Military of Turkmenistan

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Armed Forces of Turkmenistan
Roundel of Turkmenistan.svg
Coat of Arms of Turkmenistan
Founded circa 1992
Service branches

Turkmen National Guard
Turkmen Ground Forces
Turkmen Air Force and Air Defense Forces
Turkmen Navy
Turkmen Internal Troops
Turkmen Border Troops

Ministry of Emergency Situations
Headquarters Galkynysh str.4, Ashkabad[1]
Leadership
President of Turkmenistan Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow
Minister of Defence Colonel General Agageldi Mametgeldiyev
Manpower
Military age 18[2]
Conscription 24 months (IISS 2012)
Active personnel 22,000 (Army 18,500, Air Force 3,000, Navy 500)
Reserve personnel formerly 108,000, not since 2007 at least.[3]
Expenditures
Budget $198 million (FY10) (IISS 2012)
Percent of GDP 3.4% (FY10)[2]
Industry
Foreign suppliers  Russia
 China
 United States
 Turkey
 Azerbaijan

The Armed Forces of Turkmenistan (Turkmen: Türkmenistanyň Ýaragly Güýçleri) consists of an Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Troops, and Internal Troops, and a National Guard. After the fall of the Soviet Union, significant elements of the Soviet Armed Forces Turkestan Military District remained on Turkmen soil, including several motor rifle divisions. In June 1992, the new Russian government signed a bilateral defence treaty with Turkmenistan, encouraging the new Turkmen government to create its own armed forces but stipulating that they were to be placed under joint command.[4]

The Library of Congress Country Studies said that 'the Treaty on Joint Measures signed by Russia and Turkmenistan in July 1992 provided for the Russian Federation to act as guarantor of Turkmenistan's security and made former Soviet army units in the republic the basis of the new national armed forces. The treaty stipulated that, apart from border troops and air force and air defense units remaining under Russian control, the entire armed forces would be under joint command, which would gradually devolve to exclusive command by Turkmenistan over a period of ten years. For a transitional period of five years, Russia would provide logistical support and pay Turkmenistan for the right to maintain special installations, while Turkmenistan would bear the costs of housing, utilities, and administration.'

In 1994, the chief of staff and first deputy minister of defense was Major General Annamurat Soltanov, a career officer who had served in Cuba and Afghanistan; another deputy minister of defense, Major General Begdzhan Niyazov, had been a law enforcement administrator prior to his appointment. Russian commanders included Major General Viktor Zavarzin, chief of staff and first deputy commander of the Separate Combined-Arms Army of Turkmenistan, and commander of the Separate Combined-Arms Army of Turkmenistan and deputy minister of defense Lieutenant General Nikolai Kormiltsev. Russian Major General Vladislav Shunevich served together with Turkmen Major General Akmurad Kabulov as joint commanders of the border troops in the Turkmen Border Guard.

Jane's Information Group said in 2009 that "Turkmenistan's military is, even by the standards of Central Asia, poorly maintained and funded."[5]

State Security Council[edit]

The State Security Council is the most important defence decision-making body in the country.[6]

The 1995 Law on defence[7] says that the President of Turkmenistan defines the powers of the Security Council.

The Security Council is mentioned in the 2003 Constitution of Turkmenistan[8] but not in the 1992 constitution [3], and it's only mentioned that the Security Council is guided by the president.

The Council was chaired by the former President of Turkmenistan Saparmurat Niyazov until his death, while Minister of Defence Agageldi Mämmetgeldiýew acts as its secretary.[9]

Following the death of Niyazov, the Security Council announced Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow as his interim successor.[10]

Ground Forces[edit]

Military guard of honor during the 20th year of independence in Turkmenistan
Soldier with the flag of the Turkmen Armed Forces
T-72UMG tankman salutes during parade
T-90SA and T-72UMG units

The Turkmen military inherited several motor rifle divisions from the Soviet Armed Forces Turkestan Military District, forming the basis of the Turkmen ground forces. Today the ground forces include the 2nd, 3rd, 11th, and 22nd Motor Rifle Divisions.[11]

It was reported in January 2007 that on the Caspian Sea and the coastal zone to a depth of 350 kilometers, and on the Turkmen-Iranian border is located about 90% of the Army (22nd Motorized Division on the Caspian coast, 2nd and 3rd motorized divisions on the Turkmen-Iranian border, 11th Motorized Division on the Tajik-Afghan border).[12]

The military ranks have reverted to traditional names and structure, and are now:

Esger - warrior
Onbashi - leader of 10 (section leader)
Yuzbashi - leader of 100 (junior officer)
Munbashi - leader of 1000 (senior officer)
Goshunbashi - Army commander

The rank of a marshal has also apparently been reintroduced.[13] The real cash payment to the warrior rank in the army is about US$1.5 - 3 (2005 rates) per month. Only some of the conscript's time in the military is occupied with military service, the rest being occupied with "labour" (half a day) and "self-improvement" (2–3 hours a day) by reciting traditional Turkoman texts, learning songs and playing music.

Equipment[edit]

The number of vehicles is around 2,000, the number of tanks is around 700 and the number of artillery pieces is around 560.[14]

Turkmen ground forces equipment includes 702 T-72,[15] and 10 T-90, ordered in 2009 for approximately $30 million.[16][17]

AIFV / APC include BTR-60/BTR-70/BTR-80 - 829,[15] BMP-1/BMP-2 - 930,[15] BRM-1 12, and BRDM-2 - 170.

Artillery[edit]

Self-Propelled

Multiple launch Rocket Systems

Towed Guns

Mortars

Air Defence Guns[edit]

Surface to Air Missiles[edit]

Light equipment[edit]

Air Force[edit]

Flag of the Turkmen Air Force
AgustaWestland AW101 flying overhead
Mi-8s fly near the presidential palace

The IISS in 2012 said the Air Force had 3,000 personnel with 94 combat capable aircraft.[19] The total number of aircraft is around 120.[14] It said there were two fighter/ground attack squadrons with MiG-29/MiG-29UB (total of 24 both types), Sukhoi Su-17 Fitter-Bs (65) and two Sukhoi Su-25 Frogfoots (with 41 more being refurbished). It reported one transport squadron with Antonov An-26 'Curl' (1), and Mi-8s and Mi-24s (8 and 10 listed in service respectively). Training units had Sukhoi Su-7 Fitter-As (3 listed in service) and L-39 Albatross. Air defence missile units had SA-2, SA-3, and SA-5.

Units:

  • 99th Aviation Base (former 67th Mixed Aviation Regiment) (Mary-2 airbase) with МiG-29 and Su-25.[20]
  • 47th Separate Mixed Aviation Squadron (Аk-Tepe/Ashkabad) with Аn-26/24, Мi-24 and Мi-8.
  • 107th Fighter Aviation Regiment (Ak-Tepe) with 38 МiG-23 and 20 МiG-25 (not operational).
  • 31st Separate Aviation Squadron (Chardzhou/Turkmenabad) with МiG-21, Su-7, L-39, Yak-28 and Аn-12 (not operational). Former 366th Independent Helicopter Squadron.
  • 55th Fighter Aviation Regiment (Balkanabat) with МiG-23М (not operational). Former 179th Fighter Aviation Regiment.
  • 56th Storage Base (Kyzyl-Arvat) with МiG-23. Former 217th Fighter/Bomber Aviation Regiment.
  • 1st Anti-Aircraft Missile Regiment 'Turkmenbashi' (Bikrova/Ashkabad) with 2K11 Krug.
  • 2nd Radio-Technical Brigade.

Aircraft Inventory[edit]

Aircraft Origin Type Versions In service[21] Notes
Trainer Aircraft
Aero L-39 Albatros  Czechoslovakia training/light attack L-39 2
Fighter Aircraft
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-29 Fulcrum  Soviet Union fighter MiG-29A
MiG-29UB
22
2
Attack Aircraft
Sukhoi Su-25 Frogfoot  Soviet Union close air support Su-25 43
Transport Aircraft
Antonov An-24 Coke  Soviet Union tactical transport An-24 1
Attack Helicopter
Mil Mi-24 Hind  Soviet Union attack Mi-24 10
Transport Helicopter
Mil Mi-8 Hip  Soviet Union transport/attack Mi-8 8
AgustaWestland AW101  United Kingdom VVIP transport AW101 VVIP 2 1 delivered in 2013[22]

Border Guard[edit]

Flag of the Turkmen Navy

Turkmen naval forces are currently directed by the Border Guard Service and consist of around 700 servicemen and sixteen patrol boats.[23] The Congressional Research Service, citing the International Institute of Strategic Studies, reports a number of six patrol boats.[14]

The International Institute for Strategic Studies reported in 2007 that Turkmenistan intended to form a navy and had a minor base at Turkmenbashy with 1 USCG Point class cutter and 5 Kalkan-class patrol vessels.[15] Jane's Fighting Ships 2001-2002 reported that the Point-class cutter was the Merjin, PB-129, (ex Point Jackson, 82378), which was transferred on 30 May 2000.

The country acquired four missile boats in 2011.[14]

In 2012, Turkmenistan announced its first naval exercises in the Caspian Sea programmed for early September. Named Khazar-2012 (Khazar is the Turkmen name of the Caspian Sea), these tactical exercises comes after a summer of somewhat heightened tensions with Azerbaijan over natural gas fields in a contested part of the sea.[24]

References and links[edit]

  1. ^ Military Technology, World Defence Almanac 2008, p.255
  2. ^ a b http://www.theodora.com/wfbcurrent/turkmenistan/turkmenistan_military.html
  3. ^ Not listed by IISS 2007 or 2012.
  4. ^ Stephen Foye, 'Russian-Turkmen Defense Accord,' RFE/RL Daily Report, no. 109, (10 June 1992), p.1, via Janne E. Nolan (ed.), Global Engagement, Brookings, WAshington DC, 1994, p.369
  5. ^ Josh Kucera, 'Centre of Attention: Central Asia,' Jane's Defence Weekly, 14 October 2009
  6. ^ Eurasianet.org, Turkmenistan Project[dead link]
  7. ^ http://www.cis-legal-reform.org/document.asp?id=6151
  8. ^ [1][dead link]
  9. ^ CIA Chiefs of State data of Turkmenistan[dead link]
  10. ^ Facts and figures on Turkmenistan - Pravda.Ru
  11. ^ Brinkster.com
  12. ^ http://www.polit.ru/analytics/2007/01/03/kavkaz.html, translated from Russian by Google Translate, July 2009
  13. ^ Игорь Елков, Вся постсоветская рать: Какая из бывших советских республик всех сильнее, Российская газета - Неделя №3893 от 7 октября 2005 г.[2]
  14. ^ a b c d Jim Nichol (Congressional Research Service) (16 May 2011). "Turkmenistan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests". fas.org. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  15. ^ a b c d IISS (2007). The Military Balance 2007. London: Routledge for the IISS. pp. 326–327. ISBN 978-1-85743-437-8. 
  16. ^ "EurasiaNet News Briefs - Turkmenistan: Berdymukhamedov Mulls Russian Hi-Tech Deals". Eurasianet.org. 9 December 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  17. ^ "Procurement (Turkmenistan) - Sentinel Security Assessment - Russia And The CIS". Janes.com. 21 October 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  18. ^ http://www.defensenews.com/story.php?i=3600387&c=EUR&s=LAN
  19. ^ IISS 2012 p.290
  20. ^ Vad777, Turkmenistan[dead link]
  21. ^ Turkmenistan Air Force at globalsecurity.org
  22. ^ https://www.agustawestland.com/news/first-two-aw101-vvip-helicopters-delivered-turkmenistan
  23. ^ accessed July 2009
  24. ^ "The First Naval Exercises of Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea". The Gazette of Central Asia (Satrapia). 30 August 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2012.