Military production during World War II

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During World War II, it was common in some countries for women to work in factories. Here a woman works a lathe in the American aircraft industry
Hard pressed Russian women worked in city factories at the height of the Siege of Leningrad

The mobilisation of funds, people, natural resources and matériel for the production and supply of military equipment and military forces during World War II was a critical component of the war effort. Over the course of the conflict, the Allies outpaced the Axis powers in most categories of production, but not all. Access to the funding and industrial resources necessary to sustain their war efforts were directly linked to the composition and integration of their respective economic and political alliances. As formerly neutral powers such as the United States joined the escalating conflict, territory changed hands and combatants were defeated, the balance of power shifted, eventually in favour of the Allies, as did the means to sustain the scale of military production required to finally win the war.

War production data includes the arms, munitions, natural resources, personnel and financing, mobilised to execute the war. War production is not a precisely defined term and for this article is taken to mean everything produced by the belligerents between the occupation of Austria in early 1938 to the surrender and occupation of Japan in late 1945.

Historic context[edit]

"Designing and Building the East"

In the 1930s, political forces within Germany increased financial investment in the military, to developed the armed forces required to support various near and long term political and territorial goals. Germany's economic, scientific, research and industrial capabilities were perhaps the most technically advanced, if not the largest nor most efficient, in the world at the time and were able to provide sustained support for a rapidly growing and innovative military. However, access to and control of the resources and production capacity required to entertain long-term goals such as direct and indirect control over Europe, the territorial expansion of Germany and the destruction of the USSR, were limited. Political demands necessitated the expansion of Germany's direct control over natural and human resources, industrial capacity and farm lands, outside of its current borders. Germany's military production was therefore directly tied to accessing resources largely located outside of its area of direct political control, a dynamic not found amongst the Allies.

The British Commonwealth and Empire and prior to the war

In 1938 the British Empire and Commonwealth was a global superpower with direct political and economic control over 25% of the world's population, industry and resources, and effective power over much more. Their influence on the course of the war can not be overstated. From 1938 to mid-1942 the British coordinated the entire Allied effort in all global theatres. They fought the German, Italian, Japanese and Vichy armies, air forces and navies across Europe, Africa, Asia, the Middle East, India, the Mediterranean, and in the Atlantic, Indian, Pacific and Arctic oceans. Empire forces destroyed the Italian armies in North and East Africa, and pre-emptively occupied overseas colonies of occupied European nations, such as Iceland, Syria and Lebanon. In numerous successful engagements against Axis forces, British Empire troops invaded and occupied Libya, Italian Somaliland, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iran and Iraq. The Empire funded and delivered critically needed supplies by Arctic convoys to the USSR at its most critical juncture, and supported Free French Forces to recapture French Equatorial Africa. They also established governments in exile, in London, to rally support within Occupied Europe for the allied effort. Using their pre-war strength the British Empire defeated, held back or slowed the Axis powers for 3 years while mobilizing its globally integrated economy and industrial infrastructure to build, what would become by 1942, the largest and most extensive military apparatus of the war. This allowed their later allies, such as the United States, to mobilise their own economies and develop the military forces required to play an instrumental role in the war effort, and for the British Empire itself to go on the offensive in its various theatres of operation.[1][2]

First atomic bomb

The entry of the United States into the war in late 1941 delivered a massive injection of financial, human and industrial potential. As with the Commonwealth countries, the US was eventually able to produce far more than its own military forces required, and it armed both itself and its many allies. From nearly a standing start the US produced vast quantities of arms and munitions, for what was the most industrialized war in history.[3] At the start of the war, the British and French started placing large orders for aircraft with American manufacturers. At the same time, the US Congress approved plans to increase the US air forces by 3,000 aircraft. In May 1940, Franklin D. Roosevelt stunned his nation by calling for the production of 185,000 aeroplanes, 120,000 tanks, 55,000 anti-aircraft guns and 18 million tons of merchant shipping, within two years. Adolf Hitler was reassured by his top advisors that this was impossible, and just an example of American propaganda. In 1939, total aircraft production for the US military had been less than 3,000 planes annually. By the end of the war, US factories produced 300,000 planes.[4][5] By 1944 the US had produced two-thirds of the Allied military equipment used in the war, and were bringing massive military forces into play in North and South America, the Caribbean, the Atlantic, Western Europe and the Pacific. The US continued to produce enormous quantities of military equipment right into late 1945, including nuclear weapons, at which point the United States became one of the strongest, and certainly the most technically advanced[citation needed], military forces in the world.

The human and social cost of the war on the populations of the USSR were extraordinary. Military combat deaths alone numbered in the millions. Recognising the fundamental importance of their population and industrial production to the war effort, the USSR evacuated the majority of its European territory, moving 2,500 factories, 17 million people and enormous quantities of resources to the east.[6] Far out of the reach of Germany the USSR was able to produce the equipment and forces critical to the eventual defeat of the Axis in Europe. Fighting for their very existence over 1,000,000 women also served in the armed forces. The social, economic and military mobilisation of the USSR against the Axis is one of the most compelling stories of the period.

Assembly line production of fighter aircraft in US

The statistics below reveal the extent to which Allied powers out produced the Axis. Production of machine tools tripled. Thousands of ships were constructed in shipyards that didn't exist before the war.[7] As William S. Knudsen observed, "We won because we smothered the enemy in an avalanche of production, the like of which he had never seen, nor dreamed possible."[8] Military production ebbs and flows in line with politics, social beliefs, shifting alliances, territorial expansion and contraction, military victories and defeats. State propaganda sustained working people with visions of victory and scared them with nightmares of defeat. Access to more resources, the ability to build up arms in relative peace, political control over working populations, and access to large international labour pools were critical to the eventual victory of the Allies. The story of World War Two is very much the story of the production of victory.

Production summaries 1938–1945[edit]

Organize Labour Service Corps, Japan, WWII Propaganda Poster

Personnel[edit]

"At work in Germany you are an ambassador of French quality" Vichy France WWII propaganda poster
Service Allies Axis
Combat x x
Auxiliary x x
Merchant Marine x x
Irregulars x x
Total 80,000,000 30,000,000

Major weapons groups[edit]

System Allies Axis
Tanks, SPGs, vehicles 4,358,649 670,288
Artillery, mortars, guns 6,792,696 1,363,491
Aircraft 637,248 229,331
Missiles 0 45,458
Ships 54,932 1,670
Nuclear Weapons 3 0

Economy[edit]

Allies Axis
GDP Int$12,321,000,000 Int$5,556,000,000
Expenditure

Vital commerce and raw materials[edit]

To move raw materials and supply distant forces, large numbers of cargo ships had to be built
Category Allies Axis
Cargo ships 47,118 x
Merchant shipping 46,817,172 5,621,967
Coal 4,581,400,000 2,629,900,000
Crude oil 1,043,000,000 66,000,000
Steel 733,006,633 x
Aluminium 5,104,697 1,199,150
Asbestos 3,934,043 x

* Cargo and resources in metric tonnes

Production overview: service, power and type[edit]

Air forces[edit]

Power Total Fighters Attack Bombers Recon Transport Training Other Personnel
British Empire 177,025 38,786 33,811 38,158 7,014 12,585 46,256 415 1,927,395
USA and territories 324,000 99,000 97,000 23,000 57,000 2,400,000
USSR 136,223 22,301 37,549 21,116 17,332 4,061
Other
Allies 637,248 164,087 71,360 156,274 7,014 52,917 107,317 415
Germany and territories 133,387 57,653 8,991 28,577 5,025 8,396 14,311 11,361 3,402,200
Romania 1,113 513 272 128 0 200 0 0
Italian Empire 13,402 6,157 34 3,381 388 2,471 968 3
Japanese Empire 71,580 26,548 21,639 13,839 3,709 1,073 3,420 1,376
Other 9,849 881 4 395 318 1,880 5,145 57
Axis 229,338 91,752 30,936 46,320 11,002 9,176 22,944 12,794

Land forces[edit]

Power Tanks & SPGs Armoured vehicles Other vehicles Artillery Mortars Machine guns Personnel
British Empire 47,862 47,420 1,475,521 226,113 239,540 1,090,410 11,192,533
USA and territories 102,410 2,382,311 257,390 105,055 2,679,840 10,000,000
USSR 106,025 197,100 516,648 200,300 1,477,400
Other
Allies 256,297 47,420 4,054,932 1,000,151 544,895 5,247,650
Germany and territories 67,429 345,914 159,147 73,484 674,280 16,540,835
Hungary 908 447 4,583
Italian Empire 3,368 83,000 7,200 22,000
Japanese Empire 3,724 165,945 13,350 29,000 380,000
Other
Axis

Naval forces[edit]

Power Total large ships Carriers Battleships Cruisers Destroyers Frigates Corvettes Sloops Patrol boats Submarines De/ Mining Landing craft Personnel
British Empire 6,771 36(24) 6[note 1] 102 291 209 387 33 4,209 238 1,244 9,538 1,227,415
USA and territories 890 163(141) 8 48 349 245 35,000 x
USSR 2[note 2] 2 25 52
Other
Allies 199(165) 16 152 665 209 387 33 4,209 568 1,244 44,538
Germany & territories 17 1,152 1,500,000
Italian Empire 3 6 6 63
Japanese Empire 16 2 9 63 199
Other
Axis ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 1,414
"Everything for the Front. Everything for Victory", USSR WWII propaganda poster
"I'm making bombs and buying bonds!-Buy Victory Bonds." Canada World War II propaganda poster.
"Work and Fight for your Country and Victory", Italy, WWII propaganda poster

Commercial forces[edit]

British Empire USA USSR Germany Hungary Italy Japan Romania
Harbour craft 1,092
Cargo 1,361
Cargo tonnage 12,823,942 33,993,230 1,469,606 4,152,361

Vital resources[edit]

Country Coal Iron Ore Crude Oil Steel Aluminium Nickel Zinc
!a -9999 -9999 -9999
USA 2,149.7 396.9 833.2
Britain[9] 1,441.2 119.2 90.8 3.700 0.205
Australia 83.1 1.56
India[10] 196.7 6.0 1.12
Canada 101.9 3.6 8.4 16.4 3.500[11]
New Zealand[12] 18
USSR 590.8 71.3 110.6 0.263[13] 0.069[14] 0.384[14]
Total Allied
Reich 2,420.3 240.7 33.4[15] 1.9[16] 0.046[16] 2.1[16]
Japan 184.5 21.0 5.2
Italy 16.9 4.4
Hungary 6.6 14.1 3.1
Romania 1.6 10.8 25.0
Total Axis
~z 99999999 99999999 99999999

All figures in millions of tonnes

Reference data for summary tables[edit]

The relationship in GDP between the major Allied and Axis powers 1938-1945

GDP[edit]

GDP provides insight into the relative strength of the belligerents in the run up to, and during the conflict.

Gross domestic product[nb 1][17][18]
Country 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945
Great Britain 284 287 316 344 353 361 346 331
Dominions 115 - - - - - - -
Colonies 285 - - - - - - -
British Empire 684 287 316 344 353 361 346 331
France 186 199 82/82 130 116 110 93 101
Colonies 49 --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
French Empire 235 199 82/82 130 116 110 93 101
USSR 359 366[nb 2] 417[nb 3] 359 274 305 362 343
USA & Territories[nb 4] 800 869 943 1,094 1,235 1,399 1,499 1,474
Germany 376 411 416 441 444 454 466 322
Occupied --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Greater Germany 376 411 416 441 444 454 466 322
Italy 141 151 147 144 145 137 117 92
Occupied 3 --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Italian Empire 144 151 147 144 145 137 117 92
Japan 169 184 192 196 197 194 189 144
Occupied 63 --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Japanese Empire 232 184 192 196 197 194 189 144
Allied total: 919 486 398 1,927 1,978 2,065 2,207 2,341
Axis total: 376 411 837 911 902 895 758 466
Allied/Axis GDP ratio:[nb 5] 2.51 1.18 0.54 1.75 2.06 2.31 2.86 5.02
  1. ^ Billions of international dollars, at 1990 prices. Adjusted annually for changing compositions within each alliance.
  2. ^ In 1939, the USSR invaded and took over Eastern Poland
  3. ^ The USSR occupied the Baltic states in mid 1940
  4. ^ Alaska and Hawaii did not become states of the US until post-war
  5. ^ GDP ratio: A 2.06 ratio means combined Allied GDP was 2.06 times higher than Axis GDP.

Table notes

  1. France to Axis: 1940:50% (light green), 1941-44:100% (brown)
  2. USSR to Allies: 1941:44% (light green), 1942-1945:100%.
  3. US direct support to the Allies begins with Lend Lease in March 1941, though the US made it possible for the Allies to purchase US-produced materiel from 1939[19]
  4. Italy to Allies and Axis: 1938:0%, 1939-1943:100% Axis (brown), 1944-1945:100% Allies
  5. Japanese to Axis begins with Tripartite Pact in 1940
  6. The Allied and Axis totals are not the immediate sum of the table values; see the distribution rules[clarification needed] used above.

Personnel - Allied - British Empire[edit]

Including all non-British subjects in British services.

Army Army (female) Navy Navy (female) Marines Air Force Air Force (female) Auxiliary Merchant marine Partisans Total combat Other labour
Australia 727,703 24,026 36,976 3,000 0 124,007 27,000 4,500 942,712
Argentine volunteers 1,700 1,700 599 1 4,000
Bechuana 10,000 10,000
Free Belgian Forces 42,300 1,200 1,900 45,770 370
Britain 3,300,000 210,309 865,000 74,000 78,500 1,208,000 181,909 1,500,000 185,000 7,602,718
B. Indian Ocean 6,500 6,500
Canada 705,374 25,251 99,822 7,100 222,501 27,123 82,163 18,000 1,187,334
Caymans 201 800 1001
Chinese volunteers 10,000 10,000
Cyprus 30,000 30,000
Czech volunteers 4,000 2,000 6,000
East Africa 200,000 200,000
Egypt 100,000 100,000
Fiji 3,050 1,071 4,121
Free French Forces 3,700 20 3,720
Free Greek 5,000 8,500 250 14,000
Guiana, British 32 10 42 33 48 196 31
Hong Kong 2,200 2,200
India 2,444,779 11,000 45,947 30,000 50,000 2,581,726 14,000,000
Ireland 70,000 70,000
Kenya 98,240 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 98,240
Free Luxembourg 80 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 80
Malaysia 1,500 0 1,450 0 0 0 0 3,215 0 4,800 10,965
Nepal 250,280 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 250,280
Free Dutch 4,000 1,000 0 0 0 1000 0 0 0 0 6,000
Newfoundland 3,503 500 2,889 0 0 712 0 0 10,000 0 21,204 3,600
New Zealand 125,000 3,905 10,139 700 0 37,250 4,750 124,000 3,000 0 308,744
Nigeria 121,652 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 121,652
Free Norway 4,000 0 7,500 0 0 2,700 0 0 0 0 14,200
Palestine 5,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5,000
Free Polish 215,000 0 4,000 0 0 20,000 0 0 0 0 239,000
Sudan 20,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20,000
South Africa 334,000 0 13,269 280 75 0 12,000 0 0 0 359,624
Southern Africa 77,767 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 77,767
USA volunteers 0 0 0 0 0 8,000 0 0 0 0 8,000
West Africa 200,000 0 0 0 0 10,000 0 0 0 0 210,000
West Indies 10,000 0 40000 0 0 5,560 80 0 0 0 55,640
British Empire 9,122,660 276,001 1,142,335 85,080 78,575 1,674,532 252,863 1,710,497 281,300 4,800 14,692,644 14,004,001

Note:

  1. Auxiliary units include Home Guard, Reserves, Police regiments, etc.

Personnel - Axis - German Reich[edit]

Including all non-German subjects in German services.

Army Army (female) Navy Navy (female) Marines Air Force Air Force (female) Auxiliary Merchant marine Partisans Total combat Other labour
Albania 9,000 9,000
Arab legion 20,000 20,000
Belgium 22,000 22,000
British Empire 3,500 3,500
Bulgaria 700 7000
Croatia 55,500 500 400 32,000 88,400
Czech
Denmark 12,000 12,000
Finland vol 2,500 2,500
France & territories 8,000 4,500 5,080 17,580 348,500
Germany & territories 14,793200 1,500,000 3,400,000 19,693,200
Greece 22,000 22,000
Hungary 40,000 40,000
Italy 18,000 18,000
Luxembourg 12,035 12,035
Netherlands 45,000 45,000
Norway 50,000 1,500 1,500 53,000
Poland 75,000 45,000 120,000
Portugal 200 200
Romania 55,000 55,000
Serbia 10,000 10,000
Slovakia
Slovenia 6,000 6,000
Spain 47,000 47,000
Sweden 300 300
Switzerland 800 800
USA 20 20
USSR 1,051,000 300 100,000 1,151,300
German Reich 16,336,755 1,506,500 3,402,200 204,080 21,449,535 348,000

Note:

  1. Auxiliary units include Home Guard, Wehrmachtsgefolge, Reserves, Police regiments, etc.
  2. USSR includes Armenia 4k SS,14k Wehr, 7k Aux; Azerbaijan 55k SS, 70k Wehr; Belarus 12k Wehr, 20k Aux; Cossack 200k Wehr; Estonia 20k SS, 50k Wehr, 7k Aux; Georgia 10k SS; 30k Wehr; Kalmyk 5k Wehr; Latvia 55k SS; 87k Wehr, 300 Air, 23k Aux; Lithuania 50k Wehr, 10 Aux; North Caucuses 4k SS; Russia 60k SS, 26k Wehr; Turkestan 16k Wehr; Ukrainian 300k Wehr; 2k Aux; Tatar/Urals 12k Wehr

Aircraft - Allied - British Empire[edit]

Australian World War II propaganda poster

Within the UK, aircraft production was vulnerable to enemy attack. To expand and diversify the production base the British setup "Shadow factories". These brought other manufacturing companies - such as vehicle manufacturers - into aircraft production, or aircraft parts production. These inexperienced companies were set up in groups under the guidance or control of the aircraft manufacturers. New factory buildings were provided with government money.

Fighters Australia Britain Canada India NZ SA Total
Blenheim[note 3] 5,519 626 6,145
Boomerang 250 250
Brigand 14 14
Defiant[note 4] 1,065 1065
Firebrand 230 230
Firefly 872 872
Fulmar 600 600
Gladiator[note 5] 483 483
Hornet[note 6] 197 197
Meteor 250 250
Mohawk IV[20] 5 5
Mustang 200 18
Roc 136 136
Seafire[note 7] 2,334 2,334
Sea Gladiator 98 98
Spitfire 20,351 20,351[21]
Tempest 1,702 1,702
Vampire 244 244
Welkin 77 77
Whirlwind[note 8] 116 116
450 37,705 626 5 38,786
Attack Australia Britain Canada India NZ SA
Beaufighter 364 5,564 5,928
Helldiver 1,134 1,134
Hurricane[note 9] 14,231 1,451 15,682
Mosquito 212 6,199 1,134 7,545
Skua 192 192
Typhoon 3,330 3,330
576 29,516 3,719 33,811
Bomber Australia Britain Canada India NZ SA
Albacore 800 800
Barracuda 2,607 2,607
Beaufort 700 1,429 2,129
Buckingham 119 119
Halifax 6,178 6,178
Hampden[note 10] 1,270 160 1,430
Hereford 152 152
Lancaster 7307 430 7,377
Lincoln[note 6] 73 530 1 604
Manchester 202 202
Stirling 2,383 2,383
Swordfish[note 10] 2,396 2,396
Wellington[note 10] 11,461 11,461
Whitely[note 10] 1,780 1,780
773 36,794 591 38,158
Reconnaissance
& patrol
Australia Britain Canada India NZ SA
Auster 1,800 1,800
Bolingbroke[note 11] 676 626
Bombay[note 12] 51 51
Botha 580 580
Cub 150 150
Lerwick 21 21
Osprey 9 9
PBV Canso 272 721 993
Sea Otter 292 292
Seaford 10 10
Shark 17 17
Stranraer 17 40 57
Sunderland 767 767
Walrus 746 746
Warwick 845 845
5,410 1604 7,014
Transport Aus Britain Can India NZ SA
Aerovan 52 52
Albatross 7 7
Albemarle 602 602
CAC Gliders 8 8
Delta 19 19
DHA-G1/G2 8 8
Dragon 87 87
Dragon Rapide 474 474
Short Empire 42 42
Ensign 15 15
Flamingo 14 14
50 Freighter 5 5
Hamilcar 412 412
Hengist 18 18
Horsa 5,000 5,000
Hotspur 1,015 1,015
Lancastrian 82 6 82
Lysander 1,445 225 1,670
Messenger 93 93
Monarch 11 11
Monitor 22 22
Norseman 861 861
S.26 3 3
Whitley 1,814 1,814
York 259 1 259
Other
103 11,380 1,117 12,600
Training Aus Britain Can India NZ SA
Anson 8,488 3,197 11,685
Battle[note 13] 2,201
Buckmaster 112
Cornell (PT-19/26) 1,642
Don 30
Finch 606
Fort 101
Harlow PC-5 5 50
Harvard 3,985
Magister 1,303
Martinet 1,724
Master 3,250
Mentor 45
Moth Minor 100
Oxford 8,586
Proctor 1,143
Tiger Moth 1,080 5,738 1,748 150 8,716
Tipsey B 15
Wackett 202
Wirraway 755
2,037 32,735 11,284 50 150 46,256
OTHER Australia Canada Britain India NZ SA Empire
Prototypes[note 14] 2 3 61
Other 10 339
2 13[note 15] 400[note 16] 415
Total 'x x x x x x x

Aircraft - Allies - France, Poland and Minor Powers[edit]

Production numbers given are the ones until the time of the German occupation of the respective country. Some of the types listed saw production already before the war. Here we list the types that were still in production at the time of or after the Munich crisis.

Fighters Belgium Czechoslovakia Denmark France Netherlands Poland Yugoslavia Total
B.534-IV/Bk.534 274
CR.714 90
D.520 403
D.XXI 10 110 120
F.K.58 20[note 17]
Fox VI/VII 106
G.I 63
Hurricane I 15 20
IK-2 12
IK-3 12
MB.151/152 636
MS.406 1,077
Potez 630/631 280
PZL.50 (6)[note 18]
P.24 118[note 19]
VG.33/36/39 40[note 20]
Total 121 274 10 2,526 193 119 (+5) 44 3,287[note 21]
Attack Belgium Czechoslovakia Denmark France Netherlands Poland Yugoslavia Total
Br.690 230
Laté 298 121
LN.40 68
P.4/34 (12)[note 22]
PVT[note 23] 61
Total (12) 419 61 480[note 24]
Bombers Belgium Czechoslovakia Denmark France Netherlands Poland Yugoslavia Total
A.101 64
A.304 19
Amiot 351/354 80
B-71 61
Battle I 18 [note 25]
C.X/C.XI 53
Do 17K 70
F.222.2/F.223 25
LeO 45 452
LWS-6 17
MB.131 143
MB.174/175 79
MB.210 298
Potez 633 55
PZL.37 120
PZL.43 54[note 26]
PZL.46 2[note 27]
SIM-XIV-H 19
T.V 16
T.VIII 36
Total 18 144 1,132 105 193 89 1,681

Aircraft - Axis - All[edit]

Occupied countries produced weapons for the Axis powers. Figures are for the period of occupation only.

Fighters Belgium Bulgaria Czech Netherlands Finland France Germany Hungary Italy Japan Poland Romania Yugoslavia Total
A6M "Zero" 10,939
Ar 240 14
B-135 12
B-534 78
Ba 349 36[note 28]
Bf 109 33,142 309 33,984
C.200/202/205 2,766
CR.25 12
CR.42 1,782
D.520[note 29] 440
Do 17Z-7/Z-10 12
Do 335 37
F.5 14
F.K.52 6
Fw 190 20,000
G.50 666
G.55 305
He 100[note 30] 25
He 112 60
He 162 320
He 219 300
IAR 80 346
J1N 479
J2M 621
Ki-10 283
Ki-27 3,399
Ki-44 1,227
Ki-61 3,159
Ki-84 3,514
Ki-100 395
Ki-102 238
MB.150[note 31] 35
Me 163 Komet 370 7 377
Me 262 1,430
Mörkö-Morane[note 32] 41
MS.410[note 33] 74
MXY7 852
N1K 1,435
P.24 25 25 50
Re.2000-2005 204 531 735
Ro.44 35
Ro.57 75
SAI.207 14
Ta 152/154 200
VL Myrsky 51
VL Pyry 41
Total 90 6 133 549 55,934 513 6,200 26,548 25 371 91,728
Attack Belgium Bulgaria Czech Netherlands Finland France Germany Hungary Italy Japan Poland Romania Yugoslavia
A6M2-N 327
Ba.65 218
Ba.88 149
D3A 1,486
FC.12 11
FC.20 6
He 115 138
He 118[note 34] 15
Hs 123[note 35] 250
Hs 129 865
Ju 87 Stuka 6,500
Ki-27 3,368
Ki-30 704
Ki-43 5,919
Ki-45 1,701
Ki-48 1,997
Ki-51 2,385
Ki-84 3,514
Ki-102 238
Me 210[note 36] 400 272 672
Me 410[note 37] 1,189
RS.14 188
SM.85 34
Total 9,092 272 606 21,904 30,903
Bombers Belgium Bulgaria Czech Netherlands Finland France Germany Hungary Italy Japan Poland Romania Yugoslavia
A.304 4
Ar 234 210
B5N 1,149
B6N 1,268
B7A 114
MB.174/175[note 38] 38
BR.20 602
Ca.135 140
Ca.309-314 1,516
D4Y 2,038
Do 22 30
Do 17E/F 405
Do 17K 14
Do 17M/P/R/S/U 448
Do 17Z 875
Do 215 105
Do 217 1,025
Fi 167 14
Fw 200 276
G3M 1,048
G4M 2,435
He 111 7,300
He 177 1,190
IAR 37 380
Ju 88/188/388 16,517
KB.6 24
Ki-21 2,064
Ki-32 854
Ki-49 819
Ki-67/109 767
LeO 45[note 39] 162
M6A 28
P.108 35
P1Y 1,102
Q1W 153
Š-328 80
SM.79 1,350
SM.82[note 40] 379
SM.84 246
WM-21 128
Z.506B 320
Z.1007 660
Z.1018 15
Total 24 84 200 28,444 128 5,228 13,839 380 44,802

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ the five King George V class were started prior to war, a further four battleships were cancelled to make resources available for construction of other ships (Gazarke & Dulin)
  2. ^ Two battlecruisers of Kronshtadt-class laid down but never progressed
  3. ^ The majority of Blenheims were built as light bombers
  4. ^ Total includes 140 unarmed Defiants produced as target tugs
  5. ^ Pre-war production. 165 additional to export customers. Sea Gladiator conversions and production listed in Sea Gladiator entry.
  6. ^ a b includes post-war production
  7. ^ Includes some post-war production and conversions of Spitfires
  8. ^ changed to ground attack role during war
  9. ^ up to 1942 the Hurricane was chiefly used as a fighter aircraft
  10. ^ a b c d Includes pre-war production
  11. ^ a variant of the Blenheim, 457 of the total were produced as trainer aircraft
  12. ^ used as light bomber and transport aircraft in Middle East and Mediterranean theatre
  13. ^ Initially used as light bomber eg during Battle of France
  14. ^ Including: Arpin A-1 (1) , Airspeed Cambridge (2), Airspeed Fleet Shadower (1), Avro Tudor (2), Blackburn B-20 (1), Boulton Paul P.92 (1), Burnelli CBY-3 (2), CAC Woomera, Australia (2), Chrislea Airguard (1) , de Havilland Dove (1), de Havilland T.K.5 (1) , Fairey Spearfish (5), Fane F.1/40 (1), General Aircraft Cagnet (1), General Aircraft Owlet (1), General Aircraft Fleet Shadower (1), General Aircraft GAL.47 (1), General Aircraft GAL.55 (2), General Aircraft GAL.56 (4), Canadian Car and Foundry FDB-1, Canada (1), Gloster F.5/34 (2) , Gloster F.9/37 (2) , Handley Page Manx (1), Hawker Hotspur (1), Hawker Tornado (4), Miles M.20 (2), Miles X Minor (1), Miles M.35 (1), Miles M.39 (1), Miles LR 5 (1), Parnall 382 (1), Reid and Sigrist R.S.1/2 (2), Saro A33 (1), Saro Shrimp (1), Short Shetland (2), Supermarine Type 322 (2), Vickers Type 432 (1), Vickers VC.1 Viking (1), Vickers Windsor (3)
  15. ^ includes: CCF Maple Leaf Trainer II (2 plus 10 built in Mexico )
  16. ^ includes: Folland Fo.108 engine test bed (12), General Aircraft Cygnet (10), General Aircraft Monospar ST-25 (30)[clarification needed], Hawker Henley (200)[clarification needed], Hawker Sea Fury (10), Miles M.15 (2), Miles M.18 (3) , Miles Mercury (6), Percival Petrel (27), Percival Vega Gull (~20), Supermarine Spiteful fighter (19)
  17. ^ Delivered to France.
  18. ^ Only 1 out of 6 (the prototype) completed before German occupation.
  19. ^ Only 1 (designated P.11g) used by Poland in 1939. The remaining ones were exported to various Balkan countries.
  20. ^ Around 200 more airframes were in advanced production stage.
  21. ^ not counting uncompleted PZL.50
  22. ^ Production was started in Denmark, but not completed before the German invasion.
  23. ^ Originally an advanced fighter-training aircraft, this type was later used as a light attack plane, in particular by the Air Force of the Independent State of Croatia.
  24. ^ not counting P.4/34
  25. ^ According to some sources a license production was started in Denmark but not completed before the German invasion.
  26. ^ All but 5 delivered to Bulgaria.
  27. ^ Prototypes that were used in combat.
  28. ^ Never entered service
  29. ^ Number refers to production resumed after German occupation.
  30. ^ Produced shortly before the war and mainly used for testing and propaganda purposes.
  31. ^ Number refers to production resumed after German occupation.
  32. ^ Conversion from MS.406/410.
  33. ^ Conversion from MS.406.
  34. ^ Produced before the war and 2 delivered to Japan, which used it for testing and practice.
  35. ^ All produced before the war, but used until 1944.
  36. ^ Only 90 German-built Me 210 were completed and delivered, about 100 Hungarian-built were supplied to Germany
  37. ^ Also used as a fighter and for reconnaissance
  38. ^ Produced for Germany after German occupation.
  39. ^ Number refers to production resumed after German occupation.
  40. ^ Only bomber versions listed here.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ History of the Second World War (104 volumes), Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London 1949 to 1993
  2. ^ http://rethinkinghistory.blogspot.ca/2010/09/mythology-of-british-weakness-in-second.html
  3. ^ Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, p. IX, Random House, New York, NY, 2012. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4.
  4. ^ Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II, p. 7, Cypress, CA, 2013. ISBN 978-0-9897906-0-4.
  5. ^ Wrynn, V. Dennis. Forge of Freedom: American Aircraft Production in World War II, pp. 4-5, Motorbooks International, Osceola, WI, 1995. ISBN 0-7603-0143-3.
  6. ^ Kumanev, G.A., "War and the evacuation of the USSR: 1941-1942", New Age, 2006
  7. ^ Sawyer, L. A. and Mitchell, W. H. The Liberty Ships: The History of the "Emergency" Type Cargo Ships Constructed in the United States During the Second World War, Second Edition, pp. vii, 1-8, Lloyd's of London Press Ltd., London, England, 1985. ISBN 1-85044-049-2.
  8. ^ Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II, pp. 5, 7, Cypress, CA, 2013. ISBN 978-0-9897906-0-4.
  9. ^ Mitchell, B.R. British Historical Statistics, 1988
  10. ^ http://www.teindia.nic.in/mhrd/50yrsedu/15/8P/82/8P820T03.htm
  11. ^ Dialogue on Aluminium 110 years of history in Canada approximation
  12. ^ Baker The New Zealand People at War: War Economy 1965
  13. ^ Lend Lease as a Function of the Soviet war Economy
  14. ^ a b Accounting for War: Soviet Production, Employment and the Defense Burden, 1940-1945 Mark Harrison, 1996
  15. ^ Including 23.4 synthetic.
  16. ^ a b c Volume 3 -The Effects of Strategic Bombing on the German War Economy 1940-1944 only, retrieved June 8, 2014
  17. ^ "Comparison of GDP adjusted for actual yearly shared contribution to war efforts after Zuljan, Ralph, Allied and Axis GDP", "Articles On War" (OnWar.com), 2003, retrieved June 8, 2014 
  18. ^ Harrison, 1998
  19. ^ General Article: Foreign Affairs, pbs.org 
  20. ^ Baugher "Hawk 75A-5 for China" 1999
  21. ^ Ethell, Jeffrey L. and Steve Pace. Spitfire. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1997. ISBN 0-7603-0300-2. p117

Table data[edit]

Personnel -Allied - British Empire[edit]

Personnel - Axis[edit]

This includes all German and non-German subjects serving within German Reich forces.

Aircraft - Allied[edit]

  • Australia
  • Bristol Brigand
  • Free Dutch
  • New Zealand
  • General
  • Barnes 1989
  • Bishop 2002
  • Bowyer 1980
  • Butler 2004
  • Flint 2006
  • Green 1967
  • Jackson 1987
  • Jane's 1989
  • Mason 1994
  • Morgan ?
  • Otway 1990
  • Swanborough 1997
  • Tapper 1988
  • The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, 1985

Aircraft - Axis[edit]

  • Italy
  • Dressel and Griehl 1994
  • Encyclopedia of weapons of World War Two
  • Francillon 1970
  • The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, 1985
  • Jane's 1989
  • Mondey 1996
  • Smith and Anthony ?

Raw materials[edit]

  • The Mineral Industry of the British Empire and Foreign Countries, Statistical Summary 1938-1944, The Imperial Institute, HMSO, 1948
  • The Mineral Industry of the British Empire and Foreign Countries, Statistical Summary 1941-1947, The Imperial Institute, HMSO, 1949

Official histories[edit]

  • History of the Second World War (104 volumes), Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London 1949 to 1993
  • Official History of Australia in the War of 1939–1945 (22 volumes), Australian Government Printing Service, 1952 to 1977
  • Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War, Vol I Six Years of War, Stacey, C P., Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1955
  • Official History of the Indian Armed Forces in the Second World War 1939-45 (24 volumes), Combined Inter-Services Historical Section, India & Pakistan, New Delhi, 1956-1966
  • Official History of New Zealand in the Second World War 1939–45, Historical Publications Branch, Wellington, New Zealand, 1965

Bibliography[edit]

  • Ailsby, Christopher, Hitler's Renegades: Foreign Nationals in the Service of the Third Reich (Photographic Histories), Potomac Books, 2004
  • Barnett, Correlli, The audit of war : the illusion & reality of Britain as a great nation, Macmillan, 1986
  • Barnes, C.H.; James D.N. Shorts Aircraft since 1900, London, Putnam, 1989
  • Bishop, Chris, The Encyclopaedia of Weapons of World War II, Sterling Publishing, 2002
  • Bowyer, Michael J.F. Aircraft for the Royal Air Force: The "Griffon" Spitfire, The Albemarle Bomber and the Shetland Flying-Boat, London, Faber & Faber, 1980
  • Boyd, David, (2009) "Wartime Production by the Commonwealth during WWII" British Equipment of the Second World War
  • Boyd, David (2009), "British Production of Aircraft By Year During The Second World War", British Equipment of the Second World War 
  • Butler, Tony. British Secret Projects: Fighters and Bombers 1935–1950. Hinckley, UK: Midland Publishing, 2004
  • Canada at War, "The Canadian War Industry"
  • Dressel, Joachim and Manfred Griehl. Bombers of the Luftwaffe. London: DAG Publications, 1994
  • Flint, Keith, Airborne Armour: Tetrarch, Locust, Hamilcar and the 6th Airborne Armoured Reconnaissance Regiment 1938-1950. Helion & Company Ltd., 2006
  • Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, London, Putnam, 1970
  • Gregg, W.A ed., Canada’s Fighting Vehicles Europe 1943-1945, Canadian Military Historical Society, 1980
  • Green, William. War Planes of The Second World War:Volume Seven - Bombers and Reconnaissance Aircraft. London: Macdonald, 1967
  • Harrison, Mark, "The Economics of World War II: Six Great Powers in International Comparison", Cambridge University Press, 1998 (Author's overview)
  • Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, Random House, New York, 2012
  • The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft (Part Work 1982-1985). London: Orbis Publishing, 1985
  • Jackson, A.J., De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 (Third ed.), London, Putnam, 1987
  • Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II, London, Studio Editions Ltd, 1989
  • "Les luxembourgeois de la Brigade Piron". (in French) Armee.lu. Retrieved 29 June 2013
  • Long, Jason, Lend Lease as a Function of the Soviet war Economy, http://www.sturmvogel.orbat.com/SovLendLease.html/ Retrieved June 12, 2014
  • Mason, Francis K. The British Bomber since 1914, London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1994
  • Milward, Alan S., War, economy, and society, 1939-1945, University of California Press, 1979
  • Morgan, Eric B. "Albemarle" in Twentyfirst Profile, Volume 1, No. 11. New Milton, Hants, UK: 21st Profile Ltd.
  • Munoz, A.J., For Croatia and Christ: The Croatian Army in World War II 1941–1945, Axis Europa Books,NY, 1996
  • Mondey, David. The Concise Guide to Axis Aircraft of World War II. New York: Bounty Books, 1996
  • Ness, Leland, Jane's World War II Tanks and Fighting Vehicles, The Complete Guide, Harper Collins, 2002
  • Otway, Lieutenant-Colonel T.B.H. The Second World War 1939-1945 Army: Airborne Forces. London: Imperial War Museum, 1990
  • Overy, Richard, Why the Allies Won (Paperback), W. W. Norton & Company, 1997
  • Scientia Militaria, South African Journal of Military Studies, http://scientiamilitaria.journals.ac.za
  • Smith, J.R. and Anthony L. Kay. German Aircraft of the Second World War. London: Putnam and Company Ltd.,
  • Swanborough, Gordon. British Aircraft at War, 1939-1945. East Sussex, UK: HPC Publishing, 1997
  • Tapper, Oliver. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft since 1913. London: Putnam, 1988
  • Tomasevich, Jozo, War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration 2. San Francisco: Stanford University Press, 2001
  • Veterans Affairs Canada, "Canadian Production of War Materials"
  • Wilson, Stewart, Aircraft of WWII, 1998
  • Wrynn, V. Dennis. Forge of Freedom: American Aircraft Production in World War II, Motorbooks International, Osceola, WI, 1995
  • Zuljan, Ralph, "Allied and Axis GDP" Articles On War OnWar.com (2003)

External links[edit]