Mining in Western Australia

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Main article: Mining in Australia
Mining in Western Australia
Tigris-Australia location Western Australia.svg
Position of Western Australia within Australia highlighted
Location
State Western Australia Western Australia
Country  Australia
Regulatory authority
Authority Department of Mines and Petroleum
Website Official website
Production
Commodity
Value Decrease A$48.2 billion
Employees Decrease 70,063
Year 2009 [1]
Major commodity mix, 2008-2009.

Mining in Western Australia, together with the petroleum industry in the state, accounted for almost 90 per cent of the State’s income from total merchandise exports in 2008-09. The state of Western Australia hosted, in 2008-09, 513 commercial mineral projects and 893 mining operations, as well as 64 operating oil and gas fields.[2]

Western Australia’s mineral and petroleum industry, in 2009, had a value of A$61 billion, of which 48.2 billion were created by the mining industry. While the overall value of the industry suffered a setback in 2009, losing 17 percent in value compared to 2008, the mineral and petroleum industry nevertheless posted healthy gains over the last decade, growing, on average, annually by 15 percent. The cause of the loss in 2009 was attributed to the Global financial crisis, which saw the price for Iron ore, the most important commodity in the state, drop by 37 percent. On the other hand, Gold posted a substantial growth in value, with the price increasing by 12 percent.[1]

Iron ore was, in 2009, the most important commodity in Western Australia, accounting for 46 percent of sales in the state's mineral and petroleum industry. The petroleum sector followed in second place with 28 percent of the overall value, consisting of oil and gas. The fourth-most important commodity in the state was Gold, which was also the only one in 2009 to experience a gain in prices, when every other one of the major commodities declined. Alumina and Nickel followed in the order of importance, still each achieving a value in excess of A$3 billion. Of the other majors, the Base Metals, Copper, Lead and Zinc, as well as Diamonds, Cobalt, Coal, Mineral Sands and Salt all stayed below the A$1 billion mark in value in 2009.[1]

Employment in the Western Australian mining and petroleum industry has sharply increased, having more than doubled in the last 20 years, from just over 30,000 to over 75,000 in 2009.[1]

The industry's regulating authority in Western Australia is the Department of Mines and Petroleum (DMP), which replaced the previously existing Department of Industry and Resources (DOIR) on 1 January 2009. The department, among other things, produces the annual Western Australian Mineral and Petroleum Statistic Digest and operates the MINDEX website, which is aimed at listing all current and former mining operations in the state.[3]

History[edit]

Development of the mining industry in Western Australia has been characterised by its dependence upon cheap energy, international mineral prices and foreign direct investment. It was gold mining that turned Western Australia into a viable settlement. Gold finds in the 1890s followed on from the Gold rush in Victoria and brought unprecedented amounts of people and money to WA.

Gold mining declined after 1904, and Western Australia went through a painful period of structural adjustment over the course of the following three decades during which time two world wars, an international depression and a major drought complicated the state's economic development. Mining began to take off again in the 1930s, however at the time the state governments' focus was in agricultural expansion and manufacturing initiatives. The primary sector would experience strong growth until the early 1970s, after which it leveled off. More than a million hectares of marginal agricultural land was abandoned, and the government turned to mining as the state's main economic priority.

The period after 1945 has been characterised by the development of the State’s mining sector into a world-scale industry and Western Australia’s increasing access to the rest of the world. Communication and transport advances brought Western Australia much closer to the rest of the world, providing opportunities for local producers to access markets in other countries much more easily. On the other hand, overseas producers could access the Western Australian market relatively more readily. The outcome has been a highly specialised and trade-dependent Western Australian economy (with mining and mineral processing the dominant industries), using income derived to import many other goods and services.

The State’s second major resource boom was stimulated when, in 1960, the Commonwealth Government lifted the iron ore export embargo that had been in place since 1938.[4] Demand was fuelled by the buoyant Japanese economy and Japanese, American and British investment flowed into the State. While Asia had previously been a market for Western Australian products (notably sandalwood and wool), the export of iron ore to Japan marked a fundamental shift in Western Australia’s trade dynamic and paved the way for the development of Asia as the State’s most important trading region.

Prior to the resurgence of the resource sector, economic conditions had been relatively subdued, with constant-price household income per capita roughly the same in 1960-61 as in 1948-49. However, the mining boom caused income per capita to more than double by 1973-74. Importantly, while iron ore was (and remains) a significant component of the mining industry, one important aspect of the resources boom in the 1960s that set it apart from the gold rush, was the diversity of commodities being mined. There were major discoveries of nickel, petroleum, bauxite and alumina, which all developed into significant industries in the 1960s and 1970s. There was also a major revival in the mining of gold in the 1980s, stimulated by price increases associated with the end of the gold standard in 1971, high inflation throughout the 1970s, and new processing technology.

Timeline[edit]

  • 1839: Hydrocarbons, in the form of crude bitumen, were first recorded at the mouth of the Victoria River, near the Western Australia-Northern Territory border.
  • 1892: Arthur Bailey and William Ford discover gold in Western Australia at Fly Flat near Coolgardie
  • 17 June 1893: Paddy Hannan discovers gold near Kalgoorlie, sparking Western Australia's gold rush.
  • Sir John Forrest, the first Premier of Western Australia, is regarded as the founding father of The Perth Mint. John saw the importance of gold in the development of Western Australia's economy, and successfully lobbied the British Government to establish a branch of the Royal Mint in Perth
  • 1934: A lease was assigned over iron ore deposits at Koolan Island in Yampi Sound off the coast of the Kimberley to the Nippon Mining Company backed by the Japanese government.
  • 1935-39: High gold prices encourage investment.
  • 1937: Public and government outcry when Nippon Mining proposed not to use Australian labour but to send its own engineers to construct the Koolan Island mine.
  • 1939-45: Labour shortages as a result of the Second World War caused many mines to cease operation, and following the war, many did not re-open.
  • 1938: Commonwealth government enacts iron ore export embargo [4] The stated reason for the embargo where doubts as to the adequacy of Australian iron ore resources for Australia's own needs.[5] The real reason was to freeze the export of raw materials to Japan.
  • 1940: Extensive survey of iron ore deposits determined only two where commercially viable, one of which being the Yampi Sound Group in Western Australia.[5]
  • 1948: Bureau of Mineral Resources (federal Department of Development) combined with the WA Department of Mines to carry out systematic geological and geophysical surveys in the north west, mostly seeking free flow oil.
  • 1960: Commonwealth Government lifts iron ore export embargo
  • 1960s:
  • 1964: Oil discovered on Barrow Island.
  • 1967: Oil production on Barrow Island begins.
  • 1969 - 1970: Poseidon Nickel boom
  • 1977: Premier Sir Charles Court made a deal with Alcoa Australia to take a designated quota of the gas in return for permission to build a third alumina refinery at Wagerup. A big deal that looked good at the time, it left WA with an aluminium industry that looks impossible to sustain if medium to high carbon prices kick in.
  • 1981: The Western Australian Government negotiated an agreement to allow development of the

large natural gas reserves on the North West Shelf.

  • 1987: Global stock market crash
  • 1989: First liquefied natural gas (LNG) cargo exported to Japan in 1989.
  • 2008: Global Financial Crisis.
  • August 2009: Gorgon Consortium signs $50 billion contract with PetroChina for gas extraction from the fields around Barrow Island.

Major commodities[edit]

Iron ore[edit]

Iron ore mining in Western Australia, in the financial year 2008-09, accounted for 47 percent of the total value of the states resources, with a value of A$33.56 billion. The overall value of the mineral and petroleum industry in Western Australia was A$71.3 billion in 2008-09, a 19 percent increase compare to the previous financial year.[2] Iron ore in Western Australia experienced unprecedented growth in 2008-09, with the states output growing by 8.5 percent, to 316 million tonnes of ore. In terms of value, the industry grew by 53 percent. The bulk of Western Australian ore went to China, which imported 64 percent of the 2008-09 production, followed by Japan with 21 percent.[2] The boom of the last decade was however somewhat slowed in 2009, when the value of the industry fell by 12 percent compare to the previous calendar year, and this despite record production of 342 million tonnes of ore.[1]

In the calendar year 2009, the Western Australian Government received over A$1.7 billion in royalties from the iron ore mining industry in the state.[1]

Iron ore mining in Western Australia is predominantly, but not exclusively, carried out in the Pilbara region, which produced ore in value of A$26.82 billion in 2009, out of an overall iron ore production value of A$28.1 billion for the state.[1]

Petroleum[edit]

Petroleum, like mining, falls under the jurisdiction of the Department of Mines and Petroleum, but is otherwise not directly related to mining. Crude Oil and Condensate reached a value of A$8.7 billion in 2009, while LNG achieved a value of A$6.3 billion in 2009.[1]

Gold[edit]

The history of gold mining in Western Australia dates back to the 1880s but took on some larger dimensions in the 1890s, after gold discoveries at Coolgardie in 1892 and Kalgoorlie in 1893. It reached an early peak in 1903, experienced a golden era in the 1930s and a revival in the mid-1980s. In between, the industry declined a number of times, like during the two world wars, experiencing an absolute low point in 1976.[6]

In 2009, Gold delivered a stand-out performance, recording a record value of A$5.7 billion, a 29 percent increase in comparison to the previous calendar year. Gold production in the state increased by 9 percent, reaching 4.6 million ounces in 2009.[1]

Alumina[edit]

The Darling Scarp contains considerable deposits of bauxite, and these have been mined by Alcoa and Worsley Alumina for the production of alumina.

Alcoa's first bauxite mine at Jarrahdale was opened in 1963 to service the Kwinana alumina refinery. 168 million tonnes of bauxite was mined from Jarrahdale until its closure in 1998. The Huntly mine was established in the early 1970s to supply bauxite for both the Kwinana and Pinjarra refineries. It is currently the biggest bauxite mine in the world. The Wagerup refinery is serviced by the Willowdale bauxite mine, established in 1984.[7]

Worsley Alumina constructed a mine site and refinery in the early 1980s. The mine site is located near Boddington and the bauxite is transported by a 51 km conveyor belt to the refinery at Worsley. Following a A$1 billion expansion in 2000, Worsley now export 3.1 million tonnes of alumina.[8]

In 2009, Western Australia produced 12.4 million tonnes of Alumina, at a value of A$3.6 billion, a reduction in value by 27 percent.[1]

Nickel[edit]

The Western Australian Nickel industry suffered from falling international prices in 2009. Nickel production had been reasonably steady, the value of the industry had decreased from a peak A$6.9 billion in 2007 to under 3.3 billion in 2009. Also, the number of employees fell from a peak 13,307 in 2008 to 7,561 in 2009.[1]

A large number of Nickel mines in the state were placed in care and maintenance at the end of 2008 because of falling international prices.[2]

The discovery in Kambalda, Western Australia in 1966, Mount Windarra in 1969 and Agnew in 1971 coinciding with rising world nickel prices and a prolonged strike at a major nickel in Canada, meant that the discoveries were rapidly developed, bringing about a "nickel boom" between 1967 and 1971.

Base metals[edit]

The value of the Base Metal production in the state declined by 12 percent in 2009.[1]

The largest Base Metal producing mine in Western Australia is the Golden Grove Mine.[2]

Copper[edit]

Western Australian output of copper increased by ten percent in 2009, having grown from just over 34,000 tonnes per annum in 2000 to 142,490 tonnes by 2009,[1] with a brief dip in production in 2004 due to the closure of the Lennard Shelf mine.[9] In 2009 however, world Copper prices fell by 26 percent, causing the industry in the state to lose 11 percent of its value.[1]

Lead[edit]

Lead mining in Western Australia experienced a boom in 2009, almost doubling its production. This was caused by the reopening of the Magellan mine. Overall, the states Lead production in the last ten years has been very varied, reaching a peak of 91,380 tonnes in 2001, falling to 1,170 tonnes in 2004 because of the closure of the Lennard Shelf mine,[9] before reaching another peak in 2006 and a low in 2008.[1]

Zinc[edit]

Zinc experienced a drop in production and prices in 2009, output in Western Australia falling by 33 percent and the value of the industry decreasing by 35 percent.[1]

Because of the nature of Zinc and Lead, which are often found together, Zinc has experienced the same ups and downs in production as Lead in the last decade.[9]

Coal[edit]

Main article: Coal in Australia

Coal in Western Australia is currently, as of 2009, mined at only one location, at Collie, where two mines are operating. Ninety percent of all coal mined at Collie is used in power stations, the remainder in the Mineral Sands production. While a small amount of Western Australian coal has been exported to India and China in recent years, the majority goes to the coal-fired power stations, mainly located in the Collie area as well.[2]

Coal production in the state has been quite steady in the past decade, with the 2009 production of 6.56 million tonnes being only three percent less than in 2008. Like production, the value of the Western Australian coal industry has remained reasonably constant, too, with a slight increase to A$308 million in 2009.[1]

Diamonds[edit]

The bulk of diamonds produced in Western Australia originate from the Argyle diamond mine, located in the far north of the state. The mine produces around 20 percent of the global diamond output and commenced mining in 1985. The mines most famous product is its pink diamonds, of which it produces around 90 percent of the worlds supply, which is, however, only one percent of the mines overall production. Apart from Argyle, there is only one other operating diamond mine in the state, the Ellendale mine, located 100 km east of Derby, which opened in 2002. Ellendale produces the rare yellow diamonds.[2]

In 2009, sale volumes for diamonds fell by 44 percent while the value of the industry in the state decreased by 53 percent in comparison to 2008.[1]

Salt[edit]

Eighty percent of all salt produced in Australia comes from Western Australia. Of the state's production, 77 percent, in turn, originates from Dampier Salt Limited's operations at Dampier, Port Hedland and Lake MacLeod in the Pilbara. Other mining locations in the state include Onslow, Koolyanobbing and Esperance.[2]

While the overall salt production in Western Australia dropped by 19 percent in 2009, to 9.5 million tonnes, the value of the industry increased dramatically, by 59 percent, to A$432 million.[1]

Other commodities[edit]

Tungsten is mined at Cookes Creek mine in the Pilbara region.[10]

Asbestos[edit]

Blue asbestos was discovered at Wittenoom Gorge in the 1930s by Lang Hancock and claimed as a mining tenement in 1934. The mine supplied much of the world's demand for asbestos until it closed in 1966 due to health concerns for its workers.[11][12]

The production or use of asbestos is now banned in Australia.[13]

Uranium[edit]

The Western Australian ban on uranium mining was lifted in 2008, after the 2008 state elections, which saw the Liberal Party of Australia replaced in government by the Australian Labor Party.

No uranium mining currently takes place in the state and developing projects were not scheduled to enter their mining phase before 2012-13.[14]

Five projects are in the approval process, the Lake Maitland uranium project, Toro Energy's Lake Way uranium project, Cameco's Yeelirrie uranium project and Kintyre uranium project, and Energy and Minerals Australia has referred the Mulga Rocks uranium project. Given the low uranium price none of these projects are progressing in the short term.

Lake Way, Lake Maitland and Yeelirrie are located within 100 km of Wiluna.[15]

Safety[edit]

In the past decade, from 2001 to 2010, 42 employees have lost their live in the state's mining industry. Of those, gold and iron ore have been the most dangerous, with 14 fatalities each, followed by nickel, with nine. Of the 42 fatalities, 29 have occurred at the surface and 13 in underground mining.[16]

Since 1943, the year the Department of Mines records date back to, to 2010, 657 work-related fatalities have occurred in the mining industry in the state.[16]

Statistics[edit]

Annual statistics for the Western Australian mining industry:[1][9][17][18][19][20]

Production[edit]

Commodities measured in million tonnes per annum:

Commodity 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Iron ore 158.87 162.25 171.77 194.75 215.85 244.64 250.40 264.45 305.72 341.64
Alumina 10.0 10.75 11.0 11.23 10.99 11.35 11.87 12.17 12.25 12.42
Salt 7.71 8.58 9.17 9.75 10.4 11.48 10.72 10.39 11.49 9.55
Coal 6.2 6.2 6.26 6.03 6.31 6.41 7.25 5.81 6.73 6.56

Commodities measured in tonnes per annum:

Commodity 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Nickel 153,510 181,170 183,000 190,210 174,700 191,710 175,180 161,010 187,790 171,970
Copper 34,040 50,240 64,290 58,780 42,680 83,880 99,960 119,410 129,530 142,490
Zinc 257,720 210,840 218,800 174,550 51,780 63,610 138,840 180,730 156,010 104,690
Lead 73,080 91,380 70,400 56,490 1,170 30,270 74,850 42,020 13,780 26,700
Cobalt 3,590 4,260 4,700 5,170 4,550 4,590 5,130 4,730 4,780 4,629

Commodities measured in million carats per annum:

Commodity 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Diamonds 42.3 21.68 34.37 35.48 24.23 34.31 17.07 23.54 21.24 11.9

Commodities measured in kilogram per annum:

Commodity 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Gold 199,500 192,200 188,860 187,500 164,420 169,830 163,840 152,690 131,824 142,519

Value[edit]

Commodities at an annual production value of A$ billion:

Commodity 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Iron ore 4.365 5.245 5.064 5.061 6.173 11.308 14.751 16.165 31.896 28.085
Gold 3.08 3.24 3.46 3.37 2.94 3.15 4.24 4.07 4.39 5.66
Alumina 3.188 3.767 3.339 3.14 3.179 3.656 4.767 4.704 4.901 3.594
Nickel 2.243 2.075 2.243 2.68 3.261 3.484 5.844 6.958 4.059 3.281

Commodities at an annual production value of A$ million:

Commodity 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Copper 82.61 120.71 145.49 145.09 160.94 434.71 917.78 1,018.75 1,041.6 923.58
Mineral Sands 862.93 909.22 855.87 760.75 749.08 880.37 883.67 780.28 797.89 620.61
Salt 197.32 249.24 250.53 197.01 185.08 213.78 241.64 229.6 276.72 432.44
Coal 257.84 258.21 266.4 266.41 281.91 283.26 317.9 265.15 305.5 308.16
Diamonds 713.68 499.53 650.34 661.86 414.81 740.1 446.9 555.0 490.71 230.0
Zinc 290.11 208.72 173.06 139.73 57.78 118.91 607.12 695.54 329.13 213.47
Cobalt 157.66 146.27 118.95 145.04 262.18 166.95 220.43 343.08 378.71 178.9
Lead 25.76 44.90 32.69 24.32 0.31 41.17 130.61 115.57 32.61 44.33

Employees[edit]

Employment figures for the major commodities and overall figures for the complete mining industry:

Commodity 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Iron ore 8,604 9,103 9,289 11,184 12,585 13,727 16,203 18,387 23,185 26,051
Gold 10,879 11,938 12,653 12,801 13,398 12,121 12,314 13,733 14,459 16,686
Alumina 6,706 6,569 6,633 7,015 7,613 9,711 8,967 8,559 8,201 8,212
Nickel 5,038 5,160 4,699 5,714 6,704 9,423 10,583 12,736 13,307 7,561
Mineral Sands 2,243 2,338 2,170 2,224 2,435 2,789 2,914 2,840 2,670 1,934
Diamonds 940 1,009 1,101 1,094 1,397 1,479 1,614 1,863 2,218 1,602
Base Metals 1,331 1,301 1,295 1,100 888 670 912 2,241 2,242 1,456
Salt 698 699 648 658 679 853 838 865 867 778
Coal 709 677 649 641 651 716 771 808 897 725
Overall 39,028 40,870 41,288 44,392 48,385 53,598 57,053 64,608 71,225 70,063

Official reports[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Western Australian Mineral and Petroleum Statistic Digest 2009 Department of Mines and Petroleum website, accessed: 28 November 2010
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Western Australian Mineral and Petroleum Statistic Digest 2008-09 Department of Mines and Petroleum website, accessed: 26 November 2010
  3. ^ Department of Industry and Resources Restructure accessed: 27 October 2010
  4. ^ a b "EMBARGO ON IRON ORE.". The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1956) (Melbourne, Vic.: National Library of Australia). 24 March 1938. p. 1. Retrieved 31 October 2012. 
  5. ^ a b http://www.info.dfat.gov.au/info/historical/HistDocs.nsf/(LookupVolNoNumber)/3~221
  6. ^ Mining towns of Western Australia, page: 48, accessed: 5 February 2010
  7. ^ "Alcoa in Australia: Mining". Retrieved 2010-12-11. 
  8. ^ "Worsley Alumina: About Us". Archived from the original on 2006-12-15. Retrieved 2010-12-11. 
  9. ^ a b c d Western Australian Mineral and Petroleum Statistics Digest 2004 Department of Mines and Petroleum, accessed: 9 December 2010
  10. ^ "Cookes Creek Tungsten". Hazelwood Resources. Retrieved 23 August 2013. 
  11. ^ Hills, Ben. (1989) Blue murder : two thousand doomed to die - the shocking truth about Wittenoom's deadly dust Melbourne : Sun Books. ISBN 0-7251-0581-X (pbk)
  12. ^ Nevill, Mark, MLC and Alan Rogers (1992) Inquiry into asbestos issues at Wittenoom Kalgoorlie : M. Nevill. Report to the Premier Hon Carmen Lawrence by an independent committee of inquiry.
  13. ^ A national ban on the importation, manufacture and use of all Asbestos Department of Mines and Petroleum, published: 18 September 2008, accessed: 12 December 2010
  14. ^ Michael Lampard. "Uranium Outlook to 2013-14". Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics. Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
  15. ^ Toro gets approval for uranium project The Sydney Morning Herald, published: 7 January 2010, accessed: 13 February 2011
  16. ^ a b Western Australian mining fatalities database accessed: 19 February 2011
  17. ^ Western Australian Mineral and Petroleum Statistics Digest 2008 Department of Mines and Petroleum, accessed: 9 December 2010
  18. ^ Western Australian Mineral and Petroleum Statistics Digest 2006 Department of Mines and Petroleum, accessed: 9 December 2010
  19. ^ Western Australian Mineral and Petroleum Statistics Digest 2002 Department of Mines and Petroleum, accessed: 10 December 2010
  20. ^ Western Australian Mineral and Petroleum Statistics Digest 2001 Department of Mines and Petroleum, accessed: 10 December 2010

External links[edit]