Minalin, Pampanga

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Nickname(s): "the Egg basket of the Philippines"
Map of Pampanga showing the location of Minalin
Map of Pampanga showing the location of Minalin
Minalin is located in Philippines
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 14°58′N 120°41′E / 14.967°N 120.683°E / 14.967; 120.683Coordinates: 14°58′N 120°41′E / 14.967°N 120.683°E / 14.967; 120.683
Country Philippines
Region Central Luzon (Region III)
Province Pampanga
District 4th District
Founded August 27, 1614
Barangays 15
 • Mayor Edgardo Galope Flores
 • Total 48.27 km2 (18.64 sq mi)
Population (2010)[3]
 • Total 44,001
 • Density 910/km2 (2,400/sq mi)
Time zone PST (UTC+8)
ZIP code 2019
Dialing code 2019
Income class 4th class
Website minalin.gov.ph

Minalin is a fourth class highly urbanized municipality in the province of Pampanga, Philippines, known for its 400 year old church with a unique design that incorporates pre-colonial architectural motifs alongside its European Catholic iconography,[4] and for its "Aguman Sanduk" New Year's Celebration,in which the town's straight men dress as beauty queens and ride through town on festive floats.[5] The town is also referred to as the "Egg Basket of Luzon" because of its large-scale production of eggs and chickens, prompting the town to put up the Philippines' first ever egg festival in 2008.[6]

Originally known as Minalis, it is a town of 44,001 people according to the 2010 census.[3] It has a land area of about 48.27 square kilometers and it is located southwest of the capital town of San Fernando. The Town of Minalin is called "Mina Linda de las Mujeres".


Minalin is politically subdivided into 15 barangays.[2]

  • Bulac
  • Dawe
  • Lourdes
  • Maniango
  • San Francisco Javier
  • San Francisco de Asisi
  • San Isidro
  • San Nicolas (Poblacion)
  • San Pedro
  • Santa Catalina
  • Santa Maria
  • Santa Rita
  • Santo Domingo
  • Santo Rosario
  • Saplad


Population census of Minalin
Year Pop.   ±% p.a.  
1990 34,795 —    
1995 35,670 +0.50%
2000 35,150 −0.29%
2007 40,084 +1.89%
2010 44,001 +3.16%
Source: National Statistics Office[3][7]

Local government[edit]

Town hall (seat of Government, Pamahalaang Bayan)

The municipal government is divided into three branches: executive, legislative and judiciary. The judicial branch is administered solely by the Supreme Court of the Philippines. The legislative branch is composed of the Sangguniang Bayan (town assembly), Sangguniang Barangay (barangay council), and the Sangguniang Kabataan for the youth sector.

The mayor and vice mayor are elected to three-year terms. The mayor is the executive head and leads the town's departments in executing the ordinances and improving public services. The vice mayor heads a legislative council (Sangguniang Bayan) consisting of councilors from the barangays or barrios.

Municipal government officials 2010–2013:

  • Mayor: Edgar Flores
  • Vice Mayor: Atty. Quirolico Daag
  • Councilors:
    • Edgar Tizon
    • Jake Yambao
    • Priming Malonzo
    • Nilo Pingol
    • Eddie Garcia
    • Louie Lacsina
    • Enrico SubA
    • Rondon Mercado


Minalin is one of the fastest growing economy in Pampanga because of its area that is very rich every year. Minalin Officials continue doing their best to maintain this economic status and in fact just currently Minalin has not been suffered from previous floodings.

Merchandising, Farming and Fishing are usually source of living of Minalenos.

Minalin which is also known as the "Egg Basket of Philippines" because of its large scale production of eggs and chickens is still a dream town.

Tilapia, sugpo, alimango are also major products of the town.

Landmarks and attractions[edit]

Tourist attractions of the town include its "Aguman Sandoc" New Year's Celebration,and the 400 year old Sta. Monica Parish church in Barangay San Nicolas.

Santa Monica Parish Church[edit]

Sta. Monica Church frontage

The Santa Monica Parish Church here was declared as a National Cultural Treasure (NCT) by the National Museum on August 27, 2011.[8]

The Minalin Church (Sta. Monica Parish), located on the town's highest ground called burul (the town had moved to its present site due to flooding, hence 'minalis,' later corrupted to minalin) but despite its elevation, silt from the river has already invaded its beautiful church. The peeled palitada reveals the original red brick walls, giving the church its unique old-rose touches. The ancient mural paintings in the adjoining convent, one of which is a primitive-looking map with details of trees, ducks, crows, a boat, a hunter and a crocodile. A detail not to be missed are the corbels and beams in the convent and high up in the church's ceiling, with carvings that some say depict pre-Hispanic pagan deities like naga (serpent), dapu (crocodile) and galura (eagle), but Siuala ding Meangubie believes they depict only one creature, bulig (mudfish).[9]

Minalin's main year-round attraction is its old church - the Sta. Monica Parish Church in Barangay San Nicolas, which will be four centuries old in 2014.[4]

Joel Pabustan Mallari if the Holy Angel University’s Center for Kapampangan Studies (CKS) notes that the church is one of the 20 first missions put up by the Augustinians when they came to the Philippines, but it is whose designs include motifs reflective of pre-Hispanic culture:[4]

“Motifs that were carved include the ornamental heads of bulig (mudfish), naga (dragon) and dapu (crocodile) which are said to be sacramental figures of old Kapampangan belief system. These are comparable to the Muslim torogan of Mindanao. The spires decorating the bell towers depict a Moorish architecture, hinting of the old Islamic faith of early Minaleños.”

None of the other 20 churches have similar motifs.

Baroque Church[edit]

The Philippine National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA) has also designated the conservation and protection of more than 30 other Spanish-era churches to be of utmost importance. These were registered as National Cultural Treasures. These churches were given priority status not just due to their historical value, but also based on the geographic representation of various regions across the nation, and include Parish Church of Santa Monica in Minalin, Pampanga.

As one of the Baroque Churches of the Philippines, the Parish Church of Santa Monica has been at the forefront of Philippine history since their construction in the 1500s. During the time of Spanish colonial rule, the Church and State worked hand in glove. They had served the Catholic church in the archipelago and as the political backbone of Spanish colonial rule.

The unique design of the churches reflects the integration of Spanish and Latin American architecture to indigenous architecture of the Philippines, including a fusion with Chinese style. The Church's political power of that period manifests in the architecture. They had been designed to withstand attacks during revolts and rebellions, giving the Churches the appearance of fortresses. The blending of religion and military portrays the manner Spain saw its situation in the Philippines. The Church of La Nuestra Señora de la Asuncion, located on top of a hill, served as a citadel during times of crisis, providing the best example of the blend of purposes in the architecture. Church of Santo Tomas de Villanueva withstood the occasional attacks from Muslims coming from the south.

Aside from the 4 churches designated as a World Heritage Site, the Philippine National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA) has also designated 26 Spanish-era churches for conservation and protection. They have been registered as National Cultural Treasures. They have been given priority status for their historical value as well as serving as the geographic representatives of regions throughout the nation and include the Parish Church of Santa Monica in Minalin.[10]

Minalin Mural (1614)[edit]

One specific tourist attraction at the Sta. Monica Church is a 400 year old map painted on its convent's walls, referred to as the "Minalin Mural". The Minalin church, among 20 original Augustinian missions, is the only one that bears corbels showing pre-Hispanic culture.[11]

The mural, 89 inches wide and 113 inches tall, shows the flora and fauna of Minalin during the early 1600s. An expert from the Center for Kapampangan Studies (CKS) describes the mural as[4] "[a] prehistoric landscape of riverine communities, marshes and swamps with birds, agricultural land with damulag (carabao) and a farmer at the background."

The mural is made of argamasa - a type of cement used during the period which is made of lime mortal, fine river sand, and egg whites.[4] The mural bears the date "1619", and is believed to have been made within five years of that date.[4]

The Patio and Convent-Museum[edit]

The Patio

The declaration of the church as an National Cultural Treasure (NCT) was the second in Pampanga after the St. James Church in Betis, Guagua.

The National Museum deemed the Sta. Monica Parish as an NCT for three reasons. Firstly, its façade features a unique giant retablo influenced by Christian, Buddhist, Hinduist and animistic cultures. Secondly, it is the only Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines having four capilla posas that remain intact to these days. The capilla posas reflect Spanish colonial religious discrimination as these were used by the Indios while the Peninsulares were the ones who entered the church. Thirdly, it owns an old painting depicting the Our Lady of Consolation giving the cords to Sta. Monica and her son St. Augustine. This painting is at the uppermost level of the retablo mayor, according to the statement.

The church houses also a mural that is dated 1614 and shows an old map of the town, said to be the seat of the Kapampangan region, according to a will by Francisco Malang Balagtas or Pansomun.[8][9][12]

"Aguman Sandoc" Festival (Minalin New Year's Celebration)[edit]

One major tourist attraction in Minalin is its "Aguman Sandoc" New Year’s Celebration in which the straight men of the town dress as beauty queens and ride through town on festive floats - displaying not only humor but also the camaraderie and charity of each member of the community.[5]

The celebration has also been referred to as the "Belles of Minalin" but Minalin natives prefer to continue calling the event "Aguman Sandoc", which translates literally as "Association of the Ladle".[5] The event is differentiated from gay pride parades because the event is specifically intended for heterosexual males, and is intended simply to be an act of fun, rather than a statement about gender.[5]

This is an avenue where men from all walks of life cross-dress and dare to step out of their statuses. Whether you are a known public figure, a farmer, or a professional, it is with utmost pride that a man from Minalin will dare step out of his status to give joy (pikatulan) to his people. With the continuous celebration of the festival, it is a living proof of how Minaleños value camaraderie (pamakiabe). It is the dare that keeps the community’s bond and strengthen the ties of Minaleños. [5]

This annual display of beautiful dresses and expertise in women’s make up signifies that this town follows the dynamic changes in women’s fashion not only in the Philippines but also in Europe, Asia and in other countries.[5]

Egg Festival[edit]

On June 4, 2008, Minalin celebrated its fame for producing over a million chicken eggs per day by holding a the country's first "First Egg Festival." An exhibit of Minalin's egg produce was put up, and a taste test of 10,000 boiled eggs was held. Also, 70 poultry raisers donated 100,000 eggs to Typhoon Cosme's victims in the nearby provinces of Pangasinan and Zambales.[6]

Mayor Edgar Flores and President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo graced the exhibit of their egg produce, and a taste test of 10,000 boiled eggs. Also, 70 poultry raisers donated 80,000 eggs to Pangasinan's "Cosme" typhoon victims, and 20,000 shall go to Zambales.[6][13]

Notable Minalenians[edit]



  1. ^ "Official City/Municipal 2013 Election Results". Intramuros, Manila, Philippines: Commission on Elections (COMELEC). 1 July 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "Province: Pampanga". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010". 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Orejas, Tonette (2011-07-12). "Minalin Mural Awaits Restoration". Inquirer.net (Makati City: Philippine Daily Inquirer). Retrieved 2012-02-25. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Manuel, Mark Anthony (January 4, 2012). "'Queen Edgarda' delights Minalin Folk". Tempo (Manila: Manila Bulletin Publishing Corporation). 
  6. ^ a b c "First Egg Festival of Minalin in Pampanga". Central Luzon Local Search. CentralLuzon.com. 2008-07-17. Retrieved 2012-02-25. 
  7. ^ "Province of Pampanga". Municipality Population Data. LWUA Research Division. Retrieved 16 August 2013. 
  8. ^ a b Minalin church in Pampanga to be named National Cultural Treasure | Sun.Star
  9. ^ a b Department of Tourism - The Philippines Ultimate Travel Guide for Tourist
  10. ^ Philippine Registry of Cultural Property (PRECUP) - Built Heritage | Ivan About Town | Travel Blog
  11. ^ Minalin mural awaits restoration | Inquirer News
  12. ^ History of Pampanga Towns
  13. ^ gmanews.tv, Arroyo to grace first-ever egg festival in Pampanga

External links[edit]