Milton Work

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Milton C Work in 1897

Milton Cooper Work (September 15, 1864 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania – June 27, 1934)[1] was a noted American authority on whist, bridge whist, auction and contract bridge.

Work graduated from the University of Pennsylvania and practiced law in Philadelphia from 1887 to 1917, taking leave to tour the country to organize bridge events promoting the sale of Liberty bonds.[1]

Work Point Count system[edit]

In his writings, he suggested evaluating balanced hands using a point count method: Ace = 4, King = 3, Queen = 2 and Jack = 1. This became known as the Work Point Count and was later adapted by Charles Goren to value all hands. It is still used by most players. In 1927 Work was named American Bridge League (ABL) Honorary Member of the Year.

Other sporting activities[edit]

He was the manager of the Philadelphian cricket team that toured England in 1897. He had earlier played for Belmont Cricket Club between at least 1880 and 1887. He also played cricket, tennis and baseball for the University of Pennsylvania in 1887. He edited the American Cricketer magazine.

In 1897 he was a representative of the Belmont Golf Association at a meeting which founded the Golf Association of Philadelphia.[2]

Selected works[edit]

  • Whist of Today: in two parts, 2nd ed.[?] (Philadelphia: Dreka, 1895), 182 pp. OCLC 30571060
"Also available in digital form on the Internet Archive Web site." LCCN 05-26342
  • Auction of To-day, 5th ed.[?] (Houghton-Mifflin Co., 1913), 299 pp. OCLC 5982767
  • Auction Under the Laws of 1915 (Philadelphia: John C. Winston Co., 1915), 104 pp.
  • Auction Declarations (Winston, 1917), 288 pp.
  • Auction Methods Up-to-Date including the new laws of 1920 (Winston, 1920), 332 pp.
  • Auction for Two or Three, with a new code of laws for these games (Winston, 1921), 222  pp. – with "appendix giving improved methods for two-handed Canfield and Russian Bank" OCLC 3867409
  • Par Auction, analysis of play (Milton Bradley Company, 1921), 59 pp. OCLC 6549918
  • Auction Bridge in Twelve Lessons (Milton Bradley, 1922), 270 pp. LCCN 23-125
  • Auction Bridge of 1924 (Winston, 1923), 507 pp.
  • Mah-jongg ... Up-to-Date (Winston, 1924), 177 pp. – Mahjong
  • Auction Bridge Complete (Winston, 1926), 500 pp. OCLC 1577198
  • Bridge Pointers and Tests (Winston, 1927), 192 pp.
  • Contract Bridge (Winston, 1927) 143 pp. – "including the official laws of contract bridge adopted by the Whist club, New York and by the Racquet and Tennis club, New York" OCLC 2617005
  • Auction Bridge for Beginners (Winston, 1928), 136 pp.
  • Contract Bridge For All (Winston, 1929), 243 pp.
  • Lesson hands for use of bridge teachers of the common sense system (Winston, 1930), 25 pp. LCCN 30-16947
  • Common Sense Contract Bridge (Winston, 1931), 369 pp. LCCN 31-1060
  • The Gist of Contract Bridge (Winston, 1931), 56 pp. OCLC 26064152
  • The official system of contract bridge in a nutshell (Winston, 1931), 58 pp. LCCN 31-35688
  • Milton C. Work's short-cut to contract official system (A. G. Spalding Bros., 1931), 183 pp. LCCN 32-1436
  • The official summary of the new standardized official system of contract bridge (Winston, 1933), 83 pp. LCCN 33-8799
  • One hundred and one celebrated hands in contract bridge, bid and played, eds. Work and Olive Avery Peterson (Winston, 1933), 215 pp. OCLC 16727481
  • The Work–Peterson accurate valuation system of contract bridge, Work and Peterson (Winston, 1934), 101 pp. OCLC 3344065
  • Auction Bridge and Mah Jong Magazine, eds. Work and Wilbur C. Whitehead (NY: John H. Smith Pub, 1924) LCCN 25-21970
  • Auction Bridge Magazine, Work and Whitehead (J. H. Smith, 1924–1929) LCCN 33-22385


  1. ^ a b American Contract Bridge League. The Official Encyclopedia of Bridge (5th Edition). p. 773. 
  2. ^ About GAP Retrieved 22 June 2014