Mini asymmetric radial keratotomy

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Mini Asymmetric Radial Keratotomy (M.A.R.K.)
Mini Asymmetric Radial Keratotomy (MARK).jpg
Diagram of M.A.R.K.: incisions (white) performed on area affected by keratoconus (grey)
ICD-9-CM 11
MeSH D054140

The Mini Asymmetric Radial Keratotomy (M.A.R.K.) is a surgical procedure to cure keratoconus and correct astigmatism, developed by Italian surgeon Marco Abbondanza in 1993, then improved in 2005.[1][2]


It consists of a series of microincisions of variable depth, with a length between 1.75 and 2.25 millimeters, always made with a diamond knife, designed to cause a controlled scarring of the cornea, which changes its thickness and shape. The M.A.R.K. is never performed on the optical zone, being done only in the area where the keratoconus is localized, therefore both the flattening and the structural reinforcement of scar tissue occur only locally in the distorted zone, avoiding an excessive flattening of the cornea. This procedure, if done properly, is able to correct the astigmatism and cure the first and second stages of the keratoconus, avoiding the need for a cornea transplant.[3][4][5][6]

The Mini Asymmetric Radial Keratotomy can also be used in combination with the cross-linking (also known as CXL, CCR, CCL and KXL), parasurgical treatment for keratoconus.[7][8][9]


  1. ^ From Who's Who in Italy - Marco Abbondanza
  2. ^ From Marquis Who's Who - Marco Abbondanza
  3. ^ Lombardi, M.; Abbondanza, M. (1997). "Asymmetric radial keratotomy for the correction of keratoconus". Journal of Refractive Surgery 13 (3): 302–307. PMID 9183763.  edit
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  6. ^ Kohlhaas, M.; Draeger, J.; Böhm, A.; Lombardi, M.; Abbondanza, M.; Zuppardo, M.; Görne, M. (2008). "Zur Aesthesiometrie der Hornhaut nach refraktiver Hornhautchirurgie" [Aesthesiometry of the cornea after refractive corneal surgery]. Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde (in German) 201 (10): 221–223. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1045898. PMID 1453657.  edit
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