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Miniaturization (Br.Eng.: Miniaturisation) is the creation of ever-smaller scales for mechanical, optical, and electronic products and devices. Miniaturization is a continuing trend in the production of such devices.
Items which take up less space are more desired than items which are bigger and bulkier because they are easier to carry, easier to store, and much more convenient to use.
Early development 
The trend can be traced back to ancient times both as an abstract science and as a physical practice, beginning with the atomic theories of the nature of matter and the use of early microscopes. These first instances of miniaturization eventually led to the creation of current sciences such as nanotechnology and molecular nanotechnology.
Background to modern development 
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In the 1950s, products used in the construction of rockets, guidance and telemetrical systems, satellites and space stations needed to be light, yet rugged, with the ability to withstand wide variation in temperature, pressure and stress. Space technological research (some of which initially seemed to have no economic significance, but perhaps due to the Space Race) led to the development of new materials, e.g. new types of rubber resistant to extremes of hot and cold, new alloys notable for their lightness and toughness, ceramics that are unbreakable, and plastics, which neither melt nor decompose with the application of extreme heat. One of the most important ideas derived from space technology is miniaturization which led to microminiaturization and subminiaturization. Conventional industries then made use of these commercially beneficial ideas.
In electronics, miniaturization was witnessed by an empirical observation called Moore's Law that predicted that the number of transistors on an integrated circuit for minimum component cost doubles every 18 months.
See also 
- "Cramming more components onto integrated circuits" (PDF). Electronics Magazine. 1965. p. 4. Retrieved November 11, 2006.
- "Excerpts from A Conversation with Gordon Moore: Moore’s Law" (PDF). Intel Corporation. 2005. p. 1. Retrieved May 2, 2006.
- "Rice scientists build world's first single-molecule car". 2005. Retrieved April 15, 2010.