Armed Forces of Ukraine

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Armed Forces of Ukraine
Збройні сили України
Emblem of the Ukrainian Armed Forces.svg
Emblem of the Armed Forces
Ensign of the Ukrainian Armed Forces.svg
Flag of the Armed Forces
Founded 1917 (reconstituted December 6, 1991)[1]
Service branches

Emblem of Ukrainian Ground Forces Ground Forces
Emblem of Ukrainian Air Force Air Force

Emblem of Ukrainian Navy Navy
Leadership
Supreme Commander-in-Chief Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko[2]
Minister of Defence Valeriy Heletey[3]
Chief of staff Viktor Muzhenko[3][4]
Manpower
Military age 18
Available for
military service
11,149,646, age 16–49 (2008 est.[6])
Fit for
military service
6,970,035, age 16–49 (2008 est.[6])
Reaching military
age annually
256,196 (2008 est.[6])
Active personnel 129,500
Reserve personnel 1,000,000
Deployed personnel 50,000[5]
Expenditures
Budget 20.1 billion UAH (2014)[7]
Percent of GDP 1.25%[8]
Industry
Domestic suppliers Ukrainian Defense Industry
Related articles
History 1992-94 Crimean crisis
Tuzla Island conflict
Iraq War
ONUCI
2014 Crimean crisis
Pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine
War in Donbass
Ranks Military ranks of Ukraine

The Armed Forces of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Збройні сили України (ЗСУ) Zbroyni Syly Ukrayiny, (ZSU)) are the military of Ukraine. The country has observer status with the Non-Aligned Movement of nation states.[9]

Military units of other states participate in multinational military exercises with Ukrainian forces in Ukraine regularly.[10] Many of these exercises are held under the NATO co-operation program Partnership for Peace.

History[edit]

The modern military in Ukraine was completely inherited from the Soviet Union, in which Ukraine was a member state. Like other Soviet republics, it did not possess its own separate military command, as all military formations were uniformly subordinated to the central command of the Armed Forces of the USSR. Administratively the Ukrainian SSR was divided into three military districts (the Carpathian Military District, Kiev Military District, and Odessa Military District) and most of the Black Sea Fleet naval bases were located on the coast of Ukraine.

As the collapse of the Soviet Union took place before 1992 (see Novo-Ogoryovo process), Ukraine inherited one of the most powerful force groupings in Europe. According to an associate of the Conflict Studies Research Centre, James Sherr: "This grouping, its inventory of equipment and its officer corps were designed for one purpose: to wage combined arms, coalition, offensive (and nuclear) warfare against NATO on an external front".[11] At that time, the former Soviet armed forces in the Ukrainian SSR included a rocket army (43rd Rocket Army), four air force armies, an air defense army (8th Air Defence Army), three regular armies, two tank armies, one army corps and the Black Sea Fleet.[12] Altogether the Armed Forces of Ukraine included about 780,000 personnel, 6,500 tanks, about 7,000 combat armored vehicles, 1,500 combat aircraft, and more than 350 ships.

On 26 February 1991 a parliamentary Standing Commission for Questions of Security and Defense was established. On August 24, 1991, the Ukrainian parliament (the Verkhovna Rada), in adopting the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine, also enacted a short resolution "About military formations in Ukraine".[13] This took jurisdiction over all formations of the armed forces of the Soviet Union stationed on Ukrainian soil, and established one of the key agencies, the Ukrainian Ministry of Defense.[14] On 3 September 1991 the Ministry of Defence commenced its duties. On 22 October 1991 units and formations of the Soviet Armed Forces on Ukrainian soil were nationalized.[15] This was followed by two Laws of Ukraine that were adopted by the Supreme Council of Ukraine on December 6, 1991[16][17] and Presidential Ukase #4 "About Armed Forces of Ukraine" on December 12, 1991.[18] The government of Ukraine surrendered any rights of succession of the Soviet Strategic Deterrence Forces[19] (see Strategic Missile Troops) that were staged on the territory of Ukraine. Recognizing the complications of a smooth transition and seeking a consensus with other former members of the Soviet Union in dividing up their Soviet military inheritance, Ukraine joined ongoing talks that started in December 1991[20] regarding a joint military command of the Commonwealth of Independent States.[21]

A Ukrainian Tu-22M is dismantled through assistance provided by the Cooperative Threat Reduction Program implemented by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, 2002

Inherent in the process of creating a domestic military were political decisions by the Ukrainian leadership regarding the country's non-nuclear and international status. Among these was the definition, agreement and ratification of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) which not only established the maximum level of armament for each republic of the former USSR, but also a special ceiling for the so-called CFE "Flank Region". Included in this region were Ukraine's Mykolaiv, Kherson, Zaporizhia Oblasts, and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Another key event in the creation of the Ukrainian military was the 1992 Tashkent Treaty, which laid out aspirations for a Commonwealth of Independent States military that would prove impossible to develop because the former republics of the USSR all wished to go their own way, ripping the intricate Soviet military machine into pieces.

Ukrainian workers use equipment provided by the DTRA to dismantle a Soviet-era missile silo, early 2000s

All military and security forces, including the Armed Forces of Ukraine and a number of independent "militarized institutions" (paramilitary forces) are under the command of the President of Ukraine, and subject to oversight by a permanent Verkhovna Rada parliamentary commission. Ukrainian military tactics and organization are heavily dependent on Cold War tactics and former Soviet Armed Forces organization. Under former President Yushchenko Ukraine pursued a policy of independence from Russian dominance, and thus tried to fully integrate with the West, specifically NATO.

However, Ukraine retains tight military relations with Russia, inherited from their common Soviet history. Common use of naval bases in Crimea and joint air defense efforts are the most intense branches of such cooperation. This cooperation is a permanent irritant in bilateral relations, but the country is unable to break such ties quickly, being economically dependent on Moscow. Furthermore, following the election of President Victor Yanukovych, ties between Moscow and Kiev have warmed, and those between Kiev and NATO have cooled, relative to the Yushchenko years.

Plagued at times by hostile relations with Russia following the breakup of the Soviet Union, Ukraine has been steadfastly trying to develop its own independent military industry. Notable results of this effort are the Ukrainian-built T-84 main battle tank, currently in service, and the aircraft manufacturer Antonov. Ukraine received about 30% of the Soviet military industry, which included between 50 and 60 percent of all Ukrainian enterprises, employing 40% of its working population. Ukraine was, and still remains, a leader in missile-related technology,[22] navigation electronics for combat vessels and submarines, guidance systems, and radar for military jets. Tough competition in the world's weapons market obliged Ukraine to consider exporting arms to politically unstable or even aggressive regimes. Ukraine built its own connections in arms exporting. The first contracts on weapons deliveries to Iran, signed in the middle of 1992, caused negative reactions in the West, particularly from the United States federal government.

Several accidents involving the Armed Forces have occurred since 1992, including the crash of an Air Force Su-27 in the Sknyliv airshow disaster of 2002.

In March 2014, after the 2014 Crimean crisis began, it was announced by the reformist government that a new military service, the National Guard of Ukraine would be created. Previously a National Guard had existed up until 2000, thus the 2014 NG is a reformation of the one raised in 1991, but this time formed partially of personnel from the Internal Troops of Ukraine.

In May 2014 with hybrid war happening in eastern regions, a helicopter with 14 soldiers on board including General Serhiy Kulchytskiy, who headed combat and special training for the country's National Guard, was brought down by militants near Sloviansk in East Ukraine. Outgoing President Olexander Turchynov described the downing as a "terrorist attack," and blamed pro-Russian militants.[23]

Organization[edit]

Ukrainian Su-25UB

Ukraine has 130,000 personnel in its armed forces that could be boosted to about one million with reservists.[24] Late 2010 the total personnel (including 41,000 civilian workers) was 200,000.[25] Conscription was ended in October 2013;[26] at that time the Ukrainian armed forces were made up of 40% conscripts and 60% contract soldiers.[26] In April 2014 acting President Oleksandr Turchynov reinstated conscription in May 2014.[24]

The branch structure is as follows:

With the adoption on December 26, 1996, of a new "State Program for the Building and Development of the Armed Forces of Ukraine", a new type of military district was established in northeast Ukraine, centered in the city of Chernihiv and designated as the Northern Operational/Territorial Command, later renamed the Northern Operational Command. The State Program also provided that two military districts, Carpathian and Odessa, [would] be renamed the Western and Southern Operational Commands respectively.[29] Force numbers were 400,000 (2004), with an expected total of 200,000 in 2005 (2004 est), and 180,000 by 2015 (Bright/Marchuk 2004).

Ukraine maintains a number of Guards units, tracing their traditions to the Soviet Armed Forces. A list can be seen at List of guards units of Ukraine. Women comprise almost 13% of the armed forces (18,000 personnel) but few females hold high rank (2.9% or 1,202 women).[30] Contractual military service accounts for almost 44% of women. However, this is closely linked to the low salary of such positions: men refuse to serve in these conditions while women accept them.[30]

A number of universities have specialized military institutes, such as the Faculty of Military Legal Studies at Kharkiv's National Yaroslav Mudryi Law Academy of Ukraine. The primary Ukrainian military academies are:

In addition the National Defense University of Ukraine (uk:Національний університет оборони України) is in Kiev.[31]

The Chief Military Clinic Hospital is located in Kiev.[32]

International relationships[edit]

Ukraine's stated national policy is Euro-Atlantic integration, with the European Union. Ukraine has a "Distinctive Partnership" with NATO (see Enlargement of NATO) and has been an active participant in Partnership for Peace exercises and in peacekeeping in the Balkans. This close relationship with NATO has been most apparent in Ukrainian cooperation and combined peacekeeping operations with its neighbor Poland in Kosovo. Ukrainian servicemen also serve under NATO command in Iraq, Afghanistan and in Operation Active Endeavour.[33] Former Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych considers the level of co-operation between Ukraine and NATO sufficient.[34] His predecessor Viktor Yushchenko had asked for Ukrainian membership by early 2008.[35][36] During the 2008 Bucharest summit NATO declared that Ukraine will become a member of NATO whenever it wants and when it meets the criteria for accession.[34] Former Ukrainian President Yanukovych opted to keep Ukraine a non-aligned state. This materialized on June 3, 2010 when the Ukrainian parliament excluded, with 226 votes, the goal of "integration into Euro-Atlantic security and NATO membership" from the country's national security strategy.[37]

Arms control and disarmament[edit]

Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, Ukraine inherited two divisions of the Strategic Rocket Forces' 43rd Rocket Army (HQ Vinnytsia): the 19th Rocket Division (Khmelnytskyi) (90? UR-100N/SS-19/RS-18) and the 46th Rocket Division at Pervomaisk, Mykolaiv Oblast, equipped with 40 SS-19 and 46 silo-mounted RT-23 Molodets/SS-24s.[38] While Ukraine had physical control of these systems, it did not have operational control. The use of the weapons was dependent on Russian controlled electronic Permissive Action Links and the Russian command and control system.[39][40]

Ukraine voluntarily gave up these and all other nuclear weapons during the early 1990s. This was the first time in history that a country voluntarily gave up the use of strategic nuclear weapons, although the Republic of South Africa was dismantling its small tactical nuclear weapons program at about the same time.

Ukraine has plentiful amounts of highly enriched uranium, which the United States wanted to buy from the Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology. Ukraine also has two uranium mining and processing factories, a heavy water plant and technology for determining the isotopic composition of fissionable materials. Ukraine has deposits of uranium that are among the world’s richest. In May 1992, Ukraine signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I) in which the country agreed to give up all nuclear weapons and to join the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty as a non-nuclear weapon state. Ukraine ratified the treaty in 1994, and as of January 1, 1996, no military nuclear equipment or materials remain on Ukrainian territory.

On 13 May 1994, the United States and Ukraine signed a Memorandum of Understanding on the Transfer of Missile Equipment and Technology. This agreement committed Ukraine to the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) by controlling exports of missile-related equipment and technology according to the MTCR Guidelines.

Ukraine and NATO estimate that 2.5 million tons of conventional ammunition was left in Ukraine as the Soviet military withdrew, as well as more than 7 million rifles, pistols, mortars and machine guns. The surplus weapons and ammunition were stored in over 180 military bases, including in bunkers, salt mines and in the open.[41] As of 2014, much of this surplus had not been scrapped.[42][43]

Recent operations[edit]

Members of the Ukrainian Army’s 19th Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Battalion in Iraq.

Ukraine has been playing an increasingly larger role in peacekeeping operations. Since 1992, over 30,000 soldiers have taken part in missions in the former Yugoslavia (IFOR in Bosnia and Herzegovina, UNPROFOR and UNTAES in Croatia, KFor in Kosovo), the Middle East (Southern Lebanon, Kuwait, Iraq), and Africa (Angola, Sierra Leone, Liberia).[44]

Since 1997, Ukraine has been working closely with NATO and especially with Poland. A Ukrainian unit was deployed as part of the multinational force in Iraq under Polish command. Ukrainian troops are also deployed as part of the Ukrainian-Polish Battalion (UKRPOLBAT) in Kosovo. The total Ukrainian military deployment around the world as of 1 August 2009 is 540 servicemen participating in 8 peacekeeping missions.[44]

The first battle of a regular formation of the Ukrainian Armed Forces happened on April 6, 2004 in Kut, Iraq, when the Ukrainian peacekeeping contingent was attacked by militants of the Mahdi Army. The Ukrainians took fire, and over several hours held the objectives they had been assigned to secure.[45]

Ukrainian troops as part of the former Soviet Armed Forces contingent participated in UNPROFOR in 1992, and in the summer of that year were involved into the civil war in Yugoslavia. On July 3, 1992 the Verkhovna Rada adopted a resolution committing the Ukrainian Armed Forces to UN peacekeeping missions. The Minister of Defense, Kostyantyn Morozov, ordered the creation of the 240th Separate Special Battalion (UKRBAT-1) which was based on the 93rd Guard Motor-Rifle Division (now the 93rd Mechanized Infantry Division). Soon after arrival in Sarajevo on July 31, 1992, the battalion's artillery complex ended up in the middle of a mutual mortar fight between the Bosnian Serbs and Bosnian Muslims. One of the Serbian shells hit the Ukrainian position, seriously wounding seven soldiers, one of whom died after hospitalization in Germany.

Deployment outside Ukraine[edit]

Armies of Ukraine
Christos Acheiropoietos.jpg Kievan Rus'
Alex K Halych-Volhynia.svg Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg Zaporizhian Host
War flag of Austria-Hungary (1918).svg Austria-Hungary
Flag of the Ukrainian People's Republic Ukrainian People's Republic
RPAU flag.svg Free Territory
Flag of the UPA Ukrainian National Government
Flag of the Ukrainian SSR Ukrainian SSR
Flag of Ukraine Ukraine
  • Armed Forces (1992–Present)

2014 Crimean Crisis[edit]

Main article: 2014 Crimean crisis

On 2 March 2014, the Armed Forces of Ukraine were placed on full alert following a Russian military intervention in the Crimea.[51]

On 19 March 2014, Ukraine are drawing plans to withdraw all their soldiers and their families to mainland "Quickly and Efficiently".[52]

Other militarized institutions of Ukraine[edit]

Ukraine's Armed Forces outside the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Defense consist of:

Although not components of the Armed Forces, these militarized institutions are supposed to come under the Armed Forces' command during wartime.

Military Holidays[edit]

These are the professional military holidays of the Ukrainian Armed Forces.[58]

  • February 23 – The Defender Day (celebrated mainly by Soviet officers)
  • July 8 – The Air Defence Day
  • Last Sunday in July – The Navy Day;[59] From 1997 till 2011 this day was celebrated on August 1[60][61]
  • August 2 – The Airmobile Forces Day
  • August 8 – The Signal troops Day
  • September 7 – The Day of Military Intelligence
  • September 9 – The Day of Armour
  • September 14 – The mobilization serviceman Day
  • October 14 – The Day of UIA (ukr. УПА) foundation
  • October 29 – The Day of finance officers
  • November 3 – The Rocket Forces and Artillery Day
  • November 3 – The Day of Engineers
  • December 6 – The Armed Forces Day; festive fireworks and salutes take place in various cities in Ukraine[62]
  • December 12 – The Day of Ground Forces
  • December 23 – The Day of all level operational control structures servicemen.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://zakon1.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1934-12 Верховна Рада України; Закон від 06.12.1991 № 1934-XII
  2. ^ Lukas Alpert (29 May 2014). "Petro Poroshenko to Be Inaugurated as Ukraine President June 7". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 29 May 2014. 
    Rada decides to hold inauguration of Poroshenko on June 7 at 1000, Interfax-Ukraine (3 June 2014)
    Poroshenko sworn in as Ukrainian president, Interfax-Ukraine (7 June 2014)
  3. ^ a b Ukraine's new defence minister promises Crimea victory, BBC News (3 July 2014)
  4. ^ President appoints Muzhenko as commander-in-chief of Armed Forces, Ukrinform (3 July 2014)
  5. ^ http://www.ukrinform.ua/eng/news/pm_yatseniuk_some_50000_military_participate_in_ato_325180
  6. ^ CIA World Factbook, Military of Ukraine
  7. ^ [Бюджет Міністерства оборони України на 2014 рік становить понад 20 мільярдів гривень Бюджет Міністерства оборони України на 2014 рік становить понад 20 мільярдів гривень] / MoD official website (12th June 2014)
  8. ^ Потратились на оборону // "Красная звезда", № 104 (26564) от 18 июня 2014. стр.3
  9. ^ "NAM Members & Observers". 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement, Tehran, 26–31 August 2012
  10. ^ Parliament approves admission of military units of foreign states to Ukraine for exercises, Kyiv Post (May 18, 2010)
  11. ^ James Sherr, 'Ukraine's Defense Reform: An Update', Conflict Studies Research Centre, 2002
  12. ^ Стан Збройних Сил України на момент створення (Status of the Armed Forces of Ukraine at the time of creation). Ukrainian Military in 20-21st centuries.
  13. ^ Law of Ukraine N 1431-XII. "About military formations of Ukraine". Verkhovna Rada. August 24, 1991.
  14. ^ The history of the Armed Forces of Ukraine
  15. ^ James Sherr, DEFENCE & SECURITY REFORM IN UKRAINE: A FRESH START? (Survival, Spring 2001)
  16. ^ Official document. Law of Ukraine "About Defense of Ukraine". December 6, 1991
  17. ^ Official document. Law of Ukraine "About Armed Forces of Ukraine. December 6, 1991
  18. ^ Official document. "About Armed Forces of Ukraine]
  19. ^ Strategic Deterrence Forces at encyclopedia.mil.ru
  20. ^ Agreement on Forces of General Purpose for transition period
  21. ^ Agreement on Joint Armed Forces for transition period
  22. ^ Ukraine Special Weapons
  23. ^ "General, 13 soldiers killed as militants down military helicopter". Russia Herald. Retrieved 29 May 2014. 
  24. ^ a b Ukraine reinstates conscription as crisis deepens, BBC News (1 May 2014)
  25. ^ Ukrainian Armed Forces 2009. p. 78. Retrieved 22 October 2010. [dead link]
  26. ^ a b http://www.upi.com/Top_News/Special/2013/10/03/Ukraine-to-end-military-conscription-after-autumn-call-ups/UPI-95521380772920/
  27. ^ a b Ukrainian Armed Forces 2009. p. 79. Retrieved 22 October 2010. [dead link]
  28. ^ Ukrainian Armed Forces 2009. p. 80. Retrieved 22 October 2010. [dead link]
  29. ^ Wolchik, p.75, 91, original newspaper sources include Kyivska Pravda, 10 November 1992, in FBIS-SOV, 2 December 1992, 18, and Narodna Armiia, 18 January 1997.
  30. ^ a b UNDP helps Ukrainian Ministry of Defence create new opportunities for women, UNDP (June 16, 2009)
  31. ^ (Ukrainian) Official website of National Defense University of Ukraine
  32. ^ (Russian) Chief Military Clinic Hospital
  33. ^ Новини Управління Прес-служби МО
  34. ^ a b NATO confirms readiness for Ukraine's joining organization, Kyiv Post (April 13, 2010)
  35. ^ Bush to back Ukraine's Nato hopes, BBC News (April 1, 2008)
  36. ^ NATO membership for Georgia and Ukraine held off, BBC (April 4, 2008)
  37. ^ Ukraine drops NATO membership bid, EUobserver (June 6, 2010)
  38. ^ Source old early 1990s notes, but corroboration available for example at http://www.traveltoukraine.org/Ukraine_secret_sites.htm and Feskov et al.
  39. ^ William C. Martel (1998). "Why Ukraine gave up nuclear weapons : nonproliferation incentives and disincentives". In Barry R. Schneider, William L. Dowdy. Pulling Back from the Nuclear Brink: Reducing and Countering Nuclear Threats. Psychology Press. pp. 88–104. ISBN 9780714648569. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  40. ^ Alexander A. Pikayev (Spring–Summer 1994). "Post-Soviet Russia and Ukraine: Who can push the Button?". The Nonproliferation Review 1 (3). doi:10.1080/10736709408436550. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  41. ^ C. J. Chivers (16 July 2005). "Ill-Secured Soviet Arms Depots Tempting Rebels and Terrorists". New York Times. Retrieved 15 June 2014. 
  42. ^ Stuart Ramsay (1 May 2014). "Ukraine: Militia Controls A Million Weapons". Sky News. Retrieved 15 June 2014. 
  43. ^ John Reed (5 June 2012). "Soviet Tanks As Far As The Eye Can See". Defense Tech. Retrieved 15 June 2014. 
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j CURRENT PARTICIPATION OF THE UKRAINIAN ARMED FORCES IN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS
  45. ^ Al-Kut, Iraq: After-Battle Report
  46. ^ a b c d UN Mission's Contributions by Country for September 2010
  47. ^ "DR Congo: UN peacekeeping mission receives tactical helicopters from Ukraine". UN Daily News. 7 March 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  48. ^ Alexander Smith (14 May 2014). "Helicopter May Land Ukraine's Military in Hot Water With U.N.". NBC News. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  49. ^ Participating nations
  50. ^ KFOR Troops (Placemat)
  51. ^ Erlanger, Steven. "Ukrainian Government Rushes to Dampen Secessionist Sentiment". New York Times. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  52. ^ "Ukraine 'preparing withdrawal of troops from Crimea'". BBC News. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  53. ^ (Ukrainian) Law of Ukraine about structure of Ministry of Internal Affairs 10.01.2002 № 2925-III
  54. ^ (Ukrainian) Law of Ukraine about Motorized military troops of Militsiya 05.05.1995 № 319
  55. ^ (Ukrainian) Law of Ukraine about structure of State Border Guard Service of Ukraine 03.04.2003 № 661-IV
  56. ^ (Ukrainian) Law of Ukraine about structure of Civil Defence Forces 22.12.1998 № 328-XIV
  57. ^ (Ukrainian) Law of Ukraine about Special Transportation Service of Ukraine 05.02.2004 № 1449-IV
  58. ^ Professional military holidays
  59. ^ President signs Decree On Celebration of Some Memorable Dates and Professional Holidays, President.gov.ua (30 December 2011)
  60. ^ The Global Road Warrior: 100 Country Handbook for the International Business Traveler by Joe Reif, World Trade Press, 2001, ISBN 1-885073-86-0
  61. ^ Ukraine Intelligence & Security Activities and Operations Handbook, International Business Publications, USA, 2009, ISBN 0-7397-1661-1
  62. ^ Festive fireworks and salutes to take place in 9 cities on Sunday, UNIAN (December 3, 2009)

References[edit]

  • Feskov, V.I.; Kalashnikov, K.A.; Golikov, V.I. (2004). The Soviet Army in the Years of the Cold War 1945–91. Tomsk: Tomsk University Publishing House. ISBN 5-7511-1819-7. 
  • James Sherr, 'Ukraine's Defence Reform: An Update', Conflict Studies Research Centre, 2002

Further reading[edit]

  • Melanie Bright, The Jane's Interview: Yevhen Marchuk, Ukraine's Minister of Defence, Jane's Defence Weekly, 7 January 2004
  • John Jaworsky, "Ukraine's Armed Forces and Military Policy," Harvard Ukrainian Studies Vol. 20, UKRAINE IN THE WORLD: Studies in the International Relations and Security Structure of a Newly Independent State (1996), pp. 223–247
  • Kuzio, T., "Ukrainian Armed Forces in Crisis," Jane's Intelligence Review, 1995, Vol. 7; No. 7, page 305
  • Kuzio, T., "The organization of Ukraine's forces," Jane's Intelligence Review, June 1996, Vol. 8; No. 6, pages 254-258
  • Ben Lombardia, "Ukrainian armed forces: Defence expenditure and military reform," The Journal of Slavic Military Studies, Volume 14, Issue 3, 2001, pages 31–68
  • Mychajlyszyn, Natalie (2002). "Civil-Military Relations in Post-Soviet Ukraine: Implciations for Domestic and Regional Stability". Armed Forces & Society (Interuniversity Seminar on Armed Forces and Society) 28 (3): 455–479. doi:10.1177/0095327x0202800306. 
  • Walter Parchomenko, "Prospects for Genuine Reform in Ukraine's Security Forces," Armed Forces & Society, 2002, Vol. 28, No. 2
  • Brigitte Sauerwein, "Rich in Arms, Poor in Tradition," International Defence Review, No. 4, April 1993, 317–318.
  • J Sherr, "Ukraine: The Pursuit of Defence Reform in an Unfavourable Context," 2004, Defence Academy of the United Kingdom
  • J Sherr, "Into Reverse?: The Dismissal of Ukraine's Minister of Defence," 2004, Defence Academy of the United Kingdom
  • Sharon L. Wolchik, Ukraine: The Search for a National Identity. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000
  • Steven J Zaloga, "Armed Forces in Ukraine," Jane's Intelligence Review, March 1992, p. 135
  • Jane's Intelligence Review, September 1993, re Crimea
  • Woff, Richard, Armed Forces of the Former Soviet Union: Evolution, Structure and Personalities. London: Brassey's, c. 1996.

External links[edit]