Military history of Asian Americans
Asian Americans, who are Americans of Asian descent, have fought and served on behalf of the United States since the War of 1812. During the American Civil War Asian Americans fought for both the Union and the Confederacy. Afterwards Asian Americans served primarily in the U.S. Navy until the Philippine-American War.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Asian Americans began to attend U.S. military academies, and the first Asian Americans were awarded the Medal of Honor. World War I saw Asian Americans serving as "non-whites" in the National Army. After World War I, Asian American service fell into obscurity until World War II when significant contributions by Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, and Korean Americans were documented.
With the desegregation of the U.S. military in 1948, segregated Asian American units ceased to exist, and Asian Americans served in integrated armed forces. Asian American combatants in the Korean and Vietnam conflicts were awarded the Medal of Honor, and Asian Americans have continued to serve until the present day.
- 1 History
- 1.1 19th century
- 1.2 20th century
- 1.2.1 Philippine-American War
- 1.2.2 Early Asian American military academy graduates
- 1.2.3 Mexican Expedition
- 1.2.4 World War I
- 1.2.5 Interwar period
- 1.2.6 World War II
- 1.2.7 Cold War
- 1.2.8 Gulf War
- 1.3 21st century
- 2 Leadership
- 3 In popular culture
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
There are anecdotal accounts of Filipino American sailors serving as early as the Revolutionary War. However, the first official recorded history of Asian Americans fighting on behalf of the U.S. occurred in 1815 during the War of 1812. General Andrew Jackson recorded that "Manilamen" had fought under his general command in defense of New Orleans, under the direct command of Jean Baptiste Lafitte. Following the war, at least one Filipino American, Augustin Feliciano, continued to serve in the U.S. Navy. After this Asian Americans were not recorded in the annals of U.S. military history until the American Civil War when, in 1861, a Chinese American by the name of John Tomney joined the New York Infantry, eventually dying of wounds received at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Joseph Pierce (his chosen name) was brought to the U.S. from China by his adoptive father, Connecticut ship Captain Amos Peck. Pierce enlisted on 26 July 1862 and was mustered into the Fourteenth Regiment, Company F of the Connecticut Volunteer Infantry that became part of the Second Brigade of the Third Division, Second Army Corps of the Army of the Potomac. From 1862 to 1865, Pierce fought in pivotal battles of the war, fighting in major campaigns from Antietam to Gettysburg to Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House. Pierce achieved the highest rank of any Chinese American to serve in the Union Army, reaching the rank of corporal. Pierce's picture hangs in the Gettysburg Museum. In 2007, the U.S. House of Representatives passed a resolution honoring the actions of Pierce and other Asian-Pacific Islander soldiers of the Civil War.
William Ah Hang, a Chinese American, became one of the first Asian Americans to enlist in the U.S. Navy in 1863. In total more than 50 Chinese Americans fought, on both sides, in the Civil War. Of those who served, only a handful received recognition of their service in the form of pension, benefits, or citizenship. An exception was Ching Lee, who took the alias Thomas Sylvanus and served in the 81st Pennsylvania Regiment.
There are accounts of Filipino Americans serving in Louisiana for the Confederacy during the Civil War; one served aboard the C.S.S. Alabama, and some served in the Louisiana Zouaves. Another Filipino American, Felix Cornelius Balderry, served in the Union's Michigan 11th Infantry.
Another lull in recordings of Asian American service followed the end of the Civil War until the Spanish American War. When the U.S.S. Maine sank in Havana Harbor, seven of the casualties were Japanese Americans and one was a Chinese American. Later in the war it was recorded that Japanese Americans served aboard U.S. warships in the Battle of Manila Bay; the Philippine-American War, previously known as the Philippine Insurrection, followed.
In 1901 the Philippine Constabulary and Philippine Scouts were initially founded to assist the U.S. against the forces of the First Philippine Republic and the insurgency that followed after its collapse. That same year President William McKinley signed an executive order to allow 500 Filipinos to enlist in the U.S. Navy. From these routes of enlistment came the first Asian American recipients of the Medal of Honor. Private Jose Nisperos, a Philippine Scout, protected his party from Moros; for this action, he received the Medal of Honor in 1911. In 1915, Fireman Second Class Telesforo Trinidad, along with Ensign Robert Webster Cary, was awarded the Medal of Honor for saving fellow crewmembers when the boiler of the U.S.S. San Diego exploded. As of 2011, Trinidad has been the only Asian American recipient of the naval version of the Medal of Honor.
Early Asian American military academy graduates
In the late 1860s Asians were accepted into the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis. Matsumura Junzo was the first to graduate, doing so as part of the class 1873. Matsumura was a foreign national, though, and like the other Asian graduates who attended around this time who went on to serve their own nations' militaries, upon graduation he served in the Imperial Japanese Navy, eventually reaching the rank of captain. Nearly forty years passed before the first Asian American U.S. nationals followed in the footsteps of these foreign nationals and were accepted into the various U.S. military academies. Vicente Lim, was one of the first to graduate. A U.S. national from the Philippines, Lim graduated from West Point in the class of 1914 and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Philippine Scouts. He was the first of a handful of Filipinos accepted into West Point under a quota system that required one Filipino to be appointed in each class, with no more than four being enrolled at any one time. Beginning in 1916, Filipinos Americans were also accepted into Annapolis; the first batch would enroll in 1919. These graduates lost their status as U.S. nationals in 1935, and many went on to serve in the fledgling Armed Forces of the Philippines.
In the early 20th century, while the rest of the world was engulfed in the depths of World War I, the U.S. was looking to its south. Mexico had been embroiled in a civil war since 1910, and in 1916 the violence spilt north over the border when Pancho Villa raided Columbus, New Mexico, killing 16 Americans. This culminated with a U.S. response, officially known as the Mexican Expedition, led by Major General John Pershing. A large number Chinese Mexicans assisted U.S. forces in Mexico during the expedition and upon its completion in early 1917, they were threatened with hanging by Villa. Despite the provisions of the Chinese Exclusion Act, Pershing sought permission for these people to be allowed to resettle in the U.S. A total of 527 eventually entered the country, settling mostly in San Antonio, and they later became known as "Pershing's Chinese".
World War I
In April 1917, the U.S. entered World War I on the side of the Allies. The Philippine Islands created its own national guard units to join the effort, but did not see combat. The units were demobilized at Camp Thomas Claudio in 1918. Within the United States, a draft was started, and alongside Hispanic and Native Americans, Asian Americans were drafted as "non-whites" filling out the "white quota" in the National Army. Although, the majority of these did not see combat, several did, including: Private Tomas Mateo Claudio, who had studied at the University of Nevada and became the first, and only, Filipino American to die during the war, being killed at Château-Thierry in 1918; Private Henry Chinn who was killed in action in the Argonne Forest while serving in the "Lost Battalion"; Sergeant Sing Kee, another member of the Lost Battalion, who was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross; and Sergeant Major Tokutaro Nishimura Slocum who served in the 328th Infantry Regiment, 82d Infantry Division. In the Navy, the number of enlisted Filipinos peaked at more than 5,700 by the end of the war. Several thousand Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipinos eventually served in the U.S. military during World War I; they were later allowed to become naturalized citizens, overcoming numerous legal obstacles.
During the interwar period U.S. forces were involved in several minor actions, including the Russian Civil War and multiple events in the Caribbean that have since become known as the Banana Wars; also, the Yangtze Patrol was directly and indirectly affected by the Second Sino-Japanese War and other events. Between 1918 and 1933, at least 3,900 Filipino Americans served in the U.S. Navy at any given time as mess stewards, having largely replaced African Americans in that rating. Up to World War I, Filipino sailors were able to serve in a range of occupations; however, after World War I, a rule restricted Filipinos to the ratings of officer's steward and mess attendant.
In 1934, Gordon Pai'ea Chung-Hoon became the first Asian American U.S. citizen to graduate from the Naval Academy, and the first Asian American West Point graduate, Wing Fook Jung, graduated in 1940. In 1940, Japanese Americans were the largest ethnicity of Asian Americans, followed by (in order of population) Chinese Americans, Filipino Americans, Hindu Americans, and Korean Americans.
In 1937, the Second Sino-Japanese War began. A Chinese American, Arthur Chin, had gone to China in 1934 and joined the Republic of China Air Force, and flew as a fighter pilot. During the war Chin becoming the first American flying ace of World War II, with eight victories. He was later awarded the Distinguished Service Cross and the Air Medal.
In September 1939, war broke out in Europe following the German invasion of Poland. The U.S. officially remained neutral, but Americans became involved in combat while serving in other countries' militaries in units such as the Flying Tigers in China and the Eagle Squadrons that served with the Royal Air Force shortly after the Battle of Britain; U.S. forces also provided logistic support through the cash and carry program, and by undertaking convoy escort duties in the Atlantic. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, the U.S. officially declared war, and from that point on Asian Americans were on the front lines as U.S. civilians. Asian Americans from Oahu, including Japanese Americans, assisted with aid efforts following the attack. On the other side of the Pacific Ocean, Philippine Commonwealth forces, under U.S. command since July 1941, prepared for an attack that would come nine hours later.
World War II
Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese Americans in the Hawaii National Guard activated and began to guard the beaches, clear rubble, donate blood and aid the wounded but three days later, they were disarmed because of their ancestry. The next day, however, they were authorized to rearm, but an uneasy tension lasted until 5 June 1942. At the same time, Japanese Americans who had been undertaking the ROTC program at the University of Hawaii, and who had been activated in the Hawaii Territorial Guard, were discharged on 19 January 1942. Many of these discharged soldiers formed a Corps of Engineers auxiliary, known as the "Varsity Victory Volunteers", in February 1942. On 5 June 1942, 1,400 Nisei of the Hawaii National Guard shipped out from Hawaii bound for Oakland and on 12 June, after docking, they were formed into the 100th Infantry Battalion. Afterwards, all Japanese American men, not already in the military, were classified as enemy aliens; this policy was reversed in 1943.
Eight months later the decision was made to raise an all-Nisei regiment, known as the 442nd Regimental Combat Team. Progress was slow at first, and another four months passed before the 442nd began training; two months after that, though, the 100th shipped out to Europe. Initially, the notion of employing Japanese American soldiers was rejected by General Dwight D. Eisenhower's staff at the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force, but they were eventually accepted by Lieutenant General Mark Clark's Fifth Army. While the 442nd was training in the U.S., the 100th sustained heavy losses, eventually earning the title the "Purple Heart Battalion." On 26 June 1944, two weeks after the 442nd arrived in Europe, the two Nisei units combined to form one single unit, but those who had been a part of the 100th wanted to keep their numerical designation, so they replaced the regiment's 1st Battalion. Keeping with the policy at the time, the unit was segregated, and large number of the other members of the 442nd RCT were previously interned Japanese Americans from the continental United States, commanded by mostly white officers. The combat chronicle of the regiment became a highly storied one, resulting in it becoming one of the most decorated units in the European Theater, taking part in numerous actions in Italy, France and Germany, including the liberation of Dachau concentration camp.
Additionally, Japanese Americans also contributed to the war effort in the Pacific Front serving in the Military Intelligence Service, helping with the decoding of Japanese intelligence and the rebuilding of occupied Japan; the first Asian American women to enter the U.S. military served within this unit through the Women's Army Corps. More than a dozen volunteers from the 442nd were selected to join the Office of Strategic Services and were selected for service in India and Burma, where they conducted covert operations, translation, interrogation, and signal intelligence. Over 33,000 Japanese Americans served in the military during World War II. Upon returning home, Japanese American service members found old prejudices remained.
In 1946, one of the 442nd's soldiers, PFC Sadao Munemori, was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions during the regiment's service in Italy. His award was one of two made to Asian Americans during, or in the immediate aftermath of, the war, and the only one made to a Japanese American. However, in 2000, after a review of other medals awarded to the 442nd, 21 were elevated to Medals of Honor. One of those 21 was presented to Hawaiʻi Senator, and former Captain, Daniel K. Inouye. On 5 October 2010, Congress created the Congressional Gold Medal recognizing the 442nd Regimental Combat Team and the 100th Infantry Battalion, as well as the 6,000 Japanese Americans who served in the Military Intelligence Service during the war.
It has been estimated that between 12,000 and 20,000 Chinese American men, representing up to 22 percent of the men in their portion of the U.S. population, served during World War II. Of those serving about 40 percent were not citizens, and unlike Japanese and Filipino Americans, 75 percent served in non-segregated units. Chinese Americans distinguished themselves from Japanese Americans, and suffered less discrimination. A quarter of those would serve in the U.S. Army Air Forces, some of were sent to the Chinese-Burma-India theater for service with the 14th Air Service Group and the Chinese-American Composite Wing. Another 70 percent would go on to serve in the U.S. Army in various units, including the 3rd, 4th, 6th, 32nd and 77th Infantry Divisions. Prior to the war, the U.S. Navy had recruited Chinese Americans but they had been restricted to serve only as stewards; this continued until May 1942, when restrictions ceased and they were allowed to serve in other ratings. In 1943, Chinese American women were accepted into the Women's Army Corps in the Military Intelligence Service. They were also recruited for service in the Army Air Force, with a few later becoming civilian Women Airforce Service Pilots.
Captain Francis Wai of the 34th Infantry was posthumously awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for actions on the island of Leyte in late 1944; this awarding was later elevated to a Medal of Honor in the 2000 review. Wilbur Carl Sze became the first Chinese American officer commissioned in the Marine Corps.
From the beginning, the Philippines was on the front lines of the new war, as it was attacked shortly after Pearl Harbor. Under the command of General Douglas MacArthur, initially plans were made to defend all of the islands, but following the Japanese landings on Luzon, the US reinstated War Plan Orange and a hasty withdrawal to the Bataan Peninsula followed, denying Japan the use of Manila Bay. In March 1942, under orders from President Franklin D. Roosevelt, MacArthur departed the Philippines. In April 1942, Major General Edward P. King surrendered his force as they could no longer keep up a sustainable defense. Of the 75,000 that surrendered, about 63,000 were Filipinos, and a thousand were Chinese Filipinos. Forced to march to San Fernando, Pampanga, in what later came to be called the Bataan Death March, between 5,000 and 10,000 Filipinos died along the way. A smaller force held out at Fort Mills; however, after an assault, Lieutenant General Jonathan Wainwright surrendered the USAFFE forces that remained in the Philippines in May 1942. Of those who surrendered, 23 were Filipino officers who had graduated from West Point; Japanese forces executed six of these Filipino prisoners of war, including Vicente Lim, who had by then reached the rank of brigadier general.
In the U.S., Filipinos were initially blocked from enlisting, until the laws were revised a day before Japan had begun its invasion back in the Philippines. Some would serve in non-segregated units, yet a segregated infantry battalion was established, which continued to grow and at its peak was split into two units known as the 1st and 2nd Filipino Infantry Regiments. These soldiers were subjected to discrimination during their time training at Camp Beale and Fort Ord, sometimes being mistaken for Japanese Americans when off base. Nevertheless, these units would serve with distinction similar to that of the 442d Infantry Regiment, although their deeds were not as well documented or widely known. By the end of the war, a total of 50,000 decorations, awards, medals, ribbons, certificates, commendations and citations had been awarded to personnel assigned to these two regiments for their service in the New Guinea and Philippines campaigns.
Back in the Philippines, some individual service members and units refused to heed orders to surrender. They began a guerilla campaign to resist the Japanese occupation and were later joined by paroled Filipino USAFFE soldiers, as well as Filipino civilians, and other Allied forces that had been inserted into the islands. Allied forces returned to the Philippines in significant numbers during the Battle of Leyte. These included the Filipino infantry units which had been reduced in size from their peak. Later that year the Philippine Division was reconstituted, and in 1945 those members who elected to remain in the Philippines at the end of the war were transferred to the PCAUS. In all approximately 142,000 Filipinos served during World War II. When recognized guerrillas are taken into account, the number of Filipinos who served increases to over 250,000, and possibly up to over 400,000. This number though is smaller than that recognized for serving in World War II by the Philippines.
Sergeant Jose Calugas became the third Asian American ever and first Asian American during World War II, to receive the Medal of Honor; he would not receive the medal until after the occupation had ended. Later, in the 2000 review of medals awarded to Asian Americans, First Lieutenant Rudolph Davila's Distinguished Service Cross was elevated to a Medal of Honor. While in New Guinea, Lieutenant Colonel Leon Punsalang became the first Asian American to command white troops in combat. For their actions in aiding Allied prisoners of war during the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines, Josefina Guerrero and Florence Finch were both awarded the Medal of Freedom; Finch later enlisted in the Coast Guard Women's Reserve after being liberated from the Philippines and taken to New York.
After a treaty was signed in 1882, Koreans had begun migrating to the U.S. This came to an end when Japan annexed Korea in 1910. When the war began, Korean Americans were treated as enemy aliens, although this changed in 1943, when they were exempted from enemy alien status. About 100 enlisted in the U.S. Army over the course of the war, some of whom served as translators. Over a hundred joined the California National Guard in Los Angeles alone and formed a unit that became known as the "Tiger Brigade". Young-Oak Kim, who had initially been rejected by the Army before being drafted, served as an enlisted soldier in the engineers until he was selected for commissioning in 1943. He went on to serve in the mainly Japanese American 442nd Infantry Regiment, and he was subsequently awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for his actions at the Battle of Anzio. The only Korean American to be awarded that medal during the war, he also received a Silver Star and Purple Heart for actions earlier in the campaign. Fred Ohr, who initially enlisted as a trooper in the 116th Cavalry in 1938, became the only Korean American fighter ace of World War II, shooting down a total of six enemy aircraft and eventually rising to command the 52nd Fighter Group's 2d Fighter Squadron in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations. As of 8 March 2012, he is the only Korean American to achieve the status of ace, and for his actions, Ohr received several medals including the Silver Star with one bronze oak leaf cluster.
Post World War II
After the surrender of Japan, World War II came to an end, and the U.S. military began to demobilize. Millions of service-members were transported home, including the 442nd Regimental Combat Team. In 1946, the regiment was reviewed by President Truman who awarded them their seventh Distinguished Unit Citation. They were subsequently deactivated, but they were reorganized a year later as part of the U.S. Army Reserve. That same year, Truman signed the Rescission Act of 1946, which denied Filipinos who served during World War II in the Commonwealth military and guerrillas, benefits that were afforded to other veterans. With the consent of the Philippine government, 50,000 Philippine Scouts were authorized by Congress, retained, and recruited. As part of the Philippine Division, this force undertook occupation duty on Okinawa until 1947, when the Philippine Scouts were disbanded by presidential order after Truman came to view them as a mercenary organization. In 1948, Truman ordered the desegregation of the U.S. military.
Following Truman's order for the integration of the U.S. military, the majority of segregated Asian American units were disbanded by 1951. Many individuals continued to serve in integrated units following desegregation, although the exact number of Asian Americans who served during the Korean War has not been determined. Despite the official acceptance of the desegregation policy, some units, including the 100th Battalion, 442nd Infantry Regiment, and the 5th Regimental Combat Team, retained strong racial ties, with a predominant number of Asian Americans serving in these units. Of the 36,572 who died during the Korean War, 241 were Asian Americans.
One Asian American received the Medal of Honor for actions during the Korean War. This went to Japanese American Corporal Hiroshi Miyamura of the 7th Infantry Regiment; the awarding of the medal was initially made in secret, as at the time Miyamura was being held by North Koreans as a prisoner of war. Three brothers, Kurt Chew-Een Lee (the first Chinese American Marine officer), Chew-Mon Lee (an army infantry officer), and Chew-Fan Lee (an army medical service officer), all served in different units during the conflict and were awarded the Navy Cross, Distinguished Service Cross, and Bronze Star Medal respectively. Young-Oak Kim, having reenlisted and promoted to major, became the first ethnic minority to command a regular combat battalion, the 1st of the 31st Infantry. Walter Tsukamoto, who was first commissioned in 1927 and entered active duty in 1943, was sent from occupation duty in Japan to Korea in 1950 and was promoted to lieutenant colonel, the first Asian American to achieve that rank in the Army Judge Advocate General's Corps, served as the senior ranking judge advocate for X Corps and was awarded two Bronze Star Medals for his service in Korea.
During the Vietnam War 35,000 Asian Americans served as part of the more than eight million U.S. service personnel that were deployed to South Vietnam, in fully integrated units. Three of them were posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor, including Corporal Terry Kawamura who was, as of March 2014, the last Asian American to receive that medal. During the conflict, in addition to the Asian American personnel that served in conventional units, the Army also formed a special forces team of Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, and Native American Rangers called Team Hawaii, as they could pass for Vietnamese and conduct long range reconnaissance. Discrimination and racism continued to be experience by Asian Americans who served during the conflict. Their loyalty was questioned, and during basic training they were sometimes described as being similar to the Viet Cong. In country, some were fired upon when mistaken for the Viet Cong, and some had medical care delayed after being mistaken for North Vietnamese. Additionally, the Viet Cong especially targeted Asian American service members, sometimes putting a price on their heads. Proportionally, Asian Americans suffered less casualties compared to other ethnic groups in Vietnam, with a total of 139 Asian American servicemen dying during the conflict.
Many other then-future Asian Americans serve the military out of its normal ranks during the conflict. These included groups such as the Hmong and Laotians who fought alongside American service members in the Laotian Civil War, Vietnamese Americans who fought as members of the South Vietnam's armed forces, and Montagnard (also known as Degar) who assisted American forces.
Throughout the war, Filipino American sailors remained restricted to the rating of steward, with 80% of the almost seventeen thousand Filipino American sailors being stewards. The restriction ended in 1973, after the U.S. Senate investigated civil rights issues in the U.S. Navy and opened all ratings to Filipino Americans. In the White House, Filipinos Navy stewards, continued to serve as valets after the restriction was lifted, as late as into the 1990s. By 1989, Asian Americans made up approximately 2.3 percent of the total armed services, slightly greater than their proportion of the total U.S. population at that time (1.6 percent).
During the Gulf War many Asian Americans served in the U.S. military, with some filling senior officer positions, including Major General John Fugh who was promoted to the position of Army Judge Advocate General during the conflict. One Asian American service member died during the conflict.
Recent trends show that Asian Americans, particularly those from California, are enlisting at rates greater than their proportion of population; they are more likely to take up non-combat jobs. In 2009, the Army had Asian Americans serving as 4.4 percent of its commissioned officers, and 3.5 percent of its enlisted personnel. In 2010, Asian Americans made up 3.7 percent of active duty service members, mostly in the Army and Navy, and 3.9 percent of the officers. In 2012, there were about 65,000 immigrants serving in the U.S. armed forces; of those, about 23 percent were from the Philippines.
War on Terrorism
As of 24 January 2013[update], out of the 2,165 deaths that have occurred in Operation Enduring Freedom, 58 have been Asian Americans (44 Soldiers, 8 Marines, and 6 Sailors). An additional 352 Asian American service-members have been wounded (274 Soldiers, 56 Marines, 17 Sailors, and 5 Airmen).
Asian American Marines were part of the first conventional units to enter into Afghanistan in late 2001; including Pakistani American marine Lieutenant Colonel Asad A. Khan. Khan would return to Afghanistan in command of 1st Battalion 6th Marines in 2004; only to be later relieved of command. During Operation Red Wings in 2005, Petty Officer 2nd Class James Suh, a Navy SEAL, was killed in action when the MH-47 he was on crashed after being hit by a rocket propelled grenade. In 2011, Private Danny Chen and Lance Corporal Harry Lew both committed suicide in Afghanistan following hazing; prosecution of several of their unit members followed. Also in 2011, Petty Officer, third class Jonathan Kong, as a corpsman risked his life to save Corporal Michael Dawers who had been shot in a battle near the village of Kotozay; in 2014, Kong was awarded a Silver Star for his actions in 2011
Hundreds of Asian Americans have deployed to Iraq out of the 59,000 plus that are serving in active duty as of May 2009, with one study stating that 2.6 percent have been Asian American. The 100th Infantry Battalion (USAR) was activated in 2004 for its first deployment in Iraq, their first activation since the Vietnam War. At the end of that deployment the unit was authorized to wear the 442nd's shoulder sleeve insignia as a combat patch, the first time this had occurred since World War II. The 100th Infantry Battalion was activated, and deployed to Iraq, for second time from 2008 to 2009. With Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn having ended, 78 Asian American service members died during the conflict.
The first Asian American general was Brigadier General Albert Lyman, who was part Chinese and Hawaiian American. He was followed by Rear Admiral Gordon Chung-Hoon, the first Asian American flag officer. The highest ranked is former Secretary of Veteran Affairs Eric Shinseki, who was a four-star general, and Army Chief of Staff.
In recent years, Asian Americans have been significantly overrepresented at the military academies compared to their share of the national population. Although Asian/Pacific Islander Americans are 3.49% of the national population aged 18–24, they are about 9–10% of the classes of 2014 at West Point, the Naval Academy, and the Air Force Academy.
In popular culture
The following television shows, movies, and songs have depicted events that relate to this article:
- American Pastime
- Apocalypse Meow
- Captain America: The First Avenger
- Go for Broke!
- Only The Brave
- The Great Raid
- The Karate Kid
- The Lost Battalion
- The Next Karate Kid
- The War
- We Were Soldiers
- History of Asian Americans
- List of Asian American Medal of Honor recipients
- List of Asian American servicemembers
- Military history of the United States
- Vietnamese American Armed Forces Association
Minority military history
- Military history of African Americans
- Military history of Hispanic and Latino Americans
- Military history of Jewish Americans
- Military history of Pakistani Americans
- Military history of Sikh Americans
- Native Americans in the American Civil War
- Native Americans and World War II
Asian American military units
- Williams, Rudi (3 June 2005). "DoD's Personnel Chief Gives Asian-Pacific American History Lesson". American Forces Press Service (U.S. Department of Defense). Retrieved 26 August 2009.
- Rodel E. Rodis. "Filipinos in Louisiana". Global Nation. www.inq7.net. Retrieved 14 February 2011.[dead link]
- Williams, Rudi (1999). "Asian/Pacific American Military Timeline". Memorial Day, 1999. Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute. Retrieved 26 August 2009.
- "A Review of Data on Asian Americans". Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute. Department of Defense. August 1998. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- "United States Army Center of Military History Medal of Honor Citations Archive". American Medal of Honor recipients for the Philippine Insurrection. United States Army Center of Military History. 8 June 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2009.
- Annual report of the Secretary of War. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1915. p. 11. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- Allerfeldt, Kristofer (January 2009). "Work or Fight!". Reviews in History. The Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 4 February 2013. "He shows that while the Dawes Act and Alien Land Laws explicitly barred non-whites – Native Americans and Asians rather than ‘coloreds’ (African Americans) – from the ownership of land, the San Diego draft still included ‘American Indians, Japanese Americans, Chinese Americans and Mexican Americans’, all called as part of the ‘“white” quota’. Perhaps unsurprisingly none of these groups ever saw combat, but at least for the Native Americans it contributed to their gaining of citizenship, en masse, in 1924."
- "Fighting for Democracy: Japanese Americans". WETA. Public Broadcasting Service. September 2007. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
- James McIlwain (2012). "Nisei served in U.S. Army Air Corps, Navy, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, and Merchant Marines during World War II". JAVA Advocate (Japanese American Veterans Association) XX (3): 7. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
- "World War II/Post War Era". Timeline. Oakland Museum of California. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
- Emelyn Cruz Lat (25 May 1997). "Aging Filipinos who fought for U.S. live lonely lives waiting for promises to be kept". San Francisco Examiner. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- Kim Young Sik, Ph.D. (9 November 2003). "The Korean Americans in the War of Independence". East Asia. Association for Asia Research. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
- "Asian-Americans i the United States Military during the Korean War". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
- "Korean War Recipients". Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Army. United States Army. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
"Vietnam War Recipients". Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Army. United States Army. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- Dr. Betty D. Maxfield (30 September 2009). "FY09 Army Profile". Headquarters, Department of the Army. United States Army. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- Silva, Eliseo Art Arambulo; Peralt, Victorina Alvarez (2012). Filipinos of Greater Philadelphia. Arcadia Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 9780738592695. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
- Williams, Rudi (19 May 1999). "An Asian Pacific American Timeline". American Forces Press Service (U.S. Department of Defense). Retrieved 27 August 2009. "21-1861 Chinese American John Tomney joins New York Infantry, later dies of wounds at Battle of Gettysburg (1863)."
- "China at Gettysburg". New York Times. 12 July 1863. Retrieved 5 July 2012. "Among the killed at Gettysburgh was a young; Chinaman, known as JOHN TOMMY."
- "Soldiers Biographies, Page 3". Gettysburg National Military Park. National Park Service. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- "Civil War". United States Army. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- Daniel Saxton (2008). "Appomattox Court House". State of the Parks. National Parks Conservation Association. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- Stephen Heidler, David; Jeanne T. Heidler; David J. Coles (2002). Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: a political, social, and military history. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 434. ISBN 978-0-393-04758-5. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- "Joseph Pierce,". Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- "H. Res. 415 [110th]: Honoring Edward Day Cohota, Joseph L. Pierce, and other veterans of Asian and Pacific Islander... (GovTrack.us)". Honoring Edward Day Cohota, Joseph L. Pierce, and other veterans of Asian and Pacific Islander descent who fought in the U.S. Civil War. 110th Congress 2007–2008. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- Lin, Sam Chu. "Chinese American Civil War Veteran Honored In Pennsylvania Ceremonies". Articles of Interest. Committee of 100, inc. Retrieved 27 August 2009.
- Ileto, Reynaldo Clemeña (1998). Filipinos and Their Revolution: Event, Discourse, and Historiography. Ateneo University Press. p. 121. ISBN 9789715502948. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
- O'Donnell-Rosales, John (2006). Hispanic Confederates. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Com. p. ix. ISBN 978-0-8063-5230-5. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- Brett Wishe (2 November 2010). "Filipinos display proud heritage exhibit at Five Corners Library". The Jersey Journal. Retrieved 19 May 2011. "Filled with photos and mini-essays, including old newspaper documents, it chronicles the roles of influential Filipino-Americans, from San Francisco Giants pitcher Tim Lincecum to Felix Cornelius Balderry, a Union soldier in the Civil War."
Dempsey, Jack (2011). Michigan and the Civil War: A Great and Bloody Sacrifice. Charleston, SC: The History Press. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-60949-173-4. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- VADM J.C. Harvey Jr. (18 April 2007). "RAAUZYUW RUENAAA7101 1082000-UUUU—RUCRNAD". United States Navy. Retrieved 29 May 2011. "Seven first-generation Japanese Americans and one Chinese American where killed when the U.S.S. Main was sunk in Havana Harbor in 1898."
- Dr. Robert Winslow. "Philippines". A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World. San Diego State University. Retrieved 8 February 2013. "Although Americans have historically used the term "the Philippine Insurrection," Filipinos and an increasing number of American historians refer to these hostilities as the Philippine-American War (1899–1902), and in 1999 the U.S. Library of Congress reclassified its references to use this term."
- Emerson, William K. (1996). Encyclopedia of United States Army Insignia and Uniforms. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 295. ISBN 9780806126227. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
"History of Camp Crame". Headquarters Support Service. Philippine National Police. 25 August 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2012. "With the official designation and consumption of General Henry T Allen as its first Chief, the Constabulary was formally inaugurated in August 8, 1901 at Intramuros and with the bulk of its organization housed at the Gagalangin Barracks in Manila."
- Olson, John E. (11 May 2007). "The History of the Philippine Scouts". History. Philippine Scouts Heritage Society. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
- Hooker, J.S. (October 1976). "Filipinos in the United States Navy". Naval Historical Center. Department of the Navy. Retrieved 2 September 2009.
- George J., Albert. "The U.S.S. San Diego and the California Naval Militia". The California State Military Museum. California State Military Department. Retrieved 22 September 2009. and
"Medal of Honor RecipientsInterim Awards, 1915–1916". Center of Military History. United States Army. 3 August 2009. Retrieved 22 September 2009.
- Rodney Jaleco (19 October 2010). "Pinoy WWII vets still top Fil-Am concern". ABS-CBN. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
"Asian and Pacific Island American Heritage". Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute. 1998. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- Gelfand, H. Michael (2006). Sea change at Annapolis: the United States Naval Academy, 1949–2000, Volume 415. UNC Press. p. 48. ISBN 9780807830475. Retrieved 2 September 2009.
- Beasley, William (1995). Japan encounters the barbarian: Japanese travellers in America and Europe. Yale University Press. p. 135. ISBN 9780300063240. Retrieved 2 September 2009.
Griffis, William Elliot (1876). The Mikado's Empire. New York: Harper. p. 8. Retrieved 2 September 2009.
- García, Florentino Rodao; Florentino Rodao; Felice Noelle Rodríguez (2001). The Philippine revolution of 1896: ordinary lives in extraordinary times. Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 110. ISBN 9789715503860. Retrieved 2 September 2009.
- The World almanac and book of facts. Newspaper Enterprise Association. 1914. p. 423. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- "The Philippine Independence Act (Tydings-McDuffie Act)". Philippine laws, statutes and codes. Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved 8 July 2012. "For the purposes of the Immigration Act of 1917, the Immigration Act of 1924 [except section 13 (c)], this section, and all other laws of the United States relating to the immigration, exclusion, or expulsion of aliens, citizens of the Philippine Islands who are not citizens of the United States shall be considered as if they were aliens. For such purposes the Philippine Islands shall be considered as a separate country and shall have for each fiscal year a quota of fifty."
- "Europe in 1914". Community Television of Southern California. Public Broadcasting Service. 2004. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- "Village of Columbus and Camp Furlong Columbus, New Mexico". National Park Service. United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- "Mexican Expedition". United States Army Center of Military History. United States Army. 19 November 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- Stacy, Lee (2002). Mexico and the United States. 0761474021: Marshall Cavendish. p. 182. ISBN 0-7614-7402-1. Retrieved 2 September 2009.
- Office of the Historian. "American Entry into World War I, 1917". Bureau of Public Affairs. United States Department of State. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- Wilson, John B. (1998). "The Test – World War I". Maneuver and Firepower: The Evolution of Divisions and Separate Brigades. Army Lineage Series. Washington, D.C.: United States Army Center of Military History. p. 66. ISBN 9780160495717. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- Rinaldi, Richard A. (2004). The US Army in World War I: Orders of Battle. Tiger Lily Publications LLC. p. 73. ISBN 9780972029643. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- Zena Sultana-Babao, America's Thanksgiving and the Philippines' National Heroes Day: Two Holidays Rooted in History and Tradition, Asian Journal, retrieved 12 January 2008
Sol Jose Vanzi (3 June 2004). "Balitang Beterano: Facts about the Philippine independence". Philippine Headline News Online. Retrieved 16OCT09. Check date values in:
"Schools, colleges and Universities: Tomas Claudio Memorial College". Manila Bulletin Online. Archived from the original on 7 July 2007. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- "Thomas Claudio Memorial College". www.tcmc.edu.ph. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- Ferrell, Robert H. (2005). Five Days in October: The Lost Battalion of World War I. University of Missouri Press. p. 97. ISBN 9780826215949. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
Johnson, Thomas M.; Pratt, Fletcher (2000). The Lost Battalion. Edward M. Coffman. University of Nebraska Press. p. 228. ISBN 9780803276130. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
- Slotkin, Richard (2006). Lost Battalions: The Great War and the Crisis of American Nationality. Macmillan. p. 199. ISBN 9780805081381. Retrieved 26 August 2012. "Sing Kee would reeive the Distinguished Service Cross and be promoted to color sergeant, the highest rank attained by a Chinese-American in the AEF."
Nancy Wey (17 November 2004). "Quarantine And Its Aftereffects". Five Views: An Ethnic Historic Site Survey for California. National Park Service. Retrieved 26 February 2013. "On June 13, 1919, Sing Kee returned home to San Jose after receiving the Distinguished Service Cross for bravery in action with the 77th or "Liberty" Division in the Argonne Forest."
"Valor awards for Sing Kee". Military Times Hall of Valor. Gannett Government Media Corporation. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- Salyer, Lucy (December 2004). "Baptism by Fire: Race, Military Service, and U.S. Citizenship Policy, 1918–1935". The Journal of American History 91 (3). Retrieved 4 February 2013.
- Kramer, Paul Alexander (2006). The blood of government: race, empire, the United States, & the Philippines. UNC Press. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-8078-5653-6. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
- Bruscino, Jr., Thomas A. (2009). "Minorities in the Military". In Bradford, James C. A Companion to American Military History: 2 Volume Set. Volume 45 of Blackwell Companions to American History. John Wiley & Sons. p. 887. ISBN 1444315110. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "World War I". Asian Pacific Americans. United States Army. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
Chan, Sucheng (1991). Asian Americans: An Interpretive History. Twayne's immigrant heritage of America series. Twayne. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-8057-8437-4. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "Bhagat Singh Thind". Public Broadcasting System. 2000. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
"Japanese Americans in America's Wars: A Chronology". Japanese American National Museum. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
- Solliday, Scott; Vince Murray (2007). The Filipino American Community (Report). City of Phoenix. http://www.azhistory.net/aahps/f_filipino_etc.pdf. Retrieved 10 March 2011.
- Le Espiritu, Yen (2003). Home Bound: Filipino American Lives across Cultures, Communities, and Countries. University of California Press. p. 29. ISBN 9780520235274. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- Graham, Sylvia (2005). "Firsts & Lasts at USMA". Register of Graduates and Former Cadets. United States Military Academy. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- Truesdell, Leon (1943). "Population, Characteristics of the nonwhite population by race". Sixteenth Census of the United States:1940. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
- "Asian-Americans in Aviation Online Exhibition". http://sandiegoairandspace.org/. San Diego Air & Space Museum. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
"Major Arthus T. Chin, Chinese Air Force". http://www.airpowermuseum.org/. CAF Airpower Museum. 1997. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
Hedge, Rosa L. (2007). A Review of Minority Recruitment Programs in Aviation Education Programs. Oklahoma State University: ProQuest. p. 23. ISBN 9780549363880. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- "1939: Germany invades Poland". BBC News. 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
- Ayling, Keith (1943). They Fly for Victory. T. Nelson and sons. p. 119.
- Potter, Elmer Belmont; Adams, Henry Hitch (1981). Sea Power: A Naval History. Naval Institute Press. p. 255. ISBN 9780870216077. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
- "1941: Japanese planes bomb Pearl Harbor". On this Day. BBC News. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- Kim, Hyung-chan (1999). Distinguished Asian Americans: a biographical dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 135. ISBN 0-313-28902-6. Retrieved 13 September 2009.
- "Philippine Islands". Center of Military History. U.S. Army. 3 October 2003. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "100th Infantry battalion". History. Go For Broke National Education Center. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- Hirin, Mazie K. "Congresswoman Hirono Statement on Legislation Honoring "Go For Broke" Japanese-American WWII Veterans with the Congressional Gold Medal". Floor Statements. United States House of Representatives. Retrieved 31 December 2012. "in spite of these acts of loyalty and courage, the U.S. Army discharged all Nisei in the ROTC unit, changed their draft status to ineligible, and segregated all Japanese Americans in the military on the mainland out of their units."
- McKay, Kevin; Chang, Diane (9 May 2012). "Seven posthumous degrees to be awarded at ROTC Commissioning Ceremony". News release archive. The University of Hawaii System. Retrieved 31 December 2012. "In the hours following the bombing, all UH ROTC cadets were told to report to duty, forming the Hawai‘i Territorial Guard (HTG), which was assigned to guard military installations on O‘ahu. A month later, members who were of Japanese ancestry were expelled from the HTG because of their ethnicity."
- Miho, Katsugo (2006). "Home Frot". The Hawaii Nisei Project. University of Hawaii. Retrieved 31 December 2012. "On January 19, 1942, all men of Japanese ancestry in the Hawaii Territorial Guard are discharged."
- Robinson, Greg (2010). A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America. Columbia University Press. p. 119. ISBN 9780231129237. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- "Timeline". History. Go For Broke National Education Center. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "100th Battalion, 442d Infantry". Center of Military History. U.S. Army. 3 August 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- Rudi Williams (25 May 2000). "The "Go for Broke" Regiment Lives Duty, Honor, Country". American Forces Press Service. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
- Nakagawa, Martha. "In Times of War". Rights of Passage. Community Television of Southern California. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- Pike, John (23 May 2005). "100th Battalion, 442nd Infantry". Military. GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Central Europe Campaign (552nd Field Artillery battalion)". History. Go For Broke National Education Center. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- "Occupied Japan". Campaigns of the Pacific. Military Intelligence Service Association of Northern California. 2003. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
"Pacific Theater". Campaigns of the Pacific. Military Intelligence Service Association of Northern California. 2003. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
McNaughton, James C. (2007). Nisei Linguists: Japanese Americans in the Military Intelligence Service during World War II. Center of Military History, United States Army. p. 514. ISBN 1780390432. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- Rudi Williams (27 May 1999). "Asian Pacific American Women Served in World War II, Too". American Forces Press Service. United States Department of Defense. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
- "Japanese Americans in World War II Intelligence". Featured Story Archive. Central Intelligence Agency. 11 May 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
- "Sadao S. Munemori". Military Times Hall of Valor. Gannett Government Media Corporation. Retrieved 30 October 2012. "Sadao Munemori was the ONLY Japanese-American awarded the Medal of Honor during or immediately after World War II. With prejudice still strong, it required intervention by Congress to at last see him posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor."
- "Asian Pacific American World War II". Medal of Honor Recipients. United States Army Center of Military History. 8 June 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2009.
- Steffen, Jordan (6 October 2010), White House honors Japanese American WWII veterans, The Los Angeles Times
- Wong, Kevin Scott (2005). Americans first: Chinese Americans and the Second World War. Harvard University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-674-01671-2. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
- "One Fifth of Chinese Americans Fight Fascism in World War II". Xinhua News Agency. 28 May 2001. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
- "Asian Americans:World War II". Calisphere. The Regents of The University of California. 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
- James C. McNaughton (3 August 2009). "Chinese-Americans in World War II". Center of Military History. United States Army. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
- Wong, Kevin Scott (2005). Americans first: Chinese Americans and the Second World War. Harvard University Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-674-01671-2. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
- Major Karen J. Gregory, USAFR. "Asian Pacific American Heritage Month". Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute. Retrieved 31 May 2011. "On December 15, 1943, Wilbur Carl Sze was commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant and the first Chinese-American officer in the U.S. Marine Corps"
"apa-usmc02". Asian Pacific American Heritage Month 2002. Department of Defense. 2002. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
- Louis Morton. "Chapter 6". Center of Military History. United States Army. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
- Merriam, Ray (1999), War in the Philippines, Merriam Press, pp. 70–82, ISBN 1-57638-164-1, retrieved 31 January 2008
- Morton, Louis (2000). "The Decision To Withdraw to Bataan". In Greenfield, Kent Roberts. Command Decisions. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army. p. 169. LCCN 59-60007. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
- Morton, Louis (1953). "Command". In Greenfield, Kent Roberts. The Fall of the Philippines. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army. p. 357. LCCN 53-63678. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- Morton, Louis (1953). "Surrender". In Greenfield, Kent Roberts. The Fall of the Philippines. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army. p. 466. LCCN 53-63678. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- "Bataan death March". Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Army. United States Army. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
- Rottman, Gordon (2012). The Cabanatuan Prison Raid -?The Philippines 1945. Osprey Publishing. p. 4. ISBN 9781782004974. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
- Gordon, Maj. Richard M., (U.S. Army, retired) (28 October 2002). "Bataan, Corregidor, and the Death March: In Retrospect". Retrieved 27 September 2007.
"Bataan Death March". The Brooke County Public Library Foundation-ADBC Museum. Brooke County Public Library. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
- "All American forces in the Philippines surrender unconditionally". History.com. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- Colonel Clarence E. Endy, Jr. (4 May 1981). "USMA Foreign Cadet Program—A Case Study". United States Army War College. Defense Technical Information center. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- Frank, Sarah (2005). Filipinos in America. Lerner Publications. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-8225-4873-7. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
- Doroteo V. Vite. "A Filipino Rookie In Uncle Sam's Army". Asian American Studies 456 Filipinos In America Course Reader. San Francisco State University. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
- Alex S. Fabros. "California's Filipino Infantry". The California State Military Museum. California State Military Department. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
- Baldoz, Rick (2011). The Third Asiatic Invasion: Migration and Empire in Filipino America, 1898–1946. New York: NYU Press. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-8147-9109-7. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
- Nakano, Satoshi (2004). "The Filipino World War II veterans equity movement and the Filipino American community". Seventh Annual International Philippine Studies (Center for Pacific And American Studies). Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- Andrew Ruppenstien; Manny Santos (21 January 2010). "The First and Second Filipino Infantry Regiments U.S. Army". Historic Marker Database. Retrieved 10 May 2011. "Personnel won more than 50,000 decorations, awards, medals, ribbons, certificates, commendations and citations."
- "The Guerrilla War". MacArthur. PBS. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
Rottman, Gordon L. (2005). Us Special Warfare Units in the Pacific Theater 1941–45. Osprey Publishing. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-84176-707-9. Retrieved 14 November 2009.
- Scott Ishikawa (30 November 2001). "New film depicts Filipino regiments' exploits". Honolulu Advertiser. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
Frank, Sarah (2005). Filipinos in America. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Lerner Publications. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-8225-4873-7. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- (Nota Bene: These combat chronicles, current as of October 1948, are reproduced from The Army Almanac: A Book of Facts Concerning the Army of the United States, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950, pp. 510–592.)
- J. Michael Houlahan (11 May 2007). "Post World War II Philippine Scouts". History. Philippine Scouts Heritage Society. Retrieved 14 November 2009.
Senator Daniel Akaka (25 July 1997). "Statement on Senator Daniel K. Akaka before the Senate Veterans' Affairs committee hearing on pending legislation". Senator Daniel Akaka. United States Senate. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- "VA Benefits for Filipino Veterans". United States Department of Veterans Affairs. April 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
"Philippine Army and Guerrilla Records". National Personnel Records Center, St. Louis. The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- Virginia Yap Morales, Maria (2006). Diary of the war: World War II memoirs of Lt. Col. Anastacio Campo. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 198. ISBN 978-971-550-489-8. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
Canonizado Buell, Evengeline; Evelyn Luluguisen; Lillian Galedo; Eleanor Hipol Luis (2008). Filipinos in the East Bay. Arcadia Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7385-5832-5. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- "Asian Heritage in the National Park Service Cultural Resources Programs". National Park Service. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- Jaleco, Rodney (4 August 2010). "Excluded Fil-Vets Now Eligible for Lump-Sum Money". Balitang America (ABS-CBN). Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- Sterner, C. Douglas (2007). Go For Broke: The Nisei Warriors of World War II Who Conquered Germany. Clearfield, Utah: American Legacy Media. pp. 134–135. ISBN 978-0-9796896-1-1. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- Carole Beers (24 January 1998). "Jose Calugas, Medal of Honor Winnier 'Death March' Survivor". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- Richard Goldstein (11 February 2002). "Rudolph Davila, 85, Recipient of Highest Award for Valor". New York Times. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- Dr. Steven M. Graves. "Geography 417". Geography 417. California State University, Northridge. Retrieved 18 May 2011. "Lt. Col. Leon Punsalang, a West Point graduate, command of the 1st Battalion marking the first time in that an Asian American commanded white troops in combat."
- "Florence Ebersole Smith Finch, USCGR (W)". United States Coast Guard. United States Department of Homeland Security. 8 May 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
- Carey Giudici (31 May 2001). "Korean Americans in King County". Cyberpedia Library. HistoryLink.org. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
- May Chow (10–16 January 2003). "Korean American History". Asian Week. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
Armstrong, Charles K. (2007). The Koreas. New York, New York: CRC Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-415-94853-1. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- Taus-Bolstad, Stacy (2005). Koreans in America. Lerner Publications. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-8225-4874-4. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
- Kim, Kathrine Yungmee (2011). Los Angeles's Koreatown. Arcadia Publishing. p. 55. ISBN 9780738575520. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
Wilmoth, Janet M.; London, Andrew S. (2013). Life Course Perspectives on Military Service. Routledge. p. 85. ISBN 9780415879415. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
Ryang, Sonia; Lie, John (2009). Diaspora Without Homeland: Being Korean in Japan. University of California Press. p. 161. ISBN 9780520098633. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
"California Korean Reserve". California State Military Museum. California State Military Department. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
- "PODCASTS". Oral History. Go For Broke National Education Center. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
- Gregg K. Kakesako (4 January 2006). "Soldier embodied bravery of 100th Battalion vets". Honolulu Star Bulletin. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
- C. Douglas Sterner. "Anzio and the Road to Rome". HomeOfHeroes.com. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
- Margaret Downing (10 November 2011). "Veterans Day: Korean-American defied the odds to become ace fighter pilot". Stateline News. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
- Bledsoe, Larry W. (2008). "Fighter Pilots Lived Their Dreams". Airport Journal (Hansen Airport Journals LLC). Retrieved 8 March 2012.
- "World War II American Fighter Aces at Museum". The Museum of Flight. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 8 March 2012. "The Museum will host a panel of three fighter pilots: Capt. Fred Ohr, who is the only American ace of Korean ancestry, and had six aerial victories and 17 ground victories; Lt. Col. Richard W. Asbury, who participated in 240 combat missions spanning three wars; and Lt. Col. Stan Richardson, who flew P-38s and P-51s in the European Theater during World War II, and participated in the D-Day Invasion."
- "100th Battalion, 442nd Infantry". GlobalSecurity.org. 23 May 2005. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
- "The Filipino Veterans Movement". WGBH Educational Foundation. Public Broadcasting Service. 1996. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
Keith Rogers (3 February 2013). "Ron Paul to speak to Filipino WWII veterans at rally". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
- Wilson, John B.; Jeffrey J. Clarke (1998). Maneuver and Firepower. Washington D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army. p. 212. Retrieved 22 November 2009. "As the nation demobilized, Congress approved, with the consent of the Philippine government, the maintenance of 50,000 Philippine Scouts (PS) as occupation forces for Japan. On 6 April 1946 Maj. Gen. Louis E. Hibbs, who had commanded the 63d Infantry Division during the war, reorganized the Philippine Division, which had surrendered on Bataan in 1942, as the 12th Infantry Division (PS). Unlike its predecessor, the 12th's enlisted personnel were exclusively Philippine Scouts.
The War Department proposed to organize a second Philippine Scout division, the 14th, but never did so. After a short period President Harry S. Truman decided to disband all Philippine Scout units, determining that they were not needed for duty in Japan. The United States could not afford them, and he felt the Republic of the Philippines, a sovereign nation, should not furnish mercenaries for the United States. Therefore, the Far East Command inactivated the 12th Infantry Division (PS) in 1947 and eventually inactivated or disbanded all Philippine Scout units."
- Triplet, William S.; Robert H. Ferrell (2001). In the Philippines and Okinawa: a memoir, 1945–1948. University of Missouri Press. p. 299. ISBN 978-0-8262-1335-8. Retrieved 14 November 2009.
- Neal, Steve (2002). Harry and Ike: The Partnership That Remade the Postwar World. Simon and Schuster. p. 103. ISBN 9780743223744. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
"This Day in Truman History: July 26, 1948". Harry S. Truman Library and Museum. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- Boose Jr., Donald W. (2002). "Hills of Sacrifice: The 5th RCT in Korea". Korean Studies 26 (2): 316–318. doi:10.1353/ks.2004.0003. Archived from the original on 2002. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
- "Active Duty Military Deaths – Race/Ethnicity Summary". Defense Manpower Data Center. United States Department of Defense. 25 July 2009. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- Lou Hoffman. "History: Korean War". The New Mexico Veterans' Memorial, Museum, & Conference Center. City of Albuquerque. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- United States Congress (22 March 2001). "America's First Top Secret Hero". Congressional Record. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
- Tom, Lawrence; Tom, Brian; Chinese American Museum of Northern California (2010). Sacramento's Chinatown. Arcadia Publishing. p. 95. ISBN 9780738580661.
Philip Chin (17 October 2011). "A Short History About Chinese American Military Veterans". Asian Week. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
Drury, Bob; Clavin, Tom; Drury, Tom (2009). The Last Stand of Fox Company: A True Story of U.S. Marines in Combat. Grove Press. p. 256. ISBN 9780802144515. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
"Chew-Mon Lee". Military Times Hall of Valor. Gannett Government Media Corporation. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
"Uncommon Courage: Breakout at Chosin". Smithsonian Channel. Smithsonian Institution. 2010. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
"Kurt Chew-Een Lee". Military Times Hall of Valor. Gannett Government Media Corporation. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
- Mary Graybill. "Colonel Young Oak Kim (U.S. Army Ret.), 86; Decorated US WWII and Korean War Veteran". Press releases. Go For Broke National Education Center. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
- Borch III, Fred L. (2011). "Colonel Walter T. Tsukamoto: No Judge Advocate Loved America or the Army More". The Army Lawyer (Judge Advocate General's Legal Center and School): 1–5. ISSN 0364-1287. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
Kobayashi, Doris Tsukamoto; Kobayashi, Charles; Ashizawa, Laura Kobayashi (15 June 2002). "Colonel Walter Takeo Tsukamoto". Japanese American Veterans Association. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
Hirohata, Derek K. (12 May 2011). "Remembering a Japanese-American Judge Advocate: Colonel Walter Tsukamoto". The Judge Advocate General's Corps. United States Air Force. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
- Janet Dang (3–9 December 1998). "The Wounds of War-And Racism". AsianWeek. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- Zhan, Lin (2003). "Culture, Health, and Practices". In Zhan, Lin. Asian Americans: Vulnerable Populations, Model Interventions, and Clarifying Agendas. Other Nursing Titles of Interest Series. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 20. ISBN 9780763722418. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- Whelchel, Toshio (1999). From Pearl Harbor to Saigon: Japanese American Soldiers and the Vietnam War. The Haymarket series. Verso Books. p. 104. ISBN 9781859848593. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- Zhan, Lin (2003). "Culture, Health, and Practices". In Zhan, Lin. Asian Americans: Vulnerable Populations, Model Interventions, and Clarifying Agendas. Other Nursing Titles of Interest Series. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 26. ISBN 9780763722418. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Racism against Asians persists in military". Worcester Telegram & Gazette. Associated Press. 19 February 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
- Michael Kelley (July 1998). "Myths & Misconceptions: Vietnam War Folklore". The Vietnam Conflict. De Anza College. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- Hannah Fischer (13 July 2005). "American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics". Navy Department Library. United States Navy. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- Kelly, Francis John (1989) . History of Special Forces in Vietnam, 1961–1971. Washington, D.C.: United States Army Center of Military History. pp. 6–7. CMH Pub 90-23.
- Farolan, Ramon (21 July 2003). "From Stewards to Admirals: Filipinos in the U.S. Navy". Asian Journal. Retrieved 2 September 2009.
Jon Cruz (1 January 1999). Elliott Robert Barkan, ed. A Nation of Peoples: A Sourcebook on America's Multicultural Heritage. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-313-29961-2.
- Wilmoth, Janet M.; London, Andrew S. (2013). Life Course Perspectives on Military Service. Routledge. p. 85. ISBN 9780415879415. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- Scharff, Ned (29 July 1974). "Filipinos Remain As White House Lackeys". Daytona Beach Morning Journal. Washington Star News Service. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- Martin, Michel (22 July 2014). "The White House Doctor". NPR. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
"Chinese guard harasses Clinton's two valets". The Boston Globe. Reuters. 26 June 1998. Retrieved 24 September 2014. "McCurry described the Chinese guard as over-excited and said Clinton's Secret Service agents told him that the two were Clinton's personal valets, who are Filipino-Americans."
Tabafunda, James (21 October 2010). "1st API female doctor to three U.S. presidents speaks on honoring Filipino roots". NorthwestAsianWeekly 29 (43). Retrieved 24 September 2014.
Connie Mariano (2010). Dr. Connie Mariano, "The White House Doctor: My Patients Were Presidents - A Memoir". BookTV, CSPAN. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- LtCol F. T. Fowler (December 1989). "Asian-Pacific-American Heritage Week – 1990". Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute. Department of Defense. Retrieved 4 March 2011.
- "Gulf War". Army.mil features. United States Army. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- St. Louis Chinese American News. "Accomplished Chinese American: John Liu Fugh". Archive. St. Louis Chinese American News. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
Adam Bernstein (12 May 2010). "Maj. Gen. John L. Fugh, 75, dies; served as Army's judge advocate general". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- H.G. Reza (27 February 1992). "Navy to Stop Recruiting Filipino Nationals : Defense: The end of the military base agreement with the Philippines will terminate the nearly century-old program.". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
PH2 Clayton Farrington (August 1992). "The Last Recruits: Philippine Citizens Take Oath in Subic Bay". All Hands.
- Lonny Shavelson (21 June 2010). "More Asian-Americans Signing Up For The Army". NPR. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "Chen case: Asian-American soldiers endure bias". Wall Street Journal. Associated Press. 19 February 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
Test, Samantha (2012). "Attention turns to Asian Americans in the military in light of recent suicides and increased enrollment". Northwest Asian Weekly (Northwest Asian Weekly) 31 (17). Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- Rodney Jaleco (18 June 2012). "Pinoy sailors in US Navy eye deployment to PH". ABS-CBN. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
- "U.S. Military Casualties – Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) Military Deaths". Defense Manpower Data Center. United States Department of Defense. 24 January 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- "U.S. Military Casualties – Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) Wounded in Action". Defense Manpower Data Center. United States Department of Defense. 24 January 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- Swing, Peter J. (2001). "Reflections of War and a Makeshift Altar". Hyphen Magazine (Independent Arts & Media) (22). Retrieved 30 March 2011.
- Tempest, Rone (25 May 2002). "U.S. Heroes Whose Skills Spoke Volumes". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- Lowrey, Colonel Nathan S. (2011). U.S. Marines in Afghanistan, 2001-2002: From the Sea. Washington, D.C.: History Division, United States Marine Corps. p. 299-300. ISBN 978-0-16-089557-9.
Khan, Asad A. (28 October 2009). "AFPAK Underlying Issues - Not Addressed". Congressman Jim McDermott. United States House of Representatives. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- Tate, David (22 October 2010). "When afghan First Means Afghan Last". POV. PBS. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Yearly Chronologies of the United States Marine Corps - 2004". History Division. United States Marine Corps. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
Hope Hodge (13 May 2013). "Recent reliefs indicate new fine line for Marine Corps commanders". Marine Corps Times. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "James Suh". Memorial. NavySEALs.com. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "Samantha Test" (18 Apirl 2012). "Attention turns to Asian Americans in the military in light of recent suicides and increased enrollment". Northwest Asian Weekly 31 (17). Retrieved 21 September 2014. Check date values in:
Thompson, Mark (12 October 2011). "More Military Abuse in Afghanistan, Another Suicide". Time. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
"Lawmakers press for answers on hazing in military". USA Today. Associated Press. 2 February 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
- Jenkins, Colleen (17 December 2012). "U.S. Army soldier faces discharge after Asian-American soldier's hazing". Chicago Tribune. Reuters. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
Nessen, Stephen (18 December 2012). "With Trials Complete, Little Closure for Family of Pvt. Danny Chen". WYNC. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
McAvoy, Audrey (30 January 2012). "Marine gets 30 days, rank reduction for assault". San Diego Union Tribune. Associated Press. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
McAvoy, Audrey (23 February 2014). "Marine found not guilty in hazing suicide case: Last of three who faced court-martial in death of lance corporal in Afghanistan". NBC News. Associated Press. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
- Herrera, Craig (19 September 2014). "Navy hospital corpsman receives Silver Star at Camp Pendleton". KOGO. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
Myers, Megan (20 September 2014). "Former HM3 receives Silver Star for saving Marine's life". Navy Times. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
- "Democrats Advancing the State of Our Union for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders". Democratic Policy Committee. United States Senate. 26 January 2007. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
"Report: Racism towards Asian Americans persists". San Diego News Network. 13 May 2009. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- Ricardo E. Jorge, MD (1 June 2008). "Mood and Anxiety Disorders Following Traumatic Brain Injury: Differences Between Military and Nonmilitary injuries". Psychiatric Times. Archived from the original on 24 March 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2011.
- Harold P. Estabrooks (21 August 2005). "100th Battalion's values live on in Iraq". The Honolulu Advertiser. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
William Cole (3 October 2004). "'Go For Broke' battalion swells with pride as it readies for war". The Honolulu Advertiser. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- "Lineage And Honors Information: 100th Battalion, 442nd Infantry Regiment". U.S. Army Center of Military History. United States Army. 14 January 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
Gregg K. Kakesako (25 December 2005). "100th Battalion marks Yule in Iraq". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Archived from the original on 19 February 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- William Cole (24 March 2006). "Hawaii Guard troops can keep combat patches". Army Times. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
William Cole (21 March 2006). "Some Hawai'i citizen-soldiers must trade-in patches earned in combat". Honolulu Advertiser. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "Gold medal honors, inspires". Honolulu Star Advertiser. 7 October 2010. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
"Recognizing Echo Company of 100th Infantry Battalion of the 442d Infantry (House of Representatives – December 07, 2009)". Congressional Record 111th Congress (2009–2010). Library of Congress. Retrieved 8 January 2013. "Whereas Company E has served with great honor and distinction for two tours in Iraq in 2004–2006 and 2008–2009;"
- Hannah Fischer (19 February 2014). "U.S. Military Casualty Statistics: Operation New Dawn, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation Enduring Freedom". Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
"Operation Iraqi Freedom Military Deaths". Department of Defense Personnel & Procurement Statistics. United States Department of Defense. 7 May 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- Lisa Wong Macabasco (22 January 2008). "Lyman Brothers, First Asian Americans to Gain General’s Rank". Asian Week. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
- "Asians Asians and Pacific Islanders and in the United States Navy". Naval History & Heritage Command. United States Navy. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2011. "Gordon Chung-Hoon, a Hawaiian-born Chinese American and a 1934 U.S. Naval Academy graduate, was the first Asian American to command a Navy warship, USS Sigsbee (dd 502). When a kamikaze attacked caused explosions and flooding on board the destroyer, Chung-Hoon directed damage control, enabling the crew to save the ship. Awarded the Navy Cross for his actions, he was later promoted to rear admiral, making him the first Asian American flag officer."
- Harper, Jon; Tritten, Travis J. (30 May 2014). "VA Secretary Eric Shinseki resigns". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Julianna Goldman (6 December 2008). "Obama to Name Eric Shinseki to Head Veteran Affairs (Update1)". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2 May 2011. "Shinseki, who served in the Army for 38 years, became the highest-ranking Asian-American in U.S. military history when he was named chief of staff in 1999."
- "Racial Composition of New Enlisted Recruits in 2006 and 2007". The Heritage Foundation. 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
- Public Affairs Office (21 June 2010). "News Release". United States Military Academy. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
- "2014 Class Portrait". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
- Tammie Adams (2 July 2010). "Focus on newcomers: Class of 2014". Colorado Springs Military Newspaper Group. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
- Asian Pacific Americans in the U.S. Army
- Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Army
- Asian and Pacific Islander Americans in the U.S. Navy
- Asian-Pacific Americans and the U.S. Coast Guard