Minglanilla is located approximately 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) south of Cebu City. It is bounded southwest by Naga; northwest by Toledo; northeast by Talisay; and southeast by the Bohol Strait. It has a land area of approximately 65.6 km2 (25.3 sq mi).
The climate of Minglanilla is classified as Coronas type III, characterized by a dry season lasting from one to six months. There is no pronounced maximum rain period. The town is placed within the tropical rainforest type of world climate (Köppen type: Af) which has uniform high temperature and heavy precipitation distribution throughout the year.