Ming–Turpan conflict

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Ming–Turpan conflict
Date 1400s, 1500s
Location Turpan, Hami, Gansu
Result Ming victory
Belligerents
Ming Dynasty Turpan Kingdom Oirat Mongols
Commanders and leaders
Ali
Ahmed
Mansur Khan (Moghul Khan)
Ibrahim (Iburai taishi)
Ensen

The Ming–Turpan conflict were a series of conflicts between the Ming Dynasty and Kingdom of Turpan that erupted due to disputes over borders, trade and internal succession to the throne of Turpan.

Conflict[edit]

The Ming Dynasty annexed Qumul (Hami) in 1404 and turned it into Qumul (Hami) Prefecture.[1] In 1406 it defeated the ruler of Turpan.[2]

In 1443, 1445 and 1448 the Mongol Oirats under Esen taishi occupied Qara Del Qumul (Hami). Turpan, under Ali (known as Yunus Khan), then seized Hami from the Mongol Esen in 1473. A Ali was driven by the Ming Dynasty into Turfan, but he reoccupied it after Ming left. Esen taishi's Mongols recaptured Hami twice in 1482 and 1483, but the son of Ali, Ahmed (Ahmad Alaq), reconquered it in 1493 and captured the Hami leader and the resident of China in Hami (the Chagatayid Hami was a vassal state to Ming). In response, the Ming Dynasty imposed an economic blockade on Turpan and kicked out all the Uyghurs from Gansu. Conditions became so harsh for Turpan that Ahmed left. His son Mansur then took over Qumul in 1517.[3]

In 1491 the Ming dynasty installed a Yuan dynasty heir to the position of Prince of Qumul. They then appointed overseers of each ethnic group residing in Qumul, the position being called tu-tu (In Wade Giles). One of these overseers, Sayyid Husain, was the Muslim overseer in July 1494 and fled to China when Turpan invaded Qumul, but he plotted with Turpan to be appointed as prince under the rule of Turpan. He was arrested in 1516 and sent to Beijing, but bribed his way into the Zhengde Emperor's inner circle, eventually becoming his homosexual lover.[4]

Around 1502 the Turpan "Tartar" ruler Hahema invaded Qumul(Hami) and removed Prince Champa, the Mongol Prince of Qumul who had been installed by the Ming Chinese on the Qumul throne.[5] The Chinese army then marched on Qumul. Hahema retreated, released Prince Champa, acknowledged his inferior position to the Chinese Emperor and agreed that Champa would take the throne of Qumul.[6]

In the 1500s the Ming Dynasty defeated a series of raids by the Turpan Kingdom under Mansur and the Oirat Mongols, over disputes on tribute. Fighting broke out in 1517, 1524 and 1528 when the Ming Dynasty rejected tribute missions from Turpan. Mansur invaded China in 1524 with 20,000 men through Suzhou District, but was repulsed by Ming Chinese forces, including Mongol troops.[7][8] The Chinese refused to lift the economic blockade and restrictions that had led to the fighting and continued restricting Turpan's tribute and trade with China. Turfan also annexed Qumul.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Muqi Che (1989). The Silk Road, Past and Present. Foreign Languages Press. p. 115. ISBN 0-8351-2100-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  2. ^ Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlt (2008). A History of the Moghuls of Central Asia: The Tarikh-I-Rashidi. Cosimo, Inc. p. 103. ISBN 1-60520-150-2. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  3. ^ Trudy Ring, Robert M. Salkin, Sharon La Boda (1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Taylor & Francis. p. 323. ISBN 1-884964-04-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  4. ^ Association for Asian Studies. Ming Biographical History Project Committee, Luther Carrington Goodrich, Chao-ying Fang (1976). Dictionary of Ming Biography, 1368-1644. Columbia University Press. p. 1152. ISBN 0-231-03833-X. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  5. ^ Demetrius Charles de Kavanagh Boulger (1882). History of China, Volume 2. W. H. Allen & co. p. 125. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  6. ^ Demetrius Charles de Kavanagh Boulger (1882). History of China, Volume 2. W. H. Allen & co. p. 126. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  7. ^ Association for Asian Studies. Ming Biographical History Project Committee, Luther Carrington Goodrich, Chao-ying Fang (1976). Dictionary of Ming Biography, 1368-1644. Columbia University Press. p. 1038. ISBN 0-231-03833-X. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  8. ^ Association for Asian Studies. Ming Biographical History Project Committee, Luther Carrington Goodrich, Chao-ying Fang (1976). Dictionary of Ming Biography, 1368-1644. Columbia University Press. p. 1037. ISBN 0-231-03833-X. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  9. ^ Jonathan D. Spence, John E. Wills, Jr., Jerry B. Dennerline (1979). From Ming to Ch'ing: Conquest, Region, and Continuity in Seventeenth-Century China. Yale University Press. p. 177. ISBN 0-300-02672-2. Retrieved 2010-06-28.