Military of Kuwait
|Military of Kuwait
|the Emir, Commander-in-chief||Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah|
|900,745 (2010 est.), age 15–49|
|857,292 (2010 est.), age 15–49|
|22,000 (2005 est.)|
|Budget||US$4.7 billion (2008)|
The Military of Kuwait consists of several joint defense forces. The governing bodies are the Kuwait Ministry of Defense, the Kuwait Ministry of Interior, the Kuwait National Guard and the Kuwait Fire Service Directorate. The Emir of Kuwait is the commander-in-chief of all defense forces and the Crown Prince is the deputy commander.
The early military organization which first dealt with security and the military following defense infantry and cavalry protecting the defensive wall of Kuwait was the Directorate of Public Security Force which already included the Kuwaiti Army as an independent force following the formation of the first cabinet on June 17, 1962 after the independence. In 1953, the Kuwaiti Army split from the Directorate of Public Security Force giving formation to the newly established Ministry of Interior. The Ministry of Interior includes the Kuwaiti Coast Guard  and has several military commanders, designated by government protocol as assistant ministers undersecretaries, each reporting to the Minister of Interior who is designated by protocol as Deputy Prime Minister of Kuwait.
The Kuwait Ministry of Defense is the governing body of the Kuwait Armed Forces, which includes the Kuwaiti Army with Kuwait 25th Commando Brigade, the Kuwaiti Navy, the Kuwaiti Air Force, the Kuwait Military Fire Service Directorate, the Kuwait Emiri Guard Brigade, the Kuwait Military Police Brigade. Each armed force has its own combat commander who reports to Chief of General Staff of the Kuwait Armed Forces who later reports to the Minister of Defense.
The Kuwait National Guard however is an independent combat institution from the Ministry of Defense and Interior and acts independently at the discretion of its own leadership supporting the Military of Kuwait as needed and required.
The Kuwait Fire Service Directorate is also an independent combat body part of the Military of Kuwait.
- 1 Organization
- 2 List of commanding generals prior to independence
- 3 List of generals and commanders post-independence
- 4 List of Ministers of Interior and Deputy Prime Ministers (1961-present)
- 5 List of Ministers of Defense and Deputy Prime Ministers (1961-present)
- 6 History
- 6.1 Demolition of Kuwait City Defensive Wall, and formation of the Kuwait Armed Forces
- 6.2 Operation Vantage 1961
- 6.3 Establishment of the General Chief of Staff Headquarters (1963)
- 6.4 Six Day War (1967) and War of Attrition (1967-1970)
- 6.5 Double-fronted wars: 1973 Sanita border skirmish and October War
- 6.6 Kuwaiti Embassy protection and general support to Halt the Lebanese Civil War (1975-1990)
- 6.7 Creation of the Kuwaiti Navy (1978)
- 6.8 Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988)
- 6.9 First joint Kuwaiti-Saudi air drills (1983)
- 6.10 Creation of the Kuwaiti Army (1988)
- 6.11 Iraqi invasion and aftermath (1990)
- 6.12 Gulf War and Operation Desert Storm (1990-1991)
- 6.13 October 1994 crisis with Iraq
- 6.14 Operation Desert Strike (1996)
- 6.15 Operation Desert Fox (1998)
- 6.16 50th anniversary of the Kuwait Armed Forces (1999)
- 7 Since 2004
- 8 Ranks of the Military of Kuwait
- 9 2015 Intervention in Yemen
- 10 Order of battle
- 10.1 Kuwait Naval Force
- 10.2 Kuwait Air Force
- 10.3 Kuwait Army
- 10.4 Kuwait Emiri Guard Brigade
- 10.5 Kuwait 25th Commando Brigade
- 10.6 Kuwait Commando Marine Units
- 10.7 Kuwait Military Police Brigade
- 10.8 Kuwait National Guard
- 10.9 Kuwait Ministry of Interior
- 10.10 Kuwait Coast Guard
- 10.11 Kuwait Military Fire Service Directorate
- 10.12 Kuwait Fire Service Directorate
- 11 Relationship with the United States Armed Forces
- 12 See also
- 13 Notes
- 14 References and links
The Kuwait Army is the primary land force of the Kuwait Armed Forces. The Army was established in 1949.
The Kuwait Air Force is air component of the Kuwait Armed Forces.
The Kuwait Navy is the sea based component of the Kuwait Armed Forces.
The Kuwait Emiri Guard Brigade is an independent combat brigade in the Kuwait Armed Forces.
The Kuwait 25th Commando Brigade is an independent commando combat brigade part of the Kuwait Army in the Kuwait Armed Forces.
The Kuwait Commandos Marine Units are indendent commando combat units part of the Kuwait Navy in the Kuwait Armed Forces.
The Kuwait Military Police is an independent combat brigade in the Kuwait Armed Forces.
The Kuwaiti National Guard, considered a combat institution, is an independent body from the Kuwait Armed Forces and Kuwait Police and is a main internal and border protection security force.
The Kuwaiti Ministry of Interior is an independent corps from the Kuwait Armed Forces and is an internal, coastal and border security force with combating and non combatant elements.
The Kuwait Coast Guard is a sea based component of the Ministry of Interior.
The Kuwait Fire Service Directorate are the public fire fighters.
The Kuwait Military Fire Service Directorate are the military fire fighters of the Kuwait Armed Forces.
According to the London-based International Institute for Strategic Studies, in 2007 the Kuwaiti army had around 11,000 personnel, the air force 2,500, and the navy 10 patrol and coastal craft, and there were 23,000 reservists for all services not including uniformed men and women of the Ministry of Interior and military of the Fire Service Directorate. There were 6,600 paramilitary Kuwaiti National Guard forces. It was considered that, although Kuwaiti’s armed forces remained small, training and military readiness were taken seriously, and were effective at the brigade and squadron level.:40 The combat operational doctrine is different amongst the various defense forces and is highly dependent of operational capabilities and general manning formations within sizes and equipment.
Protocol designations of Defense and Interior Ministers
Both the Kuwaiti Minister of Defense and the Kuwaiti Minister of Interior are officially designated by protocol as Kuwaiti Deputy Prime Ministers excluding the leadership and Minister of the Kuwait National Guard, and report to the Prime Minister (as of 2014[update] Sheikh Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah). The Prime Minister then reports to the Deputy Supreme Commander of the Military(as of 2014[update] Sheikh Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, the Crown Prince of Kuwait), who finally reports to the Supreme Commander of the Military of Kuwait, His Highness the Emir of Kuwait.
List of commanding generals prior to independence
Cavalry Commanders of Kuwait prior to the discovery of oil (1716-1928)
|Sabah I Al-Jaber Al-Sabah||Cavalry Commander||1716-1762||1st Ruler of Kuwait.
Was a lead Cavalry Commander amongst the Tribes of Arabia in the Arabian Peninsula.
|Abdullah I Sabah I Al-Sabah||Cavalry Commander||1763-1813||2nd Ruler of Kuwait|
|Jaber II Al-Abdullah II Al-Sabah||Cavalry Commander||1813-1859||3rd Ruler of Kuwait|
|Sabah II Al-Jaber II Al-Sabah||Cavalry Commander||1859-1866||4th Ruler of Kuwait|
|Abdullah II Al-Sabah II Al-Sabah||Cavalry Commander||1866-1893||5th Ruler of Kuwait|
|Muhammed Al-Sabah II Al-Sabah||Cavalry Commander||1893-1896||6th Ruler of Kuwait|
|Mubarak Al-Sabah||Cavalry Commander||1857-1896||7th Ruler of Kuwait|
|Jaber Abdullah II Al-Sabah||Cavalry Commander||1878-1920||killed during the Battle of Jahra|
|Jaber II Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah||Cavalry Commander||1878-1915||8th Ruler of Kuwait|
|Salem Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah||Cavalry Commander||1882-1917||9th Ruler of Kuwait (1917-1921)
Led the cavalry and infantry during the Battle of Hamdh.
Led the infantry and cavalry from wihin and outside the Kuwait Red Fort during the Battle of Jahra.
|Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah||Cavalry Commander||1903-1921||10th Ruler of Kuwait (1921-1950); founder of the Kuwait Public Security Force and early stages of the Military of Kuwait.
Ahmed Al Jaber Air Base is named after him.
Battle General Commanders of Defense and Security Forces (1928-1938)
|Ali Al-Salem Al-Sabah||General Commander||1920-1928||killed during the Battle of Al-Regeai. Ali Al Salem Air Base is named after him.|
|Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah||General Commander||1928-1938||pioneer in the early stages of the Military of Kuwait|
Directors of the Kuwait Public Security Force (1938-1953)
|Ali Al-Khalifa Al-Sabah||General Commander||1938-1940|
|Abdullah Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah||Field Marshal||1942-1961||Founder of the Kuwaiti Army and Kuwaiti Air Force.
Abdullah Al-Mubarak Air Base is named after him.
Deputy Directors of the Kuwait Public Security Force (1938-1953)
|Abdullah Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah||Field Marshal||1938-1942|
|Mubarak Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah||Lieutenant General||1953-1961||1st Chief of the General Staff of the Kuwait Armed Forces and deputy head of the Kuwaiti Army within the Kuwait Public Security Force|
List of generals and commanders post-independence
Chiefs of General Staff of Kuwait Armed Forces (1961- Present)
- Lieutenant General Sheikh Mubarak Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (1961-1980)
- Lieutenant General Abdullah Faraj Al-Ghanim (1980-1986)
- Lieutenant General Mezyad Al-Saneh ( 1987-1991)
- Lieutenant General Sheikh Jaber Al-Khaled Al-Sabah (1992-1993)
- Lieutenant General Ali Al-Moumen (1993-2003)
- Lieutenant General Fahed Ahmad Al-Amir (2003-2009)
- Lieutenant General Sheikh Ahmad Al Khalid Al Sabah (2009-2012)
- Lieutenant General Sheikh Khaled Al Jarrah Al Sabah(2012-2013)
- Lieutenant General Abdelrahman Mohammed Al-Othman (2013-2014)
- Lieutenant General Mohammed Khaled Al-Khoder (2014–present)
Commander of Kuwait National Guard (1967- present)
List of Ministers of Interior and Deputy Prime Ministers (1961-present)
- Saad Al-Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah (17 January 1962 - 6 September 1963)
- Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (acting; 6 September 1963 - 19 March 1978)
- Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (19 March 1978 - 12 July 1986)
- Salem Sabah Al-Salem Al-Sabah (26 January 1988 - 20 June 1990)
- Sheikh Ahmad Al Homoud Al Sabah (20 April 1991 - 17 October 1992)
- Sheikh Ali Sabah Al-Salim Al-Sabah (13 April 1994 - 15 October 1996)
- Mohammad Al Khalid Al Sabah (15 October 1996 - 13 July 2003)
- Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (13 July 2003 - 9 February 2006)
- Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah (9 February 2006 - 28 October 2007)
- Lt.Gen.(ret.) Sheikh Jaber Al Khaled Al Sabah (28 October 2007 - 6 February 2011); 4th Chief of General Staff (1992-1993) of the Kuwait Armed Forces.
- Sheikh Ahmad Al Homoud Al Sabah (6 February 2011 - 4 August 2013)
- Mohammad Al Khalid Al Sabah (4 August 2013 – present)
List of Ministers of Defense and Deputy Prime Ministers (1961-present)
- Mohammed Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (1962-1964)
- Saad Al-Salim Al-Sabah (1964-1978)
- Salem Sabah Al-Salem Al-Sabah (1978-1988)
- Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (1988-1991)
- Sheikh Ali Sabah Al-Salim Al-Sabah (1991-1994)
- Sheikh Ahmad Al-Houmoud Al-Sabah (1994-1996)
- Salem Sabah Al-Salem Al-Sabah(1996-2001)
- Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah (2001-2011)
- Sheikh Ahmad Al-Houmoud Al-Sabah (2011)
- Ahmad Al Khalid Al Sabah (2012-2013)
- Khaled Al Jarrah Al Sabah (2013–present)
In 1950 Emir Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah ordered the capabilities of the armed forces to be developed to deal with external threats.[not in citation given] Accordingly, Abdullah Mubarak Al-Sabah was appointed Commander General of the Kuwaiti Public Security Force, the newly designated Kuwaiti Army and the Armed Forces.
In 1953 the border and security force was named the Kuwaiti Army and split from the Kuwaiti Public Security Department, forming the Ministry of Interior; members of the previous forces became members either of the army or merged with police forces within the Interior Ministry. The Army was headed by Mubarak Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah who had recently returned from military training in the United Kingdom and reported to Abdullah Mubarak Al-Sabah.
In 1953 Abdullah Mubarak Al-Sabah established the first Kuwaiti Flying Club. The flying club was part of the Civil Aviation Directorate and graduated the first batch of Kuwaiti pilots in 1954; these later attended advanced training in the United Kingdom.
In 1954, Mubarak Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah was appointed Deputy Head Commander of the Kuwaiti Army, reporting to Abdullah Mubarak Al-Sabah. During that same year, Saleh Al-Mohammed Al-Sabah returned from the United Kingdom and was assigned as commanding officer of the Kuwait J1 Camp. Also in 1954 eight Auster aircraft entered into service with the Kuwaiti Flying Club for purposes of preliminary training.
In 1956, the Kuwait Army officially moved to the J1 Camp and was equipped with artillery for the first time. Also during the same year, a new training center was established for the Kuwaiti Army.
Demolition of Kuwait City Defensive Wall, and formation of the Kuwait Armed Forces
In 1957 the defensive wall of Kuwait was torn down for the expansion of Kuwait City, and the Public Security Force was reshaped and split into two entities. The Army, which had been part of the Public Security Force, became an independent unit, and police forces operating under the Public Security Force formed the Ministry of Interior. The Army was the first branch of what became the Armed Forces. In the same year the Army signed on the procurement of the Centurion tank, and two de Havilland DH.104 Dove monoplanes entered into service in the newly formed Air Force.
In 1958 Kuwaiti officers were sent to the Military Academies in Egypt and Iraq to train, and the Kuwaiti Army underwent its first alert following the coup of Abdul Karim Qasim. In 1959 the Kuwaiti Army set up its first mechanized combat brigade, the Kuwait 6th Mechanized Brigade, known later as the Kuwait 6th Liberation Mechanized Brigade, following the liberation of Kuwait during the Gulf War.
Operation Vantage 1961
After 62 years as a British protectorate, Kuwait declared independence in 1961. Iraq immediately claimed that Kuwait was actually an Iraqi province, and threatened to invade to implement the claim. Britain flew troops into the newly-independent country to forestall Iraq, an operation called Operation Vantage.
In 1961, Field Marshal Abdullah Mubarak Al-Sabah, the Commander General of the Armed Forces, was absent and Brigadier General Mubarak Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah and his deputy Colonel Saleh Mohammed Al-Sabah stepped in to take part in Operation Vantage along with the Kuwaiti Armed Forces including the already active Kuwait 25th Commando Brigade as the Armed Forces were put on their second alert phase. Also during the same year, the Kuwaiti Flying Club was separated from the Civilian Aviation Directorate and the Kuwaiti Air Force was officially enacted. Also in 1961, the Universal Carrier was retired from the Kuwaiti Army. Over the following years and through combat experiences; Kuwait built a small effective military force including an army, navy, air force, national guard, police force and fire service directorate.
In 1962 the Kuwaiti Army enacted the Kuwait 35th Shaheed (Martyr) Armored Brigade and the Kuwait 15th Mubarak Armored Brigade which were considered the second and third functioning armored brigades in service. During that same year, the Kuwaiti Army held the first military parade in recognition of the independence of Kuwait, and the BAC Jet Provost entered into service with the Kuwaiti Air Force.
Establishment of the General Chief of Staff Headquarters (1963)
In 1963, an organizational Amiri Decree was issued, enacting officially the Kuwaiti Ministry of Defense along with the cancellation of the Command of the Kuwaiti Public Security Department and the establishment of the Chief of General Staff Headquarters of the Kuwaiti Armed Forces.
Similarly, an Amiri Decree was issued to appoint Major General Mubarak Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah to the position of Chief of General Staff of the newly formed Kuwaiti Armed Forces. During the same year, the subsonic British Hawker Hunter jet aircraft and the de Havilland Canada DHC-4 Caribou transport aircraft entered into service with the Kuwaiti Air Force.
In 1965 Brigadier General Saleh Al-Mohammed Al-Sabah was appointed as the first Deputy Chief of General Staff of the Kuwaiti Armed Forces.
Six Day War (1967) and War of Attrition (1967-1970)
In 1966, the headquarters of the Kuwaiti Military Hospital was opened. In 1967, the Chief of General Staff Major General Mubarak Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah appointed his deputy Brigadier General Saleh Mohammed Al-Sabah as acting commander of a hand-picked brigade from the Kuwaiti Armed Forces, mainly the Kuwaiti Army. In 1967 several Arab nations were at war with the State of Israel in the Six Day War. Kuwait did not openly participate, but a contingent from the army took part in fighting in the central sector; Kuwaiti participation was too small to have any significant impact. The assembled Yarmouk Brigade participated on the Egyptian Front, the first Kuwaiti military unit to fight outside the territory of Kuwait.
On June 6, 1967 the Kuwait National Guard was established under the leadership of and guidance of Sheikh Salem Al-Ali Al-Sabah. On July 1, the War of Attrition against the State of Israel commenced while the Yarmouk brigade was engaged on the Egyptian Front. In 1968, Kuwaiti military authorities established the Kuwaiti Military Academy.
In 1969, the Kuwaiti Armed Forces placed the English Electric Lightning supersonic jet fighter aircraft and the Bell 206 and Bell 204/205 (mainly the 205) helicopters into service with the Kuwaiti Air Force.
In 1970, the Kuwaiti Armed Forces suffered seventeen fatalities in fighting against Israeli forces in Egypt. One man was killed in April and sixteen more were killed in June. During the same year, the Kuwaiti Air Force placed BAC Strikemaster light attack jets into service and the following year took delivery of Lockheed C-130 Hercules transport aircraft.
In 1972, the Kuwaiti Army introduced the Vickers MBT main battle tank series, and the Kuwaiti Armed Forces trained Egyptian pilots and technicians through the Kuwaiti Air Force on the English Electric Lightning.
Double-fronted wars: 1973 Sanita border skirmish and October War
In 1973, the Armed Forces entered into their third alert phase with the beginning of the Kuwait-Iraq 1973 Sanita border skirmish which led to a significant change in the operational capabilities of the Armed Forces.
Also in 1973, the leadership of the Armed Forces found itself battling on two fronts. While components of the Armed Forces were readying to fight against Iraq following the skirmish on the Kuwaiti border, Kuwait sent a token force to participate on the West Bank of the Jordan River alongside the Iraqi Armed Forces on the Egyptian and Syrian fronts during the 1973 October War against the State of Israel (also known as the Yom Kippur war), being especially heavily engaged on the Syrian front. As in 1967, Kuwaiti participation was too small to have any significant impact. During 1973 the Kuwaiti Armed Forces officially enacted the Kuwaiti Naval Armed Service; mainly the Kuwaiti Navy.
In 1973 the leadership of the armed forces led a double fronted war with and against the same Arab belligerent for the defense of Kuwait. Part of the leadership led the Kuwait Armed Forces brigades through their combat commanders engaged on both Syrian and Egyptian fronts during the war against Israel with the Iraqi Armed Forces while simultaneously, other parts of the leadership led and engaged the remainder of the Kuwaiti brigades on the Kuwaiti borders during the 1973 Sanita War against Iraq.
One year later in 1974 and as a result of unpredictable conflicting crises, defense authorities enacted a new plan to expand the Kuwaiti Armed Forces even further. During the same year, Kuwaiti Armed Forces introduced the Aérospatiale Gazelle and Puma series helicopters to the Kuwaiti Air Force.
Kuwaiti Embassy protection and general support to Halt the Lebanese Civil War (1975-1990)
With the breaking of the Lebanese Civil War in 1975; units of the Kuwait 25th Commando Brigade of the Kuwaiti Army were sent to Lebanon to protect mainly the Kuwaiti Embassy in Beirut. During that time, the Kuwait 25th Commando Brigade contributed extensive efforts in maintaining stability and supporting the peace efforts along with backing the general operation of the Lebanese Armed Forces. During the war, the Kuwait 25th Commando Brigade also played a vital and pivotal role supporting the general humanitarian operations and the Multinational Force in Lebanon which included American contingents of United States Marine Corps and the United States Navy SEALs, French units of the French 11th Parachute Brigade and the 2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment, the 2nd Foreign Infantry Regiment, the 1st Foreign Cavalry Regiment of the French Foreign Legion; the same regiment, units and brigades which would later contribute and participate to the Liberation of Kuwait during the Gulf War in 1990. The Multinational Force in Lebanon also included armored cars from 1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards and Italian paratroopers from the Folgore Brigade, infantry units from the Bersaglieri regiments and Marines of the San Marco Battalion.
In parallel and at the level of diplomacy; Kuwait participated in bringing the Lebanese Civil War to a halt (1975-1990). A mission for this purpose was led by Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, then Minister of Foreign Affairs of Kuwait.
During 1975, Kuwaiti defense authorities enacted the establishment of the first Kuwaiti naval base.During the same year, Kuwaiti Armed Forces signed on the delivery of the MIM-23 Hawk surface-to-air missile system and merged the Air Defense component to the Kuwaiti Air Force. The de Havilland Canada DHC-4 Caribou was retired from service.
In 1976, the Kuwaiti Armed Forces took delivery of Dassault Mirage F1s to be operated by the Kuwaiti Air Force. During the same year, the Kuwaiti Air Force retired the Bell 206 and Bell 204/205 from service.
In 1977, Defense Authorities enacted the Ahmed Al Jaber Air Base, officially opened in 1979, and Ali Al Salem Air Base, officially opened in 1980. During the year of 1977, the Kuwaiti Armed Forces retired several equipment operated by the Air Force and Army and gained one new operating equipment. The English Electric Lightning and Hawker Hunter were retired by the Air Force and Douglas A-4 Skyhawks were introduced; while the Vickers MBT was retired by the Army.
In 1978, the Kuwaiti Navy and Coast Guard was created and designated as the sea-based component of the Kuwaiti Armed Forces and Ministry of interior.During the same period, the Kuwaiti Army entered into service the M113 armored personnel carrier, the 9K52 Luna-M short range artillery rocket system and the M109 howitzer.
Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988)
In 1980, the Iran-Iraq War broke out and the Kuwaiti Armed Forces entered into their fourth alert phase. During the same year, the Kuwaiti Armed Forces signed on the procurement of naval warships for the Kuwaiti Navy and Coast Guard.
First joint Kuwaiti-Saudi air drills (1983)
In 1983, the Kuwaiti Armed Forces carried out the first air joint training with the Royal Saudi Air Force using Douglas A-4 Skyhawks.
In 1984, the Kuwaiti Armed Forces enter the short-range tactical surface-to-air missile system 9K33 Osa in service to be operated by the Kuwaiti Air Force. During the same year, the ordered naval warships arrived and were directly commissioned by the Kuwaiti Navy and Coast Guard.
Creation of the Kuwaiti Army (1988)
In 1988, the Kuwaiti Army was designated as the land component of the Kuwaiti Armed Forces. The Kuwaiti Armed Forces were removed from their alert phase with the ending of the Iran-Iraq War. The eight-year fourth alert phase was the longest in the Armed Forces' history. With the ending of the Iran-Iraq War, the Kuwaiti Army adopted the BMP-2 infantry combat vehicle.
In 1989, the Kuwaiti Armed Forces signed on the delivery of F/A-18 Hornets and launched the opening of the new Kuwaiti Military Hospital.
Iraqi invasion and aftermath (1990)
On 2 August 1990, Iraqi forces invaded Kuwait. The million-strong Iraqi army brushed aside disorganized resistance by the 20,000-strong Kuwaiti Armed Forces with heavy casualties; by the end of the day, Kuwait had been fully conquered.:26–27 There were some instances of especially heroic resistance, particularly by combat aircraft pilots. Kuwaiti Forces, principally the Kuwait 35th Shaheed (Martyr) Armored Brigade of the Kuwait Army, engaged in the Battle of the Bridges near Al Jahra under Colonel Salem Masoud Al-Sorour, and the Kuwaiti Emiri Guards were engaged in the Battle of Dasman Palace where the emir's half-brother Fahad Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber Al-Sabah was killed. Kuwaiti sources have given extremely heroic reports of this engagement; others have expressed doubt.:36
Iraqi forces seized all the heavy military equipment of the Kuwaiti military and used it against the coalition forces. This included the entire navy, which was sunk by coalition forces. Tanks and armoured personnel carriers were also seized, and also destroyed. While the Iraqis were required to return seized equipment after their defeat, most of it was damaged beyond repair. Only the air force escaped complete destruction, as many of its aircraft had escaped to Saudi Arabia.
Gulf War and Operation Desert Storm (1990-1991)
In the same year Kuwait was part of a U.S.-led military coalition formed in response to the invasion which expelled Iraq from Kuwait in what became known as the Gulf War or First Persian Gulf War. Operation Desert Storm was launched by the coalition. Douglas A-4 Skyhawks of the Kuwaiti Air Force destroyed several Iraqi Naval ships trying to infiltrate into Bubiyan Island.[not in citation given] The Kuwaiti Armed Forces commissioned and entered into service the M-84 battle tank during the attack on Iraqi forces in Saudi Arabia.
U.S. President George H.W. Bush condemned the invasion, and led efforts to drive out the Iraqi forces. Authorized by the United Nations Security Council, an American-led coalition of 34 nations led by Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. fought the Gulf War to liberate Kuwait. Following several weeks of aerial bombardment, a U.S.-led United Nations (UN) coalition began a ground assault on 23 February 1991 that completely removed Iraqi forces from Kuwait in four days. After liberation, the UN, under Security Council Resolution 687, demarcated the Iraq-Kuwait boundary on the basis of the 1932 and the 1963 agreements between the two states. In November 1994, Iraq formally accepted the UN-demarcated border with Kuwait, which had been further spelled out in Security Council Resolutions 773 (1992) and 833 (1993).
There was an exodus of Palestinian from Kuwait during and after the Gulf War. During the Iraqi occupation more than 200,000 Palestinians fled Kuwait due to harassment, intimidation by Iraqi security forces, and being dismissed from their employment due to Iraqi influence. After the Gulf War, the Kuwaiti authorities forcibly pressured nearly 200,000 Palestinians to leave Kuwait in 1991. This was in response to the alignment of Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat and the PLO with Iraqi dictator and invader of Kuwait Saddam Hussein. The Palestinians who fled Kuwait were Jordanians naturalized citizens.
After the liberation, Kuwait became a close military partner of the United States, Britain and France.
Kuwait entered into a ten-year defense cooperation agreement with the United States in September 1991, and later with the United Kingdom and France. The defense cooperation with the United States, the United Kingdom and France is done at the training level in the foreign country and at the joint military exercise level on Kuwaiti soil.
The agreement with the United States also includes port access, military equipment storage, and joint training and exercises. The agreement did not officially provide for the stationing of United States service personnel in Kuwait, as the 1,500 US personnel remaining after the Gulf War were scheduled to leave within a few months.
In 1992, the Kuwaiti Armed Forces initiated joint structuring of its various Armed Forces. In the same year, F/A-18 Hornet aircraft were delivered and entered official service with the Kuwaiti Air Force.
October 1994 crisis with Iraq
In 1994, the Kuwaiti Armed Forces entered their fifth alert phase with the beginning of the Iraq disarmament crisis in October, and the Kuwaiti Air Force signed on the delivery of Starburst missile systems.
In 1996, the M1A2 Abrams main battle tank and the BMP-3 infantry fighting vehicle entered Kuwaiti service.During the same year, the Mubarak al-Abdullah Joint Command and Staff College (Arabic: كلية مبارك العبدالله للقيادة و الأركان المشتركة - دولة الكويت), named in memory of Lieutenant General Mubarak Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (1934-1987), opened.
Operation Desert Strike (1996)
Following Operation Desert Strike in 1996, Kuwait agreed to a United States Battalion Task Force to be permanently stationed in Kuwait. These US Army Intrinsic Action (later called Operation Desert Spring on 1 October 1999) rotations and US Marine Corps EAGER MACE rotations conducted combined training with the Kuwaiti Land Forces and other coalition partners. In addition, US Special Operations Forces conducted Iris Gold rotations to train and assist other Kuwaiti military units.
Operation Desert Fox (1998)
In 1998, the Kuwaiti Armed Forces made an organizational change in command between the Chief of General Staff and his various assistants through the chains of command. During the same year, the Kuwaiti Armed Forces enter into their sixth alert phase with the December 1998 bombing of Iraq (code-named Operation Desert Fox) between the United States, the United Kingdom and Iraq.
50th anniversary of the Kuwait Armed Forces (1999)
In 1999, the 50th Anniversary of the Kuwaiti Armed Forces, newly ordered armored Naval warships were received and directly commissioned by the Kuwaiti Navy and Coast Guard.
After the War on Terror began with military campaigns following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, Kuwait was declared one of fifteen major non-NATO allies of the United States by US President George W Bush.
During the Iraq War, the Military of Kuwait played an important role supporting the logistical operations of the United States Armed Forces engaged in military operations in Iraq.[not in citation given]
Ranks of the Military of Kuwait
Unlike most countries that have different ranks in the different armed forces, ranks of the Kuwait National Guard, the Kuwait Armed Forces and the Kuwait Police are the same and follow the same insignia with different colorings only, designating different corps. The ranks insignias were based on the British Army insignia.
2015 Intervention in Yemen
The Military of Kuwait went on alert as a result of the 2015 military intervention in Yemen by a coalition of forces of Arab countries including Kuwait, which contributed aircraft of the Kuwaiti Air Force. The military, National Guard, Kuwait Police, and Fire Service Directorate activated defense plans to strengthen internal security measures. Defense measures also included intensifying security around oil installations in Kuwait and abroad.
Order of battle
The Kuwait Navy Force is the main sea deterring force with naval warships sailors. The navy includes the Kuwait Marine Corps and units of the Kuwait Commandos Marine Unit.
Kuwait Air Force
According to Jane's World's Air Forces the operational doctrine of the Kuwaiti Air Force is to provide air support to ground forces as part of a coalition, rather than alone. It is made up of 2,500 people organized into two fighter/ground attack squadrons, two fixed-wing transport squadrons, two helicopter squadrons, a utility squadron and a training/attack helicopter squadron. Although comparatively small in size, it is well-equipped and trained, with Kuwaiti pilots averaging 210 flying hours per year. It does not constitute any offensive threat, but can support ground forces in defensive operations.
The Kuwaiti army consists of 11,000 active duty personnel organized into three armored brigades, two mechanized infantry brigades, a mechanized reconnaissance brigade, an artillery brigade, a combat engineering brigade, a reserve brigade, air defense command. Its main bases are in Kuwait City (HQ), Al Jabah and Mina Abdullah. The brigades are small by western standards, roughly the equivalent of small regiments or large battalions. They are "cadre forces", kept up to 80 percent of full strength, with the balance made up of reserves in case of war. Although the threat from Iraq was replaced by the threat of terrorist attacks, the army’s force structure has remained largely static since 2000.
Kuwait Emiri Guard Brigade
Kuwait 25th Commando Brigade
Kuwait Commando Marine Units
Kuwait Military Police Brigade
The Kuwaiti Military Police is an independent combat brigade in the Kuwait Armed Forces.
Kuwait National Guard
The Kuwait National Guard, considered a combat institution, is an independent body from the Kuwait Armed Forces and is a main internal and border combating security force.
Kuwait Ministry of Interior
The Kuwaiti Ministry of Interior is the governing body of the Kuwait Police, considered an institution, is an independent corps from the Kuwait Armed Forces and is an internal, coastal and border security force with combating and non combatant elements.
Kuwait Coast Guard
Kuwait Military Fire Service Directorate
The Kuwait military fire service are the military fire fighters of the Kuwait Armed Forces.
Kuwait Fire Service Directorate
The Kuwait Fire Service Directorate are the public fire fighters with military ranks.
Relationship with the United States Armed Forces
An analysis of the U.S.-Kuwaiti strategic relationship after the Iraqi invasion was published in 2007 by the U.S. Army War College Strategic Studies Institute.
The situation as of 2014[update] is that the United States of America had at least 50,000 troops stationed in Kuwait as part of a defence agreement. The largest part is the US Army Central Command (ARCENT), part of the United States Central Command (USCENTCOM).
Active US Forces facilities:
- Ali Al Salem Air Base
- Camp Arifjan
- Camp Buehring
- Camp Fox
- Camp Patriot
- Camp Spearhead
- Camp Virginia
- Camp Wolf
- Abdullah Al-Mubarak Air Base
- Kuwait Naval Base
- Udairi Range
- Ahmed Al Jaber Air Base
Inactive US Forces facilities:
The United States has provided military and defence technical assistance to Kuwait from both Foreign Military Sales (FMS) and commercial sources, with all transactions made by direct cash sale.The US Office of Military Cooperation in Kuwait is attached to the American Embassy and manages the FMS program. US military sales to Kuwait total US$5.5 billion since 2004. Principal US military systems purchased by the Kuwait Defence Forces as of 2014[update] are the Patriot missile system, F-18 Hornet fighters, and the M1A2 Main Battle Tank.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Military of Kuwait.|
- CIA World Factbook
- Summary of Kuwait military power Summary of Kuwaiti military
- Kuwaiti Military at Global security
- Anscombe, Frederick F. (1997). The Ottoman Gulf: The Creation of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar. New York City: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-10839-3. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
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