(RR: yeom or yŏm)
(Wylie: dran pa;
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Mindfulness (Pali: sati, Sanskrit: smṛti; also translated as awareness) is a spiritual or psychological faculty (indriya) that, according to the teaching of the Buddha, is considered to be of great importance in the path to enlightenment. It is one of the seven factors of enlightenment. "Correct" or "right" mindfulness (Pali: sammā-sati, Sanskrit samyak-smṛti) is the seventh element of the noble eightfold path.
Enlightenment (bodhi) is a state of being in which greed, hatred and delusion (Pali: moha) have been overcome, abandoned and are absent from the mind. Mindfulness, which, among other things, is an attentive awareness of the reality of things (especially of the present moment) is an antidote to delusion and is considered as such a 'power' (Pali: bala). This faculty becomes a power in particular when it is coupled with clear comprehension of whatever is taking place.
The Buddha advocated that one should establish mindfulness (satipaṭṭhāna) in one's day-to-day life maintaining as much as possible a calm awareness of one's body, feelings, mind, and dhammas. The practice of mindfulness supports analysis resulting in the arising of wisdom (Pali: paññā, Sanskrit: prajñā). A key innovative teaching of the Buddha was that meditative stabilisation must be combined with liberating discernment.
The Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta (Sanskrit: Smṛtyupasthāna Sūtra) is an early text dealing with mindfulness.
Mindfulness practice, inherited from the Buddhist tradition, is being employed in psychology to alleviate a variety of mental and physical conditions, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and in the prevention of relapse in depression and drug addiction.
- 1 Definitions
- 2 Terminology
- 3 Ten forms
- 4 Continuous practice
- 5 Zen criticism
- 6 Criticism from scholars
- 7 Scientific research
- 8 Mindfulness meditation in organizations
- 9 Alternate translations
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Sources
- 13 External links
The word sati derives from a root meaning 'to remember,' but as a mental factor it signifies presence of mind, attentiveness to the present, rather than the faculty of memory regarding the past. It has the characteristic of not wobbling, i.e. not floating away from the object. Its function is absence of confusion or non-forgetfulness. It is manifested as guardianship, or as the state of confronting an objective field. Its proximate cause is strong perception (thirasaññā) or the four foundations of mindfulness.
What is smṛti? It is not to let what one knows slip away from one's mind. Its function is not to be distracted.
The Buddhist term translated into English as "mindfulness" originates in the Pali term sati and in its Sanskrit counterpart smṛti. Translators rendered the Sanskrit word as trenpa in Tibetan (wylie: dran pa) and as nian 念 in Chinese.
The Pali-language scholar Thomas William Rhys Davids (1843–1922) first translated sati in 1881 as English mindfulness in sammā-sati "Right Mindfulness; the active, watchful mind". Noting that Daniel John Gogerly (1845) initially rendered sammā-sati as "Correct meditation", Davids explained, "sati is literally 'memory' but is used with reference to the constantly repeated phrase 'mindful and thoughtful' (sato sampajâno); and means that activity of mind and constant presence of mind which is one of the duties most frequently inculcated on the good Buddhist."
When practicing mindfulness, for instance by watching the breath, one must remember to maintain attention on the chosen object of awareness, "faithfully returning back to refocus on that object whenever the mind wanders away from it." Thus, mindfulness means not only, "moment to moment awareness of present events," but also, "remembering to be aware of something or to do something at a designated time in the future". In fact, "the primary connotation of this Sanskrit term [smrti] (and its corresponding Pali term sati) is recollection".
The English term mindfulness already existed before it came to be used in a (western) Buddhist context. It was first recorded as myndfulness in 1530 (John Palsgrave translates French pensee), as mindfulnesse in 1561, and mindfulness in 1817. Morphologically earlier terms include mindful (first recorded in 1340), mindfully (1382), and the obsolete mindiness (ca. 1200).
John D. Dunne, an associate professor at Emory University whose current research focuses especially on the concept of "mindfulness" in both theoretical and practical contexts, asserts that the translation of sati and smṛti as mindfulness is confusing and that a number of Buddhist scholars have started trying to establish "retention" as the preferred alternative.
Bhikkhu Bodhi also points to the meaning of "sati" as "memory":
The word derives from a verb, sarati, meaning “to remember,” and occasionally in Pali sati is still explained in a way that connects it with the idea of memory. But when it is used in relation to meditation practice, we have no word in English that precisely captures what it refers to. An early translator cleverly drew upon the word mindfulness, which is not even in my dictionary. This has served its role admirably, but it does not preserve the connection with memory, sometimes needed to make sense of a passage.
The Sanskrit word smṛti स्मृति (also transliterated variously as smriti, smRti, or sm'Rti) literally means "that which is remembered", and refers both to "mindfulness" in Buddhism and "a category of metrical texts" in Hinduism, considered second in authority to the Śruti scriptures.
Monier Monier-Williams's Sanskrit-English Dictionary differentiates eight meanings of smṛti स्मृति, "remembrance, reminiscence, thinking of or upon, calling to mind, memory":
- memory as one of the Vyabhicāri-bhāvas [transient feelings];
- Memory (personified either as the daughter of Daksha and wife of Aṅgiras or as the daughter of Dharma and Medhā);
- the whole body of sacred tradition or what is remembered by human teachers (in contradistinction to Śruti or what is directly heard or revealed to the Rishis; in its widest acceptation this use of the term Smṛti includes the 6 Vedangas, the Sūtras both Śrauta and Grhya, the Manusmṛti, the Itihāsas (e.g., the Mahābhārata and Ramayana), the Puranas and the Nītiśāstras, "according to such and such a traditional precept or legal text";
- the whole body of codes of law as handed down memoriter or by tradition (esp. the codes of Manusmṛti, Yājñavalkya Smṛti and the 16 succeeding inspired lawgivers) … all these lawgivers being held to be inspired and to have based their precepts on the Vedas;
- symbolical name for the number 18 (from the 18 lawgivers above);
- a kind of meter;
- name of the letter g- ग्;
- desire, wish
Buddhist scholars translated smṛti with the Chinese word nian 念 "study; read aloud; think of; remember; remind". Nian is commonly used in Modern Standard Chinese words such as guannian 觀念 (观念) "concept; idea", huainian 懷念 (怀念) "cherish the memory of; think of", nianshu 念書 (念书) "read; study", and niantou 念頭 (念头) "thought; idea; intention". Two specialized Buddhist terms are nianfo 念佛 "chant the name of Buddha; pray to Buddha" and nianjing 念經 (念经) "chant/recite sutras".
This Chinese character nian 念 is composed of jin 今 "now; this" and xin 心 "heart; mind". Bernhard Karlgren graphically explains nian meaning "reflect, think; to study, learn by heart, remember; recite, read – to have 今 present to 心 the mind". The Chinese character nian or nien 念 is pronounced as Korean yeom or yŏm 염, Japanese ネン or nen, and Vietnamese niệm.
A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms gives basic translations of nian: "Recollection, memory; to think on, reflect; repeat, intone; a thought; a moment."
The Digital Dictionary of Buddhism gives more detailed translations of nian "mindfulness, memory":
- Recollection (Skt. smṛti; Tib. dran pa). To recall, remember. That which is remembered. The function of remembering. The operation of the mind of not forgetting an object. Awareness, concentration. Mindfulness of the Buddha, as in Pure Land practice. In Abhidharma-kośa theory, one of the ten omnipresent factors 大地法. In Yogâcāra, one of the five 'object-dependent' mental factors 五別境;
- Settled recollection; (Skt. sthāpana; Tib. gnas pa). To ascertain one's thoughts;
- To think within one's mind (without expressing in speech). To contemplate; meditative wisdom;
- Mind, consciousness;
- A thought; a thought-moment; an instant of thought. (Skt. kṣana);
- Patience, forbearance.
Related terms and practices
Although sati/smrti is the primary term that is usually invoked by the word mindfulness in a Buddhist context, it has been asserted "in Buddhist discourse, there are three terms that together map the field of mindfulness . . . [in their Sanskrit variants] smṛti (Pali: sati), samprajaña (Pali: sampajañña) and apramāda (Pali: appamada)." All three terms are sometimes (confusingly) translated as "mindfulness," but they all have specific shades of meaning and the latter two properly mean "clear comprehension" and "vigilance," respectively. In the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta, sati and sampajañña are combined with atappa (Pali; Sanskrit: ātapaḥ), or "ardency," and the three together comprise yoniso manisikara (Pali; Sanskrit: yoniśas manaskāraḥ), "appropriate attention" or "wise reflection."
In a publicly available correspondence between Bhikkhu Bodhi and B. Alan Wallace, Bodhi has described Ven. Nyanaponika Thera's views on "right mindfulness" and sampajañña in the following fashion: "... He held that in the proper practice of right mindfulness, sati has to be integrated with sampajañña, clear comprehension, and it is only when these two work together that right mindfulness can fulfill its intended purpose."
|mindfulness/awareness||sati||smṛiti स्मृति||念 (niàn)||trenpa (wylie: dran pa)|
|clear comprehension||sampajañña||samprajñāna संप्रज्ञान||正知力 (zhèng zhī lì)||sheshin (wylie: shes bzhin)|
|vigilance/heedfulness||appamada||apramāda अप्रमाद||不放逸座 (bù fàng yì zuò)||bakyö (wylie: bag yod)|
|ardency||atappa||ātapaḥ आतप||勇猛 (yǒng měng)||nyima (wylie: nyi ma)|
|attention/engagement||manasikara||manaskāraḥ मनस्कारः||如理作意 (rú lǐ zuò yì)||yila jeypa (wylie: yid la byed pa)|
|foundation of mindfulness||satipaṭṭhāna||smṛtyupasthāna
|念住 (niànzhù)||trenpa neybar zagpa (wylie: dran pa nye bar gzhag pa)|
- mindfulness of the Buddha
- mindfulness of the Dharma
- mindfulness of the Sangha
- mindfulness of giving
- mindfulness of the heavens
- mindfulness of stopping and resting
- mindfulness of discipline
- mindfulness of breathing
- mindfulness of the body
- mindfulness of death
In addition to various forms of meditation based around specific sessions, there are mindfulness training exercises that develop awareness throughout the day using designated environmental cues. The aim is to make mindfulness essentially continuous. Examples of such cues are the hourly chimes of clocks, red lights at traffic junctions and crossing the threshold of doors. The mindfulness itself can take the form of nothing more than taking three successive breaths while remembering they are a conscious experience of body activity within mind. This approach is particularly helpful when it is difficult to establish a regular meditation practice.
Some Zen teachers emphasize the potential dangers of misunderstanding "mindfulness."
Gudo Wafu Nishijima criticizes the use of the term of mindfulness and idealistic interpretations of the practice from the Zen standpoint:
However recently many so-called Buddhist teachers insist the importance of "mindfulness." But such a kind of attitudes might be insistence that Buddhism might be a kind of idealistic philosophy. Therefore actually speaking I am much afraid that Buddhism is misunderstood as if it was a kind of idealistic philosophy. However we should never forget that Buddhism is not an idealistic philosophy, and so if someone in Buddhism reveres mindfulness, we should clearly recognize that he or she can never be a Buddhist at all.
We should always try to be active coming out of samadhi. For this, we have to forget things like "I should be mindful of this or that." If you are mindful, you are already creating a separation ("I - am - mindful - of - ...."). Don't be mindful, please! When you walk, just walk. Let the walk walk. Let the talk talk (Dogen Zenji says: "When we open our mouths, it is filled with Dharma"). Let the eating eat, the sitting sit, the work work. Let sleep sleep.
Criticism from scholars
Scholars such as Georges Dreyfus have expressed unease with the definition of mindfulness as "bare attention" or "nonelaborative, nonjudgmental, present-centered awareness" stressing that mindfulness in Buddhist context means also "remembering" which indicates that the function of mindfulness also includes the retention of information. Dreyfus concludes his examination by stating:
… the identification of mindfulness with bare attention ignores or, at least, underestimates the cognitive implications of mindfulness, its ability to bring together various aspects of experience so as to lead to the clear comprehension of the nature of mental and bodily states. By over-emphasizing the nonjudgmental nature of mindfulness and arguing that our problems stem from conceptuality, contemporary authors are in danger of leading to a one-sided understanding of mindfulness as a form of therapeutically helpful spacious quietness. I think that it is important not to lose sight that mindfulness is not just a therapeutic technique but is a natural capacity that plays a central role in the cognitive process. It is this aspect that seems to be ignored when mindfulness is reduced to a form of nonjudgmental present-centered form of awareness of one’s experiences.
Jay Garfield by quoting Shantideva and other sources stresses that mindfulness is constituted by the union of two functions, calling to mind and vigilantly retaining in mind. He demonstrates that there is a direct connection between the practice of mindfulness and the cultivation of morality – at least in the context of Buddhism from which modern interpretations of mindfulness are stemming from.
Mindfulness practice, inherited from the Buddhist tradition, is increasingly being employed in psychology to alleviate a variety of mental and physical conditions. Scientific research into mindfulness generally falls under the umbrella of positive psychology. Research has been ongoing over the last twenty or thirty years, with a surge of interest over the last decade in particular. In 2011, NIH's National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) released finding of a study where in magnetic resonance images of the brains of 16 participants 2 weeks before and after mindfulness meditation practitioners, joined the meditation program were taken by researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital, Bender Institute of Neuroimaging in Germany, and the University of Massachusetts Medical School. It concluded that "..these findings may represent an underlying brain mechanism associated with mindfulness-based improvements in mental health."
Research has shown meditation to be beneficial in lowering blood pressure, decreasing anxiety, as well as improving numerous other physical and mental health conditions. 
Mindfulness meditation in organizations
In the U.S., certain businesses, universities, government agencies, counseling centers, schools, hospitals, religious groups, law firms, prisons, the army, and other organizations offer training in mindfulness meditation.
In the U.S. business world, interest in mindfulness is rising dramatically. This shows in the popular business press, including books such as Awake at Work (Carroll, 2004) and Resonant Leadership: Renewing Yourself and Connecting with Others Through Mindfulness, Hope, and Compassion.
The link between mindfulness practice and leadership development, in particular, was strengthened with the introduction of Scouller's Three Levels of Leadership model (Scouller, 2011). His model, which emphasizes psychological self-mastery, includes mindfulness meditation as one of its main self-development techniques.
In addition, the website of the University of Massachusetts Medical School Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society and Carroll’s (2007) book, The Mindful Leader, mention many companies that have provided training programs in mindfulness. These include Fortune 500 companies (such as Raytheon, Procter & Gamble, Monsanto, General Mills, and Comcast) and others (such as BASF Bioresearch, Bose, New Balance, Unilever, and Nortel Networks). Executives who “meditate and consider such a practice beneficial to running a corporation” have included the chairman of the Ford Motor Company, Bill Ford, Jr.[page needed]; a managing partner of McKinsey & Co., Michael Rennie; and Aetna International’s former chairman, Michael Stephen. A professional-development program — “Mindfulness at Monsanto” — was started at Monsanto corporation by its CEO, Robert Shapiro.
In some newspapers, magazines, and scholarly journals in fields other than management, one can find indicators of interest in mindfulness in organizations outside of business. This includes legal and law enforcement organizations.
- Harvard Law School’s Program on Negotiation hosted a workshop on “Mindfulness in the Law & Alternative Dispute Resolution.”
- Many law firms offer mindfulness classes.
- Mindfulness has been taught by The Art of Living Foundation, in prisons, reducing hostility and mood disturbance among inmates, and improving their self-esteem.
- Many government organizations offer mindfulness training. Coping Strategies is an example of a program utilized by United States Armed Forces personnel.
The terms sati/smriti have been translated as:
- Attention (Jack Kornfield)
- Concentrated attention (Mahasi Sayadaw)
- Inspection (Herbert Guenther)
- Self-recollection (Jack Kornfield)
- Recollecting mindfulness (Alexander Berzin)
- Recollection (Erik Pema Kunsang, Buddhadasa Bhikkhu)
- Reflective awareness (Buddhadasa Bhikkhu)
- Presence (Symran) Dav Panesar
- Buddhism and psychology
- Buddhist meditation
- Dennis Lewis
- Eternal Now (New Age)
- Henepola Gunaratana
- John Garrie
- Mahasati Meditation
- Mahasi Sayadaw
- Mindfulness (journal)
- S.N. Goenka
- Samu (Zen)
- Shinzen Young
- Taqwa and dhikr, related Islamic concepts
- Thich Nhat Hanh
- "Sati". The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary. Digital Dictionaries of South Asia, University of Chicago.
- "In short, the contemplative training known as “shamatha” (meditative quiescence) deals with the development and refinement of attention; and this is the basis for “vipashyana” (contemplative insight), which entails methods for experientially exploring the nature of the mind and its relation to the world at large." from a description of the 18th Mind and Life Dialogues meeting, official webpage, http://www.mindandlife.org/dialogues/past-conferences/ml18/
- Alexander Wynne, The origin of Buddhist meditation. Routledge, 2007, page 73.
- Siegel, D. J. (2007). "Mindfulness training and neural integration: Differentiation of distinct streams of awareness and the cultivation of well-being". Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 2 (4): 259–63. doi:10.1093/scan/nsm034. PMC 2566758.
- What is Mindfulness? From the Buddha to Contemporary Western Teachers
- Guenther (1975), Kindle Locations 444-445.
- T. W. Rhys Davids, tr., 1881, Buddhist Suttas, Clarendon Press, p. 107.
- D. J. Gogerly, "On Buddhism", Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1845, pp. 7-28 and 90-112.
- Davids, 1881, p. 145.
- "The topics of Mind and Life XVIII are human attention, memory, and the mind considered from phenomenological (including contemplative), psychological, and neurobiological perspectives... Furthermore, sustained voluntary attention (samadhi) is closely related to memory, because in order to deliberately sustain one’s attention upon a chosen object, one must continue to remember to do so from moment to moment, faithfully returning back to refocus on that object whenever the mind wanders away from it. Likewise, in Buddhism, the faculty of “mindfulness” (smrti) refers not only to moment-to-moment awareness of present events. Instead, the primary connotation of this Sanskrit term (and its corresponding Pali term sati) is recollection. This includes long-term, short-term, and working memory, non-forgetful, present-centered awareness, and also prospective memory, i.e., remembering to be aware of something or to do something at a designated time in the future. In these ways, from a contemplative perspective, memory is critically linked to attention, and both of these mental faculties have important ramifications for the experiential and phenomenological study of the mind, its training, and potential optimization." - official website for the 18th Mind and Life Dialogues meeting
- Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed., 2002
- Lecture, Stanford University Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education, c 18:03 [dead link]
- TRANSLATOR FOR THE BUDDHA: AN INTERVIEW WITH BHIKKHU BODHI
- Monier-Williams Online Dictionary. N.B.: these definitions are simplified and wikified.
- Bernhard Karlgren, 1923, Analytic Dictionary of Chinese and Sino-Japanese, Paul Geunther, p. 207. Dover reprint.
- William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous, 1937, A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms: with Sanskrit and English Equivalents and a Sanskrit-Pali Index.
- Digital Dictionary of Buddhism
- "Mindfulness and the Mind," by Subhuti. Madhyamavani Online
- "Mindfulness Defined," by Thanissaro Bhikku. pg 2
- Wallace & Bodhi (2006), p. 4. According to this correspondence, Ven. Nyanaponika spend his last ten years living with and being cared for by Bodhi. Bodhi refers to Nyanaponika as "my closest kalyāṇamitta in my life as a monk."
- Nan Huaijin. Working Toward Enlightenment: The Cultivation of Practice. York Beach: Samuel Weiser. 1993. pp. 118-119, 138-140.
- Nan Huaijin. Working Toward Enlightenment: The Cultivation of Practice. York Beach: Samuel Weiser. 1993. p. 146.
- mindfulness in breathing
- "On Mindfulness"
- "Stop being mindful"
- "Is Mindfulness Present-Centered and Nonjudgmental? A Discussion of the Cognitive Dimensions of Mindfulness" by Georges Dreyfus
- "Mindfulness and Ethics: Attention, Virtue and Perfection" by Jay Garfield
- "Mindfulness Research Monthly, Volume 1, Number 5".
- "Can Meditation Cure Disease?" by Maureen Seaberg. The Daily Beast
- "Research Spotlight: Mindfulness Meditation Is Associated With Structural Changes in the Brain". NCCAM. January 30, 2011.
- "Meditation". American Cancer Society. November 2008. Retrieved August 2013.
- Boyatzis, R. E., & McKee, A. (2005). Resonant Leadership: Renewing yourself and connecting with others through mindfulness, hope, and compassion. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
- Scouller, J. (2011). The Three Levels of Leadership: How to Develop Your Leadership Presence, Knowhow and Skill. Cirencester: Management Books 2000., ISBN 9781852526818
- Carroll, M. (2007). The mindful leader: Ten principles for bringing out the best in ourselves and others (1st ed.). Boston: Trumpeter.
- Meditation classes raise attorneys mindfulness (2009). New Orleans CityBusiness.
- Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School (2008). Program on Negotiation Webcasts.
- Samuelson, M. (2007). Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in Massachusetts Correctional Facilities. In C. James, K.-Z. Jon, A. B. Michael, C. James, K.-Z. Jon & A. B. Michael (Eds.), Prison Journal (Vol. 87, pp. 254-268).
- Rochman, B. (2009, September 6, 2009). Samurai Mind Training for Modern American Warriors. Time.
- Boccio, Frank Jude (2004). Mindfulness Yoga: The Awakened Union of Breath, Body and Mind. ISBN 0-86171-335-4
- Brahm, Ajahn (2005). Mindfulness, Bliss, and Beyond: A Meditator's Handbook. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 978-0-86171-275-5
- Guenther, Herbert V. & Leslie S. Kawamura (1975), Mind in Buddhist Psychology: A Translation of Ye-shes rgyal-mtshan's "The Necklace of Clear Understanding" Dharma Publishing. Kindle Edition.
- Gunaratana, Bhante Henepola (2002). Mindfulness in Plain English. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 978-0-86171-906-8
- Hanh, Thich Nhat (1996). The Miracle of Mindfulness: A Manual on Meditation. Beacon Press.
- Weiss, Andrew (2004). Beginning Mindfulness: Learning the Way of Awareness. New World Library
- Siegel, Ronald D. (2010). The Mindfulness Solution: Everyday Practices for Everyday Problems. The Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-60623-294-1
- Hoopes, Aaron (2007) "Zen Yoga: A Path to Enlightenment through Breathing, Movement and Meditation". Kodansha International.
|Look up 念 in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Look up Smrti in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
||This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (December 2011)|
- Oxford University Mindfulness Research Centre
- Mindfulness Defined by Thanissaro Bhikkhu
- Association for Mindfulness Research