Miloš Obrenović I, Prince of Serbia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Prince Miloš Obrenović I
Кнез Милош Обреновић I
Prince of Serbia
MilosObrenovic 1848.jpg
Reign November 6, 1817 – June 25, 1839 and
December 23, 1858 – September 26, 1860
Predecessor Karađorđe Petrović
Successor Milan II (Obrenović)
Mihailo III (Obrenović)
Consort Ljubica Vukomanović
Issue Princess Petrija, Princess Savka, Prince Gabriel, Princess Marija, Prince Todor, Prince Milan, Prince Mihailo
House House of Obrenović
Father Todor Mihailović
Mother Višnja Urošević
Born (1780-03-18)March 18, 1780
Gornja Dobrinja near Požega
Died September 25, 1860(1860-09-25) (aged 80)
Belgrade
Monarchical styles of
Miloš Obrenović I, Prince of Serbia
Royal Monogram of Prince Miloš Obrenović I of Serbia.svg
Reference style His Serene Highness
Spoken style Your Serene Highness
Alternative style Sir

Miloš Obrenović (pronounced [mîloʃ obrěːnoʋit͡ɕ]; Serbian Cyrillic: Милош Обреновић; Anglicised: Milosh Obrenovich; born Miloš Teodorović[1] [mîloʃ teodǒːroʋit͡ɕ]; 18 March 1780 [7 March o.s.] – 26 September 1860) was Prince of Serbia from 1815 to 1839, and again from 1858 to 1860. He participated in the First Serbian Uprising, led Serbs in the Second Serbian Uprising, and founded the House of Obrenović. Under his rule, Serbia became an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire. Prince Miloš ruled autocratically, permanently refusing to share power. During his rule, he was the richest man in Serbia and one of the richest in the Balkans.

Early life[edit]

Miloš Obrenović was the son of Višnja Urošević (died 1817) and Teodor Mihailović (died 1802), a poor peasant from Crna Gora county in Užice nahiye. It was second marriage to both of them. He was born in the village of Dobrinja, near Požega, in the Užice district. Miloš was the eldest of three boys born to the couple; his younger brothers were Jovan (1786–1850) and Jevrem (1790–1856). His mother had been married previously, to Obren Martinović (died 1777), and they had three children: Stana (born 1773), Jakov (1767–1817) and Milan (1770 – 16 December 1810).

Following the death of his half-brother Milan, famous leader in First Serbian Uprising, Miloš took the surname Obrenović, after the first name of Milan's father.

In his youth, Miloš was a servant in the family of Akso Ječmenica, an affluent cattle trader from Zlatibor.

Marriage and children[edit]

In 1805, Miloš married Ljubica Vukomanović (September 1785 – Vienna, 26 May 1843). The couple had eight children whose names are known. It is speculated that Ljubica had other pregnancies that resulted in miscarriages, stillbirths, or children who died shortly after birth, with some sources giving a number as high as 17.

Serbian Uprisings and Autonomy[edit]

Takovo, proclamation of Uprising.

Miloš fought in the First Serbian Uprising until its very end in 1813. His half-brother Milan also took part in the Uprising, rising to become the commander/voivode (duke) of the Rudnik district. After the rebellion collapsed, Miloš was among the few of its leaders that remained in Serbia to face the vengeful returning Ottoman Turks. After the killing of Karađorđe Petrović, in 1817, Obrenović became the leader of the Serbs.

Seal of Miloš Obrenović.

In April 1815, he organized and led the Second Serbian Uprising. After defeating the Turks, and Napoleons defeat in Russia Turks agreed to the terms of the agreement from 1815. As a result of the agreement, Serbia gained some autonomy, but remained under Ottoman sovereignty. Miloš Obrenović was left in power as its absolute ruler. Between the end of 1828 and the autumn of 1830 Prince Miloš created a so-called "legislative commission" to translate the Code Napoléon into Serbian and codify the laws and customs of the country. After discussing the commission, Miloš invited two distinguished legal specialists to come from Austrian-occupied Serbia to prepare a more suitable criminal and civil code of laws for Serbia. They were Vasilije Lazarević, Bürgermeister, or mayor, of Zemun, and Jovan Hadžić, lawyer, poet, and member of the municipal senate of Novi Sad. In January he advised a great national assembly that he had obtained an imperial edict from the Sultan ending all direct obligations of Serbian peasants to their former Turkish lords, guaranteeing Ottoman recognition of Serbian autonomy in most matters of internal administration, and offering Serbia the prospect of territorial aggrandizement, as well as the express right to institute schools, courts, and a governmental administration of her own. Sultan's decrees of 1830 and 1833 expanded the same rights to a larger territory, and made Serbia a sovereign principality with Miloš Obrenović as hereditary prince. A Metropolitanate of Serbia was established in Belgrade, and made Autonomous part of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. Russia's status as the guarantor of Serbia's autonomy was also recognized.

Later rule[edit]

Monument "Uprising in Takovo" representing Miloš Obrenović

The people of Serbia often rebelled against Miloš's autocratic and often brutal rule. Following one such rebellion, he agreed to adopt a constitution in 1835. The move was opposed by neighboring Austria, the ruling Ottoman Empire and Russia. It is believed that the three great empires saw the constitution as a danger to their own autocratic systems of government. Metternich's Austria particularly ridiculed the fact that Serbia had its own flag and ministry of foreign affairs. Miloš abolished the constitution at the demand of Russia and Turkey.

Miloš abdicated in 1839 in favor of his sons – Milan, who died a few weeks later, and Mihailo, who then became prince. Mihailo was deposed in 1842, and the family was out of power until 1858, when it returned with Miloš restored as prince for the last two years of his life.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Milos Obrenovic (Serbian)
Miloš Obrenović I, Prince of Serbia
Born: 18 March [7 March o.s.] 1780 Died: 26 September 1860
Regnal titles
New title Prince of Serbia
1817–1839
Succeeded by
Milan Obrenović II
Preceded by
Aleksandar Karađorđević
Prince of Serbia
1858–1860
Succeeded by
Mihailo Obrenović III