three institutions were providing *military education to officer cadets of all three elements in the Canadian Forces; the navy, army and air force; and RMC received the authority to grant academic degrees in Arts, Science and Engineering.[5]

Graduates of the Colleges are widely acknowledged to have had a disproportionate impact in the Canadian services and society, thanks to the solid foundations provided by their military education.[6] In the modern era, emphasis was placed on a broad based, liberal education including core courses in the humanities, social, pure and applied sciences. Military discipline and training, as well as a focus on physical fitness and fluency in both of Canada's two official languages, English and French, provided cadets with ample challenges and a very fulfilling experience.[7] In 1995 the Department of National Defence was forced to close Royal Roads Military College and Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean due to budget considerations, but Royal Military College of Canada continues to operate.[8] Royal Roads reopened as a civilian university in the fall of 1995, and is maintained by the Government of British Columbia. In 2007, the Department of National Defence reopened Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean as a preparatory and first year college.

China, People's Republic of[edit]

China, Republic of (Taiwan)[edit]

Colombia[edit]

National Army of Colombia:

Colombian Air Force:

Colombian Naval Infantry and Colombian Navy:

National Police of Colombia:

Czech Republic[edit]

  • Univerzita Obrany (University of Defence)

http://www.unob.cz/en/

  • Vojenská akademie a velitelství výcviku (Military academy and training command)

http://www.vavyskov.cz/

Denmark[edit]

Egypt[edit]

El Salvador[edit]

Estonia[edit]

Finland[edit]

France[edit]

Saint-Cyr cadets at the Bastille Day military parade
EMIA cadets
Polytechnique cadets

High schools :

Officer academies :

Postgraduate academies :

  • École d'état-major (Staff school) : first step of higher military studies, for officer of OF-2 rank.
  • École de Guerre (War School) : second step of higher military studies, mainly for ranks OF-2 and OF-3 who want to continue the command track (e.g. to command battalion or regiment).
  • Collège d'enseignement supérieur de l'armée de terre (Army Higher Education College) : second step of military education, but for officers whishing to achieve a high-level specialization.
    • Cours supérieur d'état-major (Advanced Staff Course)
    • Enseignement militaire supérieur scientifique et technique (Higher Technical and Scientific Education).
  • Centre des hautes études militaire (Center for Advanced Military Studies) : final step of military education, for very few selected OF-5. Its students also attend the civilian institut des hautes études de défense nationale.

The Ecole Polytechnique, though its engineering students are enlisted in the military, is sometimes not considered a military academy, as very few of its graduates remain in the military after graduation.

Georgia[edit]

National Defense Academy (NDA) of Georgia is a descendant of the first Georgian “Junker School” which was established in 1919 right after the declaration of independence. Establishment of the military school was very important for the identity of a new democratic nation-state. The school was abolished after Soviet occupation of Georgia in 1921.

“Davit Aghmashenebeli National Defense Academy of Georgia” was founded on May 28, 1993. The length of studies at the Academy had been defined for 4 years. In 2005, due to the need of the growth of the personnel strength of the Georgian Armed Forces (GAF), the system of the Academy has been transformed to retain only the 18 month long officer training courses. Bachelor degree has been defined as a prerequisite for the admission of the cadets.

In 2010, the NDA has undergone a new wave of the reforms to include entire officer education system. As a result, in 2011, Cadet Bachelor School, Junior Officer Basic School, Aviation and Air Defense Officer Basic School, Medical Officer School, Captain Career School, Command and General Staff School, School of Advance Defense Studies and Language Training School were included within the NDA.[9]

Upon entry into NDA, cadets sign a contract with the MoD for 10 years of military service, of which 4 years are dedicated to studies and 6 years – to consequent military service. Cadets receive the rank of Lieutenant upon graduation.

NDA is established by the MoD with the status of the Legal Entity of Public Law. At the same time, NDA maintains very strong link with The Ministry of Education and Science according to the process of Bologna.

Germany[edit]

Main complex of the Naval Academy Mürwik of the German Navy with all-ranks-dining hall, historic assembly hall and tower

In Germany there exists a system which clearly differs from the common ones. The only true military academies are in fact the Führungsakademie der Bundeswehr where mainly future staff officers and general staff officers are further trained.

The standard education in military leadership is the task of the Offizierschulen (officer's schools) run by the three branches. The contents differ from branch to branch. In the army all officers are at least trained to lead a platoon. There they also have to pass an officer exam to become commissioned later on.

Moreover there exist so called Waffenschulen like infantry school or artillery school. There the officer's learn to deal with the typical tasks of their respective corps. A specialty of the German concept of officer formation is the academic education. Germany runs two own Universities of the German Federal Armed Forces where almost every future officer has to pass non-military studies and achieve a Bachelor's or Master's degree. During their studies (after at least three years of service) the candidates become commissioned Leutnant (second-lieutenant).

The three officer's schools are:

Academic and staff education:

Greece[edit]

The Hellenic Armed Forces have military academies supervised by each branch of the Armed Forces individually:

Hungary[edit]

  • "Miklós ZRÍNYI" National Defence University, located in Budapest [2]

India[edit]

Indonesia[edit]

Akademi Angkatan Bersenjata Republic Indonesia (Indonesia Military Academy)[3] Founded in Yogyakarta, October 13, 1945 in order of General Staff Chief of Indonesia Army Lieutenant General Urip Sumohardjo with name Militaire Academie (MA) Yogyakarta. Currently, Tentara Nasional Indonesia (Indonesian National Armed Forces), under supervision of Commandant General of National Armed Forces Academy (a three-star officer in billet) in the HQ Indonesian National Armed Forces, divided the academies into the respective services:

Indonesian Army

Indonesian Air Force

  • Akademi Angkatan Udara - AAU (Air Force Academy), located in Yogyakarta, Province of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, under supervision of Indonesian Air Force Chief of Staff. Following graduation, students who are selected as Pilot and Navigator conduct further training in the Pilot/Navigator Flight School prior bearing the Pilot/Navigator designation.

Indonesian Navy

Each service academy is headed by two-star officer and his/her deputy is one-star officer. All the students (cadets/midshipman) are recruited from senior high school graduates from all of Indonesia. Shortly after graduated, the are commissioned as Letnan Dua (Second Lieutenant) in their respective services and get the Diploma IV (Associate's Degree, 4th Grade) comparable to civil academies or universities. The length term is now 4 (four) years and is divided into 5 (five) grades of cadet's rank; starting from the lowest:

  • Prajurit Taruna/Kadet/Karbol (Cadet Private), 1st year (4 months)
  • Kopral Taruna/Kadet/Karbol (Cadet Corporal), 1st year (8 months)
  • Sersan Taruna/Kadet/Karbol (Cadet Sergeant), 2nd year
  • Sersan Mayor Dua Taruna/Kadet/Karbol (Cadet Second Sergeant Major), 3rd year
  • Sersan Mayor Satu Taruna/Kadet/Karbol (Cadet First Sergeant Major), 4th year

Note: Taruna, Kadet and Karbol are official cadet designation in the Army (Military), Naval and Air Force academy, respectively.

Until 1999, before Indonesian National Police officially separated from the armed forces, Indonesian Police Academy also stood under the National Armed Forces Academy. Presently, the Police Academy, located in Semarang (Central Java), is supervised under Chief of Indonesian National Police.

Italy[edit]

High School level institutions (only for Classical and Scientific Liceum, starting from grade 10):

The 2009-2010 Schoolyear has been the first one with girls attending those schools.

University level institutions:

Japan[edit]

Korea, South[edit]

The three main military academies:

Other military academies:

Malaysia[edit]

Secondary level institutions
University level
Specialist training & staff institutions

Reserve Officer Training Units (Malay: Pasukan Latihan Pegawai Simpanan or PALAPES) or ROTU exists only in public universities in Malaysia. This is a tertiary institution based officer commissioning program to equip students as officer cadets with military knowledge and understanding for service as Commissioned Officers in the reserve components of the various branches of the Malaysian Armed Forces.

Mexico[edit]

Netherlands[edit]

New Zealand[edit]

Tier One – Initial Officer Training

Tier Two – Junior Officer Education

Tier Three – Senior Officer Education

Nigeria[edit]

High school training:

Undergraduate officer training:

Postgraduate officer training:

Norway[edit]

Undergraduate officer training

Postgraduate training

Pakistan[edit]

Pakistan Military Academy Passing out Parade

Panama[edit]

Centro de Enseñanza Superior Dr. Justo Arosemena
http://www.policia.gob.pa/direcciones/dnrrhh/ces.html

Peru[edit]

Undergraduate officer training

Philippines[edit]

The Philippines patterned all its military academies after the United States Military Academy (WEST POINT) and the United States Merchant Marine Academy.

These colleges are operated by the Philippine Government which serves 4 years of different baccalaureate degrees:

  • Philippine Military Academy, City of Baguio - It is a primary training school for regular commissioning as officers of the Philippine Army, Philippine Navy, Philippine Marine Corps and the Philippine Air Force, and it is under the control of the Department of National Defense. It was formerly named as the Philippine Constabulary School but was renamed before the 30's. during the American era, U.S. Army Cavalry Officers established the school for the professionalization of the defunct Philippine Constabulary enlisted personnel. In 1992, PMA stopped producing constabulary cadets after the creation of the Republic Act 6975 which as a result the Philippine Constabulary and the Integrated National Police were officially merged and renamed as The Philippine National Police. Beginning in 1993 this has become a co-educational military academy.
  • Philippine Merchant Marine Academy, Zambales - It is a school for midshipmen who shall serve in different private shipping companies, foreign or local. Its midshipmen may serve in the Philippine Coast Guard as an ensign after graduation depending upon their choice. All PMMA midshipmen are also automatically appointed by the president of the Philippines as ensigns or 2nd lieutenants in the Philippine Navy Reserve, and in the Philippine National Police's Maritime Group as Inspectors. This is the oldest of the Philippine service academies having been established in 1820 during the long period of Spanish rule in the country, and was first situated in Manila for so many years.

Aside from the PMA and the PMMA, all three branches of the AFP have their own Officer Candidate Course Programs for both men and women, patterned after their US counterparts.

The nation's higher military colleges are:

Poland[edit]

Defunct:

Portugal[edit]

High school training:

Polytechnical training:

Undergraduate officer training:

Postgraduate officer training:

No longer operational:

Romania[edit]

Russia[edit]

See also: Cadet Corps (Russia), Military academies in Russia

The first stage of training:

  • The Cadet Corps is an admissions-based military middle school for young boys that was founded in the Russian Empire in the year 1732, soon becoming widespread throughout the country.
  • Kronstadt S.C.C.
  • Moscow Representative Sea Cadet Corps of the Navigation and Mathematics School
  • Moscow Sea Cadet Corps Heroes of Sevastopol

The second stage of training:

  • Suvorov Military School are a type of boarding school in modern Russia for boys of 14-18. Education in such these schools focuses on military related subjects.

The third stage of training:

The fourth stage of training:

Serbia[edit]

Singapore[edit]

Spain[edit]

Sri Lanka[edit]

The General Sir John Kotelawala Defense University, was established in 1980 and is named after Gen. Sri John Kotelawala the 2nd Prime Minister of Sri Lanka. Taking cadets from all three armed services, 3 non-university level Military Academies, one for each armed service providing basic training for officer and a Command and Staff College for senior officers of the three armed services.

University
Officer training
Staff training

Sweden[edit]

Military Academy Karlberg

Thailand[edit]

Turkey[edit]

Uganda[edit]

Uganda maintains the followings military training institutions, as of December 2010:[10]

Ukraine[edit]

Officer training:

A number of universities have specialized military institutes, such as the Faculty of Military Legal Studies at Kharkiv's National Yaroslav Mudryi Law Academy of Ukraine, however, the primary Ukrainian military academies are the following:

Staff colleges:

  • National Defense University of Ukraine, Kiev[21]

United Kingdom[edit]

The 149th Sovereign's Parade in front of Old College, RMA Sandhurst.

Pre-University level institution[edit]

  • Welbeck College - Sixth form college for 16 to 18 year olds providing A-Level education in preparation for entry into the British Armed Forces or Ministry of Defence Civil Service as Technical Officers, following undergraduate education. There are also numerous Cadet forces that operate for all branches of the armed forces for children aged 11–17. These are not designed to recruit people into the armed forces but rather are simply Ministry of Defence sponsored youth organisations.

Undergraduate Service[edit]

Although an undergraduate degree is not a pre-requisite for Officer training, the majority of potential Officers will have attended University before joining the Armed Forces. At some universities there may be the option for people to join either a University Royal Naval Unit, a University Officer Training Corps (UOTC) or a University Air Squadron; which are designed to introduce students to life in the Forces and show them the careers that are available. There is no requirement for students in these organisations to join the military after they finish their degree programs, and the great majority have no further contact with the armed forces. Although service with these organisations may give some initial benefit to cadets attending the military colleges/academies, the next stage of the officer training programs assumes no prior military experience/knowledge, and those that did not partake in military activities at university are not disadvantaged.

Officer training[edit]

There are now four military academies in the United Kingdom. Although the curriculum at each varies due to the differing nature of the service a man or woman is joining, it is a combination of military and academic study that is designed to turn young civilians into comprehensibly trained military officers.

Officer Training for the Reserve Forces (e.g. Territorial Army, Royal Naval Reserve, RAF Reserves & Royal Marine Reserves) also takes place at the relevant military academies, but under a different curriculum and the courses tend to be concentrated into a much shorter period.

Postgraduate and staff training[edit]

No longer operational[edit]

United States[edit]

Introduction[edit]

In the United States, unlike most other countries, the term "military academy" does not necessarily mean an institution run by the armed forces to train its own military officers; it may also mean a middle school, high school or tertiary-level college, whether public or private, which instructs its students in military-style education, discipline and tradition. In addition, most state "military academies" in the United States today maintain both a civilian student body and a traditional corps of cadets. Many of these institutions also offer online degree programs. The only exception in the U.S. is the Virginia Military Institute, which remains all-military and maintains a 100% military corps of cadets student body.

Many public high schools offer Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps programs sponsored by the United States Armed Forces.

  • The term military school primarily refers to pre-collegiate (middle and high school) institutions. Military schools were once far more common than they are today. See the extensive list of defunct military academies.
  • The term military academy commonly refers to a pre-collegiate, collegiate, and post-collegiate institution, yet graduate institutions catering to officers already in service are often considered separately and termed staff colleges and Graduate Schools.

Military academies can be either private or have government sponsorship from a regional (state), or national government.

Federal Service Academies[edit]

The colleges operated by the U.S. Federal Government are referred to as the Federal Service Academies and are:

Senior and junior military colleges[edit]

There is one all-military state-sponsored military academy:

In addition, these Five institutions that were military colleges at the time of their founding now maintain both a corps of cadets and a civilian student body. Many of these institutions also offer on-line degree programs:

Along with the Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, Virginia, these institutions are known as the Senior Military Colleges of the US.

Today six institutions are considered Military Junior Colleges (JMC). These six schools participate in the Army's two-year Early Commissioning Program, an Army ROTC program where qualified students can earn a commission as a Second Lieutenant after only two years of college. The five Military Junior Colleges are:

Merchant Marine Academies that have military academy style operations[edit]

There are six (6) state-operated Merchant Marine academies:

These merchant marine academies operate on a military college system. Part of the training that the cadets receive is naval and military in nature. Cadets are required to apply for Naval Reserve, Coast Guard or Marine Corps commissions upon obtaining their Merchant Marine Officer's licenses and must accept the commission if it is offered.

US Staff Colleges[edit]

The United States staff colleges, mandated to serve the needs of officers for post-graduate studies and other such graduate institutions as mandated by the Department of Defense are:

United States Air Force Air University attached staff colleges[edit]

Staff Colleges of the United States Army[edit]

Staff Colleges of the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps[edit]

Joint Service staff colleges[edit]

Other post graduate colleges operated by the DoD[edit]

Vietnam[edit]

Pre-collegiate institutions[edit]

A military school teaches children (primarily boys) of various ages (elementary school, middle school or high school) in a military environment which includes training in military aspects, such as drill. The vast majority are in the United States and Russia. Many military schools are also boarding schools, and others are simply magnet schools in a larger school system. Many are privately run institutions, though some are public and are run by either a public school system (such as the Chicago Public Schools), or by a state.

A common misconception results because some states have chosen to house their juvenile criminal populations in higher-security boarding schools that are run in a manner similar to military boarding schools. These are also called reform schools, and are functionally a combination of school and prison. They attempt to emulate the environment of military boarding schools in the belief that a strict structured environment can reform these children. This may or may not be true. However, their environment and target population is different than that of military schools.[23]

Popular culture sometimes shows parents sending or threatening to send unruly children off to military school (or boarding school) to teach them good behavior (e.g., in the "Army of One" episode of The Sopranos, Tony and Carmela Soprano consider sending their son, AJ, to the Hudson Military Institute. A similar situation appears in Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure, while other fictional depictions don't show military academies as punishment (threats) (ex. Damien: Omen II and The Presidio.

Adult institutions[edit]

A college level military academy is an institute of higher learning of things military. It is part of a larger system of military education and training institutions. The primary educational goal at military academies is to provide a high quality education that includes significant coursework and training in the fields of military tactics and military strategy. The amount of non-military coursework varies by both the institution and the country, and the amount of practical military experience gained varies as well.

Military academies may or may not grant university degrees. In the U.S., graduates have a major field of study, earning a Bachelor's degree in that subject just as at other universities. However, in British academies, the graduate does not achieve a university degree, since the whole of the one-year course (nowadays undertaken mainly but not exclusively by university graduates) is dedicated to military training.

There are two types of military academies: national (government-run) and state/private-run.

  • Graduates from national academies are typically commissioned as officers in the country's military. The new officers usually have an obligation to serve for a certain number of years. In some countries (e.g. Britain) all military officers train at the appropriate academy, whereas in others (e.g. the United States) only a percentage do and the service academies are seen as institutions which supply service-specific officers within the forces (about 15 percent of US military officers).
  • State or private-run academy graduates have no requirement to join the military after graduation, although some schools have a high rate of graduate military service. Today, most of these schools have ventured away from their military roots and now enroll both military and civilian students. The only exception in the United States is the Virginia Military Institute which remains all-military.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Cadet, Linton Hall, Linton Hall Military School Memories: One cadet's memoir, Scrounge Press, 2014. ISBN 9781495931963 Memoir of cadet who attended a military school for boys ages 6 to 16.

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Woolwich History". 
  2. ^ Richard A Harmon. "Perspectives in the History of Military Education and Professionalism". 
  3. ^ Major-General John Gaspard Le Marchant (1766-1812) Defence Academy
  4. ^ H16511 Dr. Richard Arthur Preston "To Serve Canada: A History of the Royal Military College of Canada" 1997 Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1969.
  5. ^ 4237 Dr. Adrian Preston & Peter Dennis (Edited) "Swords and Covenants" Rowman And Littlefield, London. Croom Helm. 1976.
  6. ^ H16511 Dr. Richard Preston "R.M.C. and Kingston: The effect of imperial and military influences on a Canadian community" 1968
  7. ^ H1877 R. Guy C. Smith (editor) "As You Were! Ex-Cadets Remember". In 2 Volumes. Volume I: 1876-1918. Volume II: 1919-1984. Royal Military College. [Kingston]. The R.M.C. Club of Canada. 1984
  8. ^ "To Serve Canada: A History of the Royal Military College since the Second World War", Ottawa, University of Ottawa Press, 1991.
  9. ^ http://eta.mod.gov.ge/index.php?page=home&lang=1
  10. ^ List of Uganda Military Schools
  11. ^ One Thousand Somalis Graduate From Bihanga Military School
  12. ^ Kalama Warfare Training School Opened in 2005 at Kabamba
  13. ^ Colonel Geoffrey Kyazze is Commandant of KWTS
  14. ^ Kalama Warfare Training School Located at Kabamba
  15. ^ Oliver Tambo Leadership School Located at Kaweweta, Nakaseke District
  16. ^ South Africa Donates Equipment to Oliver Tambo School
  17. ^ About Uganda Airforce Academy
  18. ^ The NUST Located at Lugazi
  19. ^ About Uganda Urban Warfare Training School
  20. ^ "History of Academy". Army Academy named after hetman Petro Sahaydachyi. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  21. ^ (Ukrainian) Official website of National Defense University of Ukraine
  22. ^ Georgia Military School - Reviews, Tuition, Athletics
  23. ^ Linton Hall Cadet, Linton Hall Military School Memories: One cadet's memoir, Arlington, VA.: Scrounge Press, 2014 ISBN 978-1-4959-3196-3 describes a military school for boys ages 6-16.