Minimum Age Convention, 1973

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C138, Minimum Age Convention, 1973
Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment
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Member states of the Convention.
14 years: purple
15 years: green
16 years: blue
Drafted 26 June 1973
Effective 19 June 1976
Condition 2 ratifications
Ratifiers 167
Depositary Director-General of the International Labour Office
Languages French and English

The Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment, is an Convention adopted in 1973 by the International Labour Organization. It requires ratifying states to pursue a national policy designed to ensure the effective abolition of child labour and to raise progressively the minimum age for admission to employment or work. The convention (number C138 of ILO) replaces several similar ILO conventions in specific fields of labour.

Minimum ages[edit]

Countries are free to specify a minimum age for labour, with a minimum of 15 years. A declaration of 14 years is also possible when for a specified period of time. Laws may also permit light work for children aged 13–15 (not harming their health or school work). The minimum age of 18 years is specified for work which "is likely to jeopardise the health, safety or morals of young persons". Definitions of the type of work and derogations are only possible after tripartite consultations (if such a system exists in the ratifying country).

Effect on other conventions[edit]

The convention is a revision of several conventions for workers in specific areas. Upon entry into force, some of these conventions were closed for ratification and becoming a party to this convention automatically resulted in denunciation of the older ones. An overview of older minimum age conventions of ILO is shown below:

ILO code Field conclusion date entry into force closure for signature Parties
(April 2011)
Denunciations
(September 2011)
revising convention(s) text and ratifications
C5 Industry 28 November 1919 13 June 1921 N.A. 2 70 C59, this convention Text, ratifications
C7 Sea 7 July 1920 27 September 1921 N.A. 3 50 C58, this convention, MLC Text, ratifications
C10 Agriculture 16 November 1921 31 August 1923 N.A. 4 51 this convention Text, ratifications
C15 trimmers and stokers 11 November 1921 20 November 1922 N.A. 9 60 this convention Text, ratifications
C33 Non-Industrial Employment (revised) 30 April 1932 6 June 1935 29 December 1950 2 23 C60, this convention Text, ratifications
C58 Sea (revised) 24 October 1936 11 April 1939 N.A. 15 36 this convention, MLC Text, ratifications
C59 Industry (revised) 22 June 1937 21 February 1941 19 June 1976 9 27 this convention Text, ratifications
C60 Non-Industrial Employment 22 June 1937 29 December 1950 N.A. 0 11 this convention Text, ratifications
C112 Fishermen 19 June 1959 7 November 1961 N.A. 8 21 this convention, Work in Fishing Convention Text, ratifications
C123 Underground Work 22 June 1965 10 November 1967 N.A. 22 19 this convention Text, ratifications

Ratifications[edit]




Circle frame.svg

Minimum ages defined by states

  14 (33%)
  15 (44%)
  16 (23%)

Entry into force of the treaty occurred one year after deposition of two first ratifications (Cuba and Libya). As of April 2014, 167 countries have ratified the treaty. The treaty enters for a ratifying country into force one year after ratification. The treaty can be denounced every 10 years in the year after 10 years have passed (e.g. 19 June 201619 June 2017).

The following countries have ratified this convention:
Country Date Minimum age (years)
Afghanistan 7 April 2010 14
Albania 16 February 1998 16
Algeria 30 April 1984 16
Angola 13 June 2001 14
Antigua and Barbuda 17 March 1983 16
Argentina 11 November 1996 14
Armenia 27 January 2006 16
Austria 18 September 2000 15
Azerbaijan 19 May 1992 16
Bahamas 31 October 2001 14
Bahrain 7 March 2012 15
Barbados 4 January 2000 15
Belarus (as the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic) 3 May 1979 16
Belgium 19 April 1988 15
Belize 6 March 2000 14
Benin 11 June 2001 14
Bolivia 11 June 1997 14
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2 June 1993 15
Botswana 5 June 1997 14
Brazil 28 June 2001 16
Brunei Darussalam 17 June 2011 16
Bulgaria 23 April 1980 16
Burkina Faso 11 February 1999 15
Burundi 19 July 2000 16
Cambodia 23 August 1999 14
Cameroon 13 August 2001 14
Cape Verde 7 February 2011 15
Central African Republic 28 June 2000 14
Chad 21 March 2005 14
Chile 1 February 1999 15
China 28 April 1999 16
Colombia 2 February 2001 14
Comoros 17 March 2004 15
Congo 26 November 1999 14
Costa Rica 11 June 1976 15
Côte d'Ivoire 7 February 2003 14
Croatia 8 October 1991 15
Cuba 7 March 1975 15
Cyprus 2 October 1997 15
Czech Republic 26 April 2007 15
Democratic Republic of the Congo 20 June 2001 14
Denmark 13 November 1997 15
Djibouti 14 June 2005 16
Dominica 27 September 1983 15
Dominican Republic 15 June 1999 14
Ecuador 19 September 2000 14
Egypt 9 June 1999 14
El Salvador 23 January 1996 14
Equatorial Guinea 12 June 1985 14
Eritrea 22 February 2000 14
Estonia 15 March 2007 15
Ethiopia 27 May 1999 14
Fiji 3 January 2003 15
Finland 13 January 1976 15
France 13 July 1990 16
Gabon 25 October 2010 16
Gambia 4 September 2000 14
Ghana 6 June 2011 15
Georgia 23 September 1996 15
Germany 8 April 1976 15
Greece 14 March 1986 15
Grenada 14 May 2003 16
Guatemala 27 April 1990 14
Guinea 6 June 2003 16
Guinea-Bissau 5 March 2009 14
Guyana 15 April 1998 15
Haiti 5 March 2009 14
Honduras 9 June 1980 14
Hungary 28 May 1998 16
Iceland 6 December 1999 15
Indonesia 7 June 1999 15
Iraq 13 February 1985 15
Ireland 22 June 1978 16
Israel 21 June 1979 15
Italy 28 July 1981 15
Jamaica 13 October 2003 15
Japan 5 June 2000 15
Jordan 23 March 1998 16
Kazakhstan 18 May 2001 16
Kenya 9 April 1979 16
Kiribati 17 June 2009 14
Republic of Korea 28 January 1999 15
Kuwait 15 November 1999 15
Kyrgyzstan 31 March 1992 16
Laos 13 June 2005 14
Latvia 2 June 2006 15
Lebanon 10 June 2003 14
Lesotho 14 June 2001 15
Libya 19 June 1975 15
Lithuania 22 June 1998 16
Luxembourg 24 March 1977 15
Macedonia 17 November 1991 15
Madagascar 31 May 2000 15
Malawi 19 November 1999 14
Malaysia 9 September 1997 15
Maldives 4 January 2013 16
Mali 11 March 2002 15
Malta 9 June 1988 16
Mauritania 3 December 2001 14
Mauritius 30 July 1990 15
Republic of Moldova 21 September 1999 16
Montenegro 3 June 2006 15
Mongolia 16 December 2002 15
Morocco 6 January 2000 15
Mozambique 16 June 2003 15
Namibia 15 November 2000 14
Nepal 30 May 1997 14
Netherlands (European territory) 14 September 1976 15
Netherlands (Aruba) 18 February 1986[1] 15
Nicaragua 2 November 1981 14
Niger 4 December 1978 14
Nigeria 2 October 2002 15
Norway 8 July 1980 15
Oman 21 July 2005 15
Pakistan 6 July 2006 14
Panama 31 October 2000 14
Papua New Guinea 2 June 2000 16
Paraguay 3 March 2004 14
Peru 13 November 2002 14
Philippines 4 June 1998 15
Poland 22 March 1978 15
Portugal 20 May 1998 16
Qatar 3 January 2006 16
Romania 19 November 1975 16
Russia (as the Soviet Union) 3 May 1979 16
Rwanda 15 April 1981 14
Saint Kitts and Nevis 3 June 2005 16
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 25 July 2006 14
Samoa 29 October 2008 15
San Marino 1 February 1995 16
São Tomé and Príncipe 4 May 2005 14
Saudi Arabia 2 April 2014 15
Senegal 15 December 1999 15
Serbia (as Serbia and Montenegro) 24 November 2000 15
Seychelles 7 March 2000 15
Sierra Leone 13 June 2011 16
Singapore 7 November 2005 15
Slovakia 29 September 1997 15
Slovenia 29 May 1992 15
Solomon Islands 22 April 2013 14
South Africa 30 March 2000 16
South Sudan 29 April 2012 14
Spain 16 May 1977 16
Sri Lanka 11 February 2000 14
Sudan 7 March 2003 14
Swaziland 23 October 2002 15
Sweden 23 April 1990 15
Switzerland 17 August 1999 15
Syria 18 September 2001 15
Tajikistan 26 November 1993 16
Tanzania 16 December 1998 14
Thailand 11 May 2004 15
Togo 16 March 1984 14
Trinidad and Tobago 3 September 2004 16
Tunisia 19 October 1995 16
Turkey 30 October 1998 15
Turkmenistan 27 March 2012 16
Uganda 25 March 2003 14
Ukraine (as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic) 3 May 1979 16
United Arab Emirates 2 October 1998 15
United Kingdom 7 June 2000 16
Uruguay 2 June 1977 15
Uzbekistan 6 March 2009 15
Venezuela 15 July 1987 14
Viet Nam 24 June 2003 15
Yemen 15 June 2000 14
Zambia 9 February 1976 15
Zimbabwe 6 June 2000 14

References[edit]

External links[edit]