Military of Senegal
|Senegalese Armed Forces
|Service branches||Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police (Sûreté Nationale)|
|males age 15-49: 2,218,920 (2000 est.), age 18|
|males age 15-49: 1,158,893 (2000 est.), age 18|
|males: 109,381 (2000 est.)|
|Budget||$68 million (FY97)|
|Percent of GDP||1.4% (FY97)|
|Foreign suppliers|| France
|History||Mauritania–Senegal Border War
Guinea-Bissau Civil War
Insurgency in the Maghreb
2008 invasion of Anjouan
The Military of Senegal consists of about 19,000 well-trained and disciplined personnel in the army, air force, navy, and gendarmerie. The Senegalese military force receives most of its training, equipment, and support from France and the United States. Germany also provides support but on a smaller scale.
Military noninterference in political affairs has contributed to Senegal's stability since independence. Senegal has participated in many international and regional peacekeeping missions. Most recently, in 2000, Senegal sent a battalion to the Democratic Republic of Congo to participate in MONUC, the United Nations peacekeeping mission.
Senegal also agreed to deploy a United States-trained battalion to Sierra Leone to participate in UNAMSIL, another UN peacekeeping mission. The training operation was designated Operation Focus Relief and involved U.S. Army Special Forces from 3rd Special Forces Group training a number of West African battalions, including Nigerian ones.
Summary of past military actions
- In August 1981, the Senegalese military was invited into the Gambia by President Dawda Kairaba Jawara to put down a coup attempt.
- In August 1989, Senegalese-Gambian military cooperation ceased with the dissolution of the Senegambian Confederation.
- In 1990, 500 Senegalese troops were deployed to Saudi Arabia to take part in the Gulf War. 92 of them were killed after the end of the conflict in a plane crash on 21 March 1991.
- In 1994, a battalion-sized force was sent to Rwanda to participate in the UN peacekeeping mission there.
- Senegal intervened in the Guinea-Bissau civil war in 1998 at the request of former President Vieira.
- A Senegalese contingent deployed on a peacekeeping mission to the Central African Republic in 1997.
The Four Forces
The four forces are the army, navy, air force and gandarmerie. The Army (Armée de Terre) is the leading force within the Senegalese armed forces and provides the chief of staff and the Inspecteur général des forces armées. Only the army and gendarmerie are important enough to have general officers, although the navy has been commanded by a flag officer in the past.
Since independence the army has gone through a large number of reorganisations. The army's heritage includes the prestigious Tirailleurs sénégalais. In 1978, Senegal dispatched a battalion to the Inter-African Force in Zaire, in the aftermath of the Shaba II fighting. The Senegalese contingent was under the command of Colonel Osmane Ndoye. The Senegalese force comprised a parachute battalion from Thiaroye.
The Army currently consists of two divisions, the Operations Division and the Logistic Division. The IISS estimated in 2012 that the Army had a strength of 11,900 soldiers, three armoured battalions the 22nd, 24th, and 25th (at Bignona) and the 26th Bataillon de reconnaissance et d'Appui at Kolda; there are six infantry battalions 1st to 6th. 3rd Battalion may have been at Kaolack with 4th at Tambacounda at one point.
Although the Senegalese air force is geared towards supporting it, the army may have previously maintained its own very small aviation branch, called the "Aviation Légère de l'Armée de Terre" (like the French army's equivalent), which may have counted up to five light helicopters and two SA330 Puma transport helicopters. The IISS Military Balance 2012 does not list any helicopters in army service.
The Gendarmerie is a military force which provides policing and security. It includes a Territorial Gendarmerie with general policing duties, and a Mobile Gendarmerie for special tasks and serious public disorder.
The Senegalese gendarmerie evolved out of a French colonial Spahi detachment sent to Senegal in 1845. This detachment (which became today's Red Guard of Senegal) was the cadre around which the "Colonial Gendarmerie" was formed. On independence this became the National Gendarmerie.
The commander is General Abdoulaye Fall (a different person from the current Armed Forces Chief of Staff of the same name), whose rank is Divisional General, and whose full job title is "High Commander of the Gendarmerie and Director of Military Justice".
The navy (marine), also known as the Armée de mer, is of small size and is commanded by a Ship-of-the-Line Captain. It is responsible for securing Senegal's Atlantic coastline which is strategically located on the extreme west of the African continent. The navy was created in 1961.
The Navy is divided into three branches known as "groupings":
1.) The Operational Naval Grouping (Groupement Naval Opérationnel), which is divided into three flotillas and one group:
- The High Seas Patrol Boats (Patrouilleurs de Haute Mer),
- The Coastal Surveillance Vessels (Bâtiments de Surveillance Côtière),
- The Fast Coastal Boats (Vedettes Côtières Rapides) and
- The Transport Group (groupe de transport).
2.) The Naval Support Grouping (Groupement de Soutien de la Marine) responsible for ports, repairs, training, and logistics.
3.) The Fluvial-Maritime Surveillance Grouping.
The air force (Armée de l'Air) is orientated towards providing support for ground forces and resembles an army aviation corps. It has no air-to-air combat aircraft, but possesses Mil Mi-24 gunship helicopters, transport helicopters and aeroplanes, and reconnaissance helicopters and aeroplanes. This small force is commanded by a colonel.
At the present time, there are seven military zones:
- Zone n°1 - Dakar
- Zone n°2 - Saint-Louis
- Zone n°3 - Kaolack
- Zone n°4 - Ziguinchor
- Zone n°5 - Tambacounda
- Zone n°6 - Kolda
- Zone n°7 - Thiès
Each zone comprises a garrison office which caters to military issues and a social service office. The IISS Military Balance listed four zones in 2007.
Armored Cars (118)
Armoured personnel carriers: (44) 12 Half-truck M-3 APCs,
Mortars: 16. 8 Brandt 81mm medium mortar, 8 Brandt 120mm heavy mortar. Anti-tank weapons: 4 MBDA Milan ATGM Launchers, 31 Larc-89\Strim 89mm Light ATRLs RL. Air defence weapons: towed guns: 33. 21 53-T-2/M-693 20mm AAGs, 12 Bofors L-60 40mm AAGs Source: IISS Military Balance 2012, 450.
Other 'soft-skin' military vehicles not listed by the IISS:
- Le Potential
- IISS Military Balance 2012, 449.
- Bryden & N'Diaye (eds), 'Security Sector Governance in Francophone West Africa, DCAF, 2011, 207.
- État Major des Armees, Zones militaires, accessed August 2009
Part of this article is derived from the equivalent article at French Wikipedia