Milk glass

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Decorative pedestal milk glass bowl

Milk glass is an opaque or translucent,[citation needed] milky white or colored glass, blown or pressed into a wide variety of shapes. First made in Venice in the 16th century, colors include blue, pink, yellow, brown, black, and the white that led to its popular name.

Principle[edit]

The Tyndall effect in opalescent glass: It appears blue from the side, but orange light shines through.[1]

Milk glass contains dispersion of particles with refractive index significantly different from the glass matrix, which scatter light by the Tyndall scattering mechanism. The size distribution and density of the particles control the overall effect, which may range from mild opalization to opaque white. Some glasses are somewhat more blue from the side, and somewhat red-orange in pass-through light.

The particles are produced via addition of opacifiers to the melt. Some opacifiers can be insoluble and only dispersed in the melt. Others are added as precursors and react in the melt, or dissolve in the molten glass and then precipitate as crystals on cooling; this is similar to color production in striking glasses, but the particles are much bigger.

The opacifiers can be e.g. bone ash, or tin dioxide and arsenic and antimony compounds. They are also added to ceramic glazes, which can be chemically considered to be a specific kind of milk glass.

History[edit]

First made in Venice in the 16th century, colors include blue, pink, yellow, brown, black, and white. 19th-century glass makers called milky white opaque glass "opal glass". The name milk glass is relatively recent.[2]

Milk glass - four pieces

Made into decorative dinnerware, lamps, vases, and costume jewelry, milk glass was highly popular during the fin de siecle. Pieces made for the wealthy of the Gilded Age are known for their delicacy and beauty in color and design, while Depression glass pieces of the 1930s and '40s are less so.

Milk glass is often used for architectural decoration when one of the underlying purposes is the display of graphic information. The original milk glass marquee of the Chicago Theatre has been donated to the Smithsonian Institution.[3] Perhaps one of the most famous uses of opal glass (or at least the most viewed example) is for the four faces of the information booth clock at Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan.

Milk glass clock faces at Grand Central Terminal in New York City

Collectible[edit]

Milk glass has a considerable following of collectors.[4] Glass makers continue to produce both original pieces and reproductions of popular collectible pieces and patterns.[5]

Notable manufacturers[edit]

A milk glass collection.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.webexhibits.org/causesofcolor/14B.html
  2. ^ Husfloen, Kyle (2007). Antique Trader Antiques & Collectibles 2008 Price Guide (illustrated ed.). 644: Krause Publications. p. 1066. ISBN 9780896895317. 
  3. ^ "1986: The Chicago Theater Reopens". Chicago Public Library. February 2006. Archived from the original on February 12, 2008. Retrieved May 7, 2007. 
  4. ^ Belknap, Eugene McCamly (1949). Milk glass. Crown Publishers. p. 327. 
  5. ^ Chiarenza, Frank; James Slater (2007). The Milk Glass Book. A Schiffer book for collectors (illustrated ed.). Schiffer Pub Ltd,. p. 228. ISBN 9780764306617. 

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