Lithuanian Armed Forces

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Lithuanian Armed Forces
Lietuvos ginkluotosios pajėgos
KAM logo.svg
Insignia of the Ministry of National Defence
Flag of the Lithuanian Armed Forces.jpg Insignia of the Lithuanian Armed Forces.gif
Flag and insignia of the Lithuanian Armed Forces
Founded 23 November 1918
Current form 25 April 1990
Service branches

Insignia of the Lithuanian Air Force.jpg Air Force
Insignia of the Lithuanian Land Force.jpg Land Force
Insignia of the Lithuanian Naval Force.jpg Naval Force

Specialiųjų operacijų pajėgos.jpg Special Operations Force
Headquarters Vilnius
Leadership
Commander-in-Chief President Dalia Grybauskaitė
Minister of National Defence Juozas Olekas
Chief of Defence Maj. General Jonas Vytautas Žukas
Manpower
Military age 18-55
Conscription suspended
Available for
military service
890,074 males, age 16–49 (2010 est.),
875,780 females, age 16–49 (2010 est.)
Fit for
military service
669,111 males, age 16–49 (2010 est.),
724,803 females, age 16–49 (2010 est.)
Reaching military
age annually
20,425 males (2010 est.),
19,527 females (2010 est.)
Active personnel 15,000[1]
Reserve personnel ~60000
Deployed personnel  Afghanistan - around 200 (2012 est.)[2]
Expenditures
Budget $385 million (2014)[3] rank
Percent of GDP 0.8% (2014)[3]
Industry
Foreign suppliers  United States
 Denmark
 Finland
 Germany
 Italy
 Norway
 Poland
 Sweden
 United Kingdom
Related articles
History 1918-19 Lithuanian-Soviet War
1944-45 World war 2
1944-53 lithuanian partisans
2001 2001 war in Afghanistan
2003 invasion of Iraq
Ranks Lithuanian military ranks

Lithuanian combat forces and headquarters

Red - infantry, Green - mechanised
Gold - headquarters, Yellow - engineers
AD = Air Defence

The Lithuanian Armed Forces consist of ~14,500 active personnel (~2,100 of them - civilian).[4] Conscription was ended in September 2008.[5]

Lithuania's defence system is based on the concept of "total and unconditional defence" mandated by Lithuania's national National Security Strategy. The goal of Lithuania's defence policy is to prepare their society for general defence and to integrate Lithuania into Western security and defence structures. The defence ministry is responsible for combat forces, search and rescue, and intelligence operations.[6]

The 4,800 border guards fall under the Interior Ministry's supervision and are responsible for border protection, passport and customs duties, and share responsibility with the navy for smuggling / drug trafficking interdiction. A special security department handles VIP protection and communications security.

Structure[edit]

The Lithuanian Armed Forces consist of the Lithuanian Land Force, Lithuanian Air Force, Lithuanian Naval Force, Lithuanian Special Operations Force and other units: Logistics Command, Training and Doctrine Command, Headquarters Battalion, Military Police. Directly subordinated to the Chief of Defence are the Special Operations Forces and Military Police. The Reserve Forces are under command of the Lithuanian National Defence Volunteer Forces.

Lithuanian Land Force[edit]

Main article: Lithuanian Land Force
Soldiers from MIB "Iron Wolf" during training.

The core of the Lithuanian Land Force structure is the Iron Wolf Mechanised Infantry Brigade (MIB "Iron Wolf") consisting of three mechanized infantry battalions (Gran Duke Kestutis mechanized, Lithuanian Grand Duke Algirdas mechanized and Grand Duke Vaidotas mechanized battalions) and artillery battalion. Other units include King Mindaugas Hussar Battalion, Grand Duchess Birute Uhlan Battalion, Grand Duke Butigeidis Dragoon Battalion, Juozas Vitkus Engineer Battalion and Juozas Luksa Land Force Training Center.

The Lithuanian Land forces are undertaking a major modernization. New weapons and heavier armour are going to be acquired. In 2007 the Land forces bought the German Heckler & Koch G36 rifle to replace the older Swedish Ak-4 as main weapon. It is planned to buy new Infantry fighting vehicles. Lithuania is determined to restructure the armed forces so that from the end of 2014, one tenth of the Land Forces could at any given time be deployed for international operations, while half of the Land Forces would be prepared to be deployed outside Lithuania’s borders.

The volunteers have already successfully participated in international operations in the Balkans, Afghanistan and Iraq. The NDVF consists of five territorial units and Lithuanian Grand Duke Butigeidis Dragoon Training Battalion.

Lithuanian Air Force[edit]

Main article: Lithuanian Air Force
Lithuanian Air Force jet trainer Aero L-39ZA

The Lithuanian Air Force (LAF) is an integral part of the Lithuanian Armed Forces. The LTAF is formed from professional military servicemen and non-military personnel. Units are located at various bases across Lithuania:

The initial formation of the LAF was the 2nd transport squadron with the transfer of 20 An-2 aircraft from civilian to military use, with initial basing at the Barushai air base on the 27 April 1992. These were joined by four L-39C Albatros aircraft purchased from Kazakhstan as part of the intended 16 to be used by the 1st fighter (training) squadron.

Mil Mi-8 helicopters were modernised by LAF (extended fuel tanks and avionics). In 2008 2 medium-range radars were acquired for the Air Forces Airspace Surveillance and Control Command.

Air space is patrolled by jet fighters from other NATO members, which are based out of the city Šiauliai (Zokniai Airport, known as the Aviation base) (see Baltic Air Policing). The European Union's External border (with Kaliningrad and Belarus) is patrolled by Aviation Unit of the Lithuanian State Border Guard Service which received new helicopters EC-120, EC-135 and EC-145.

Lithuanian Navy[edit]

Lithuanian Naval Force Vidar class ship N42 Jotvingis

The Navy has over 600 personnel. The Navy consists of the Warship Flotilla, the Sea Coastal Surveillance System, the Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Divers Team, the Naval Logistic Service, Training Center and Maritime Rescue Coordination Center. The Flotilla is the core component of the Navy, and consists of the Mine Countermeasures Squadron, the Patrol Ships Squadron, and the Harbour Boats Group.[8] The current Commander in Chief of the Lithuanian Navy is Rear Admiral Kęstutis Macijauskas. The Naval base and Headquarters are located in the city of Klaipėda.[9] The Navy uses patrol ships for coastal surveillance.

The three newly acquired Flyvefisken class patrol vessels replaced the older Storm class patrol boats and Grisha class corvettes.

Special Operations Force[edit]

Lithuanian Special Operations Force soldiers during training

Lithuanian Special Operations Force (SOF) of Lithuanian Armed Forces has been in operation de facto since 2002 and it was established de jure on April 3, 2008, when amendments of National Defence System organisation and military service law came into force.[10] SOF is formed from the Special Operations Unit.[11]

SOF are responsible for the following tasks: special reconnaissance, direct actions, and military support. It is also in charge of other tasks, e.g. protection of VIP in peacetime. The core of the SOF is based on the Special Purpose Service, Vytautas the Great Jaeger Battalion and Combat Divers Service (CDS). Lithuanian Air Force Special Operations Element is subordinate to the Unit at the level of operations management.Structure of the SOF is flexible which makes it easy to form squadrons intended for concrete operations and missions from its elements. The SOF can be called upon inside the territory of Lithuania when law enforcement agencies lack or do not have necessary capabilities to react to terrorist attacks. Capabilities of special forces makes them the main national response force responsible for counter-terrorism operations and operations to prevent violations of sovereignty.[11]

SOF Squadron "Aitvaras" was deployed to Afghanistan on the operation "Enduring Freedom". From 2005 to 2006 SOF squadrons were on standby in NATO Response Force.[11]

International cooperation[edit]

Lithuania and NATO[edit]

Soon after restoration of independence, Lithuania applied for NATO membership in January 1994. Together with another six Middle and Eastern Europe countries, Lithuania was invited to join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in the 2002 Prague summit and became a member of the Alliance in March 2004. Lithuania entered NATO on full-fledged rights immediately after the procedures of joining the North Atlantic Treaty were completed and acquired rights to participate in the political decision-making process of the Alliance. Integration into the military structures of NATO became a long-term task of Lithuanian Armed Forces. Mechanised Infantry Brigade “Iron Wolf” was affiliated to the Danish Division on the basis of agreements signed by Denmark and Lithuania in August 2006. Lithuanian Armed Forces started to boost ability of the Brigade to cooperate with the forces of other NATO members. As Lithuania and the other Baltic states do not have capabilities to secure their airspace, Fighter jets of NATO members were deployed in Zokniai airport near the city Šiauliai to provide cover for the Baltic states airspace as soon as Lithuania acquired membership in the Alliance.[12]

Lithuania also cooperates with the two other Baltic states - Latvia and Estonia in several trilateral Baltic defence co-operation initiatives:

  • Baltic Battalion (BALTBAT) – infantry battalion for participation in international peace support operations, headquartered near Riga, Latvia;
  • Baltic Naval Squadron (BALTRON) – naval force with mine countermeasures capabilities, headquartered near Tallinn, Estonia;
  • Baltic Air Surveillance Network (BALTNET) – air surveillance information system, headquartered near Kaunas, Lithuania;
  • Joint military educational institutions: Baltic Defence College (BALTDEFCOL) in Tartu, Estonia, Baltic Diving Training Centre in Liepāja, Latvia and Baltic Naval Communications Training Centre in Tallinn, Estonia.[13]

In January 2011, the Baltic states were invited to join NORDEFCO, the defence framework of the Nordic countries.[14] In November 2012, the three countries agreed to create a joint military staff in 2013.[15] Future co-operation will include sharing of national infrastructures for training purposes and specialisation of training areas (BALTTRAIN) and collective formation of battalion-sized contingents for use in the NATO rapid-response force.[16]

Foreign missions and operations[edit]

Lithuanian NDVF soldiers in the international mission in Afghanistan

Lithuanian soldiers take part in the international operations since 1993. Since the summer of 2005 Lithuania has been part of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan (ISAF), leading a Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) in the town of Chaghcharan in the province of Ghor. The PRT includes personnel from Denmark, Iceland and USA. There are also special operation forces units in Afghanistan. They are placed in Kandahar province.

Since joining international operations in 1993 Lithuania has lost two soldiers. 1st Lt. Normundas Valteris fell in Bosnia (17 April 1996), Sgt. Arūnas Jarmalavičius in Afghanistan (22 May 2008).[17]

Ranks[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

As of this edit, this article uses content from "Lithuanian Armed Forces", which is licensed in a way that permits reuse under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, but not under the GFDL. All relevant terms must be followed.

  1. ^ "The Lithuanian military includes a Special Operations Force detachment which saw service in Afghanistan.". 2014-06-30. 
  2. ^ "Number of Lithuanian personnel in International military operations". 
  3. ^ a b (Lithuanian) Biudžeto suvestinė
  4. ^ Personnel size in 1998-2011 Ministry of National Defence
  5. ^ "Compulsory basic military service discontinued". Ministry of National Defence. 
  6. ^ White Paper Lithuanian defence policy
  7. ^ Air Force
  8. ^ Navy
  9. ^ Command
  10. ^ Commander of Lithuanian Special Operations Force appointed
  11. ^ a b c Special Forces
  12. ^ After 5 years in the Alliance: periphery or front of NATO?
  13. ^ "Baltic Defence Co-operation". Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. January 2002. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  14. ^ "Nordic Countries Invite Baltics to Join Defence Co-operation Framework". Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 21 January 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  15. ^ "Joint Baltic Military Staff to Be Established". Estonian Public Broadcasting. 9 November 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012. 
  16. ^ "Baltic Defence Ministers announced new defence cooperation initiatives". Ministry of National Defence Republic of Lithuania. 12 December 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  17. ^ In remembrance

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]