Milton William Cooper
|Milton William Cooper|
May 6, 1943|
Long Beach, California, United States
|Died||November 5, 2001
Eagar, Arizona, United States
|Cause of death||Gunshot|
|Resting place||Springerville Cemetery, Springerville, Arizona, United States|
|Parents||Milton V. Cooper and Dovie Nell Woodside|
Milton William "Bill" Cooper (May 6, 1943 – November 5, 2001) was an American conspiracy theorist, radio broadcaster, and author best known for his 1991 book Behold a Pale Horse, in which he warned of multiple global conspiracies, some involving extraterrestrial aliens. Cooper was also described as an HIV/AIDS denialist, and a "militia theoretician".
Behold a Pale Horse
Cooper produced and published Behold a Pale Horse in 1991. The book has been influential among "UFO and militia circles". Just prior to the trial of Terry Nichols in 1997, The Guardian described it as "the manifesto of the militia movement".
According to sociologist Paul Gilroy, Cooper claimed "an elaborate conspiracy theory that encompasses the Kennedy assassination, the doings of the secret world government, the coming ice age, and a variety of other covert activities associated with the Illuminati's declaration of war upon the people of America". Political scientist Michael Barkun characterized it as "among the most complex superconspiracy theories", and also among the most influential due to its popularity in militia circles as well as mainstream bookstores. Historian Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke described the book as "chaotic farrago of conspiracy myths interspersed with reprints of executive laws, official papers, reports and other extraneous materials designed to show the looming prospect of a world government imposed on the American people against their wishes and in flagrant contempt of the Constitution."
In Behold a Pale Horse Cooper proposed that AIDS was the result of a conspiracy to decrease the populations of blacks, Hispanics, and homosexuals. In 2000 South Africa's Minister of Health Manto Tshabalala-Msimang received criticism for distributing the chapter discussing this theory to senior South African government officials. Nicoli Nattrass, a longtime critic of AIDS denialists, criticized Tshabalala-Msimang for lending legitimacy to Cooper's theories and disseminating them in Africa.
UFOs, aliens and the Illuminati
Cooper caused a sensation in UFOlogy circles in 1988 when he claimed to have seen secret documents while in the Navy describing governmental dealings with extraterrestrial aliens, a topic he expanded on in Behold a Pale Horse. (By one account he served as a "low level clerk" in the Navy, and as such would not have had the security clearance needed to access classified documents.) UFOlogists later asserted that some of the material that Cooper claimed to have seen in naval intelligence documents was actually plagiarized verbatim from their research—including several items that the UFOlogists had fabricated as pranks. Don Ecker of UFO Magazine ran a series of exposés on Cooper in 1990.
Cooper linked the Illuminati with his beliefs that extraterrestrials were secretly involved with the US government, but later retracted these claims. He accused Dwight D. Eisenhower of negotiating a treaty with extraterrestrials in 1954, then establishing an inner circle of Illuminati to manage relations with them and keep their presence a secret from the general public. Cooper believed that aliens "manipulated and/or ruled the human race through various secret societies, religions, magic, witchcraft, and the occult", and that even the Illuminati were unknowingly being manipulated by them.
Cooper described the Illuminati as a secret international organization, controlled by the Bilderberg Group, that conspired with the Knights of Columbus, Masons, Skull and Bones, and other organizations. Its ultimate goal, he said, was the establishment of a New World Order. According to Cooper the Illuminati conspirators not only invented alien threats for their own gain, but actively conspired with extraterrestrials to take over the world. Cooper believed that James Forrestal's fatal fall from a window on the sixteenth floor of Bethesda Hospital was connected to the alleged secret committee Majestic-12, and that JASON advisory group scientists reported to an elite group of Trilateral Commission and Council on Foreign Relations executive committee members who were high-ranking members of the Illuminati.
In Behold a Pale Horse, Cooper asserted that John F. Kennedy was assassinated because he was about to reveal that extraterrestrials were in the process of taking over the Earth. According to a "top secret" video of the assassination that Cooper claimed to have discovered, the driver of Kennedy's limousine, William Greer, used “a gas pressure device developed by aliens from the Trilateral Commission” to shoot the president from the driver's seat. The Zapruder film shows Greer twice turning to look into the back seat of the car; Cooper theorized that Greer first turned to assess Kennedy's status after the external attack, and then to fire the fatal shot. Conspiracy theories implicating Greer reportedly "snowballed" after publication of Behold a Pale Horse. Cooper's video purporting to prove his theory was analyzed by several television stations, according to one source, and was found to be "... a poor-quality fake using chunks of the ... Zapruder film."
As Cooper moved away from the UFOlogy community in the late 1990s and toward the militia and anti-government group subculture, he became convinced that he was being personally targeted by President Bill Clinton and the IRS. In July 1998 he was charged with tax evasion and an arrest warrant was issued but not executed, resulting in his being named a "major fugitive" by the US Marshals Service in 2000.
On November 5, 2001 Apache County sheriff's deputies attempted to arrest Cooper at his Eagar, Arizona home on charges of aggravated assault with a deadly weapon and endangerment stemming from earlier disputes with local residents. After an exchange of gunfire during which Cooper shot one of the deputies in the head, Cooper was fatally shot. Federal authorities reported that Cooper had spent years trying to avoid capture on the 1998 tax evasion arrest warrant, and according to a spokesman for the U.S. Marshals Service, he had vowed that "he would not be taken alive".
- Cooper, Milton William (1991). Behold a Pale Horse. Light Technology Publications. ISBN 0-929385-22-5.
Mark Potok, spokesman for the Southern Poverty Law Center notes that Cooper was well known within the militia movement for his anti-government shortwave radio program that reportedly included Oklahoma City bomber Timothy J. McVeigh as a fan. The program, broadcast from 1993 to 2001, was entitled "The Hour of the Time."
- "Arizona Militia Figure Is Shot to Death". Los Angeles Times. November 7, 2001. p. A24. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
- Richard Allen Landes (4 August 2011). Heaven on Earth: The Varieties of the Millennial Experience. Oxford University Press. pp. 418–. ISBN 978-0-19-975359-8. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- Arthur Goldwag (11 August 2009). Cults, Conspiracies, and Secret Societies: The Straight Scoop on Freemasons, the Illuminati, Skull and Bones, Black Helicopters, the New World Order, and Many, Many More. Random House Digital, Inc. ISBN 978-0-307-39067-7. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- Kirk, Paul (July 16, 2003). "South Africa: Cops Kill Aids Dissident". allAfrica.com. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- Gilroy, Paul (2000). "Planetary Humanism". Against Race: Imagining Political Culture Beyond the Color Line. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 352–353. ISBN 9780674000964. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- Michael Barkun (4 May 2006). A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. University of California Press. pp. 60–. ISBN 978-0-520-24812-0. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Carroll, Robert Todd (2003). "Illuminati". The Skeptic's Dictionary: A Collection of Strange Beliefs, Amusing Deceptions, and Dangerous Delusions. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 175. ISBN 9781118045633. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- Nattrass, Nicoli (2012). The AIDS Conspiracy: Science Fights Back. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 4, 23–27. ISBN 9780231149129. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- Vulliamy, Ed; Bruce Dirks (November 3, 1997). "New trial may solve riddle of Oklahoma bombing". The Guardian (London). Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas (2002). "Conspiracy Beliefs and the New World Order". Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism, and the Politics of Identity. New York: New York University Press. pp. 284–285. ISBN 9780814731550. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- "SA Government steps into Aids row". BBC News. September 14, 2000. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- Kirk, Paul (September 8, 2000). "Govt Aids nut linked to Ku Klux Klan". Mail & Guardian (Johannesburg). Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- Doherty, Brian (December 7, 2001). Death Wish: How rebels punch their own ticket. Reason.com archive. Retrieved February 5, 2013
- Ecker, Don. Bill Cooper. Skeptic Tank archive. Retrieved February 5, 2013
- Milton William Cooper (1 January 1991). Behold a pale horse. Light Technology Publishing. pp. 267–. ISBN 978-0-929385-22-8. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Jeff Chang (1 February 2005). Can't stop, won't stop: a history of the hip-hop generation. Macmillan. pp. 438–. ISBN 978-0-312-30143-9. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- "Did Stewartstown native kill JFK?". Tyrone Times (Dungannon, Northern Ireland). July 17, 2008. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- "Hour of the Time. Complete Cooper MP3 Collection". hourofthetime.com. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Barkun, Michael (2003). A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23805-2.