Ministry of Internal Affairs (Ukraine)

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This article is about the police authority of Ukraine. For the description of policing methods common to post-Soviet states, see Militsiya.
Ministry of Internal Affairs (Ukraine)
Міністерство внутрішніх справ України
(Мiлiцiя України)
Lesser Coat of Arms of Ukraine.svg
Coat of arms of Ukraine
Эмблема МВД Украины.svg
Insignia of the ministry and Ukrainian militia
Agency overview
Preceding Agency Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
Type Ministry of Ukraine
Headquarters vul. Akademika Bohomol'tsya 10, Kiev
Motto Безпека народу - найвищий Закон
Employees 220,000
Minister responsible Arsen Avakov
Website mvs.gov.ua

The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Міністерство внутрішніх справ України, Ministerstvo vnutrishnikh sprav Ukrayiny, MVS) executes state policy for the protection of rights and liberties of citizens, investigates unlawful acts against the interest of society and state, fights crime, provides civil order, ensures civil security, traffic safety, and protects the security and protection of important individuals. It is a centralised agency headed by a Minister of Internal Affairs. The ministry closely operates with the office of General Prosecutor of Ukraine.

The generic term for the Ukrainian police (and for police in most of the post-Soviet countries) is militsiya.

Ukraine's police is widely regarded as corrupt,[1] and it has received severe accusations of torture and ill-treatment.[2][3][4][5]

Terminology[edit]

An officer of the ДАI (Highways Police).

The force's name, мiлiцiя, translates roughly in English as "Police," however, this is often rendered as "Militsiya" in order to match the original Ukrainian. The force's full name is the same as that of its ministry, Міністерство внутрішніх справ України which translates as "Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine". The official title is rarely used in speech. On occasion the initials МВС (MVS) are used to refer to the force.

An individual officer is typically called a мiлiцiонер (militsiyoner) (plural мiлiцiонери) (militsiyonery); these are not, however, official titles and are not included in the official rank structure. A police station is known as відділення міліції (viddilennya militsyii) which translates more or less into English as "police department." The term Управління МВС (Upravlinnya MVS) refers to a regional or national police command post.

On the whole, official ranks are not used by the general public and thus, when addressing an officer, it is common to hear the term Пан (female - Пані), Ukrainian for Mr./Miss used to refer to police officers. On occasion, this may or may not be followed by the term Офіцер (Ofitser).

History[edit]

Name[edit]

  • People's Committee of Internal Affairs of the Ukrainian SSR (1919 - 1930, regional autonomous agency)
  • State Political Directorate of the Ukrainian SSR (1930 - 1934, part of the Joint State Political Directorate of USSR)
  • People's Committee of Internal Affairs of the Ukrainian SSR (1934 - 1946, part of the People's Committee of Internal Affairs of USSR)
  • Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Ukrainian SSR (1946 - 1991, part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of USSR)
  • Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine (since 1991, a government agency of the independent Ukraine)

Early history[edit]

On February 2, 1713, by the order of Peter I, landmilitia were formed in Ukraine out of regiments of the Russian army quartered there and specifically recruited to carry out security and guard duties.[6] In 1722, local Cossacks were allowed to join landmilitia. In 1736, by the request of the Russian military reformer General Field marshal Minikh, the units of landmilitia were renamed Ukrainian Militia Corps, and included 20 cavalry regiments. After 1762, when the Emperor, Peter III, ordered the corps to be called simply Ukrainian Corps, the word "landmilitia" fell out of use. In 1770, the Ukrainian Corps were merged with the Russian regular army; however, the special tax that was paid by the population of Ukraine for maintaining the force was not ended until the beginning of the 19th century.

MVS in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic[edit]

The contemporary Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine originated from the Soviet NKVD's branch in Ukrainian SSR - the "NKVD of the UkrSSR," which was later reformed into the "Ministry of Internal Affairs of the UkrSSR" (Ministerstvo vnutrishnikh sprav Ukrayins'koyi SSR). Both agencies were a regional branch of the all-Soviet Ministry of Internal Affairs, and essentially a militsiya force since the late 1950s, when the Soviet secret police were separated into the KGB. Despite some operational autonomy, all regulations and standards were established by the central Ministry; Moscow directly coordinated important operations in Ukraine (such as anti-corruption investigations regarding high-level statesmen or other political-related issues). The Militsiya of the Ukrainian SSR used the same ranks, insignia and vehicle liveries as the rest of the Soviet militsiya.

Like other Soviet Ministries of Internal Affairs, the Ukrainian SSR MVS included not only the militsiya, but also the republican branch of non-police services, such as passport and registration offices, Internal Troops and prison service (including the Chief Directorate of Camps (GULAG) and fire and rescue services. The Soviet Internal Troops in Ukraine were directly subordinated to its separate central command within the Soviet Ministry of Internal Affairs, except for a short period in the 1960s; the same is true of prison administration.

Among the Internal Troops units operating in Ukraine from the 1960s were:[7]

  • 7th (Kiev), 16th (Lvov), 17th (Odessa), 18th, 20th, and 93rd Convoy Brigades (Dnerpropetovsk);
  • 70th Independent Training Brigade VV MVD SSSR (ru:Войсковая часть (V/Ch) 3350, Zolochev, Lvov Oblast);
  • 10th, 50th, and 290th Motor Rifle Regiments of Operational Designation;
  • Five (motorised?) regiments of militsiya VV MVD SSSR;
  • Three convoy regiments;
  • Four (special troops?) regiments VV MVD SSSR;
  • Ten independent special (motorised?) battalions of militia
  • Five independent convoy battalions
  • Five (special troops?) battalions
  • Two other units

Ukrainian SSR's firefighters and militsiya, as well as the Soviet Internal Troops stationed in Ukraine, participated in the relief operation after the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear disaster; at least 749 MVS servicepersons were decorated for that effort.[8]

The Militsiya of Soviet Ukraine took part in politically motivated repressions against residents of the Ukrainian SSR. These crimes included the fabrication of charges against Ukrainian dissidents (such as Vyacheslav Chornovil), disrupting occasional mass protests against Soviet rule and the direct persecution of 'unacceptable' social and religious groups.

MVS of independent Ukraine[edit]

Post-Independence reformation and the Gongadze case[edit]

Police officers on parade in Kherson.

Since independence and before the 2004 Constitutional Reform, Ukraine's Minister of Internal Affairs was directly subordinate to the President of Ukraine (appointed by the President unilaterally), and a formal member of Ukraine's Cabinet of Ministers. Before the Orange Revolution, only militsiya Generals (not civil statesmen), were appointed Ministers.

The Ukrainian militsiya has a significant record of law violation and human rights abuse. The most notorious case is the agency's involvement in the murder of journalist Georgiy Gongadze in 2000. Soon after Gongadze's disappearance, recordings of a Major Melnychenko were revealed. A fragment of the recorded conversations portrayed MVS Minister Kravchenko promising President Kuchma to "take care" of the oppositional journalist. According to the recordings, Kravchenko told Kuchma that he controls a special group of high-class detectives "without any morals, and ready to do anything".

Conscript soldiers of the Internal Troops' Militsiya Brigade patrol main Khreschatyk Street in central Kiev

The decapitated and disfigured body of Gongadze was found later in a forest, and a long-lasting investigation started. In 2005, soon after the Orange Revolution, the first results of the case appeared. Three members of the MVS detective squad were charged with the abduction and murder of Gongadze. An international warrant was issued for their chief, General Oleksiy Pukach, who was supposedly hiding abroad. In March 2005, ex-Minister Kravchenko, the main participant of the case, was found shot in the head (supposedly by his own hand). Later, in September 2010, Ukraine's Office of the Prosecutor General issued a statement stating that prosecutors had concluded that Kravchenko had ordered Pukach to carry out the murder and that Pukach had confessed to the murder.[9]

In the Melnychen recordings, the hitmen group was called "orly" Ukrainian: орли (literally "eagles") by the Minister. (Orly here is not a proper name, but a traditional Russian common name for brave and skillful soldiers). The phrase "Orly of Kravchenko", became a symbol of lawlessness and brutality in Ukrainian law enforcement.

On 29 January 2013 a Ukrainian court ruled Oleksiy Pukach had murdered Gongadze on orders from Kravchenko, who was seeking a career promotion.[10]

MVS and the UBK campaign[edit]

In 2000-2001, the MVS was trying to tackle Ukraine without Kuchma (Ukrainian abbreviation: UBK) a mass protest campaign against President Leonid Kuchma, using various methods: from direct attacks to infiltration of provocateurs. The final confrontation took place on 9 March 2001 on the central streets of Kiev, including clashes between protesters and anti-riot units, and mass arrests of youngsters in the city.

MVS during the Orange Revolution and since[edit]

A girl attaches flowers to Kiev riot militisya officers' shields during the Orange Revolution.

During the 2004 election and the Orange Revolution, the MVS did not confront the opposition protests, although media sources claim that respective orders were given to its anti-riot units by senior commanders and leaders of the country. Protesters and the Berkut clashed in the city of Chernihiv, but both sides agreed that they were incidental and provoked by unknown forces. The opposition also accused the militsiya of involvement in attempted electoral fraud that occurred at polling stations.

In February 2005, after the revolution, as part of the post-election democratic changes, President Viktor Yushchenko appointed Yuriy Lutsenko as the new Minister of Internal Affairs. Unlike his predecessors, Lutsenko was a career politician and had never served in the militsiya or any other law enforcement agency. As one of the main figures in the Socialist Party of Ukraine, Lutsenko participated in several protest campaigns and conflicts with the militsiya. The new minister demanded resignations from those officers involved in racketeering, taking a significant step towards the establishment of civilian control over the Ukrainian militia.

In January 2006, Minister Lutsenko claimed that the MVS was in possession of evidence that would allow them to question and charge ex-President Leonid Kuchma in a privatization wrongdoing case, but that the MVS did not have the authority to start such a case autonomously. Later, according to 2004 constitutional amendments that took effect after the 2006 parliamentary elections, the minister was nominated by the Prime Minister and appointed by the Verkhovna Rada (parliament), without formal influence of the President. Thus Yuriy Lutsenko, the Minister at the time, who was previously appointed under the old procedure, was reappointed, thereby becoming the first-ever MVS Minister to be agreed upon by the parliamentary coalition and appointed by parliament.

On 1 December 2006, Verkhovna Rada dismissed Lutsenko and appointed Vasyl Tsushko of the Socialist Party as the new Minister. Like his predecessor, Tsushko was also a civil politician (and previously a vineyard manager), not connected to the militsiya before his appointment. Additionally, Tsushko was the first-ever MVS Minister not subordinated to the President. However, in 2007 Lutsenko returned to the post of minister and remained until the elections that brought Viktor Yanukovych to power in 2010. After Yanukovych's election, Anatolii Mohyliov was appointed to the minister's position; he is a career militia officer and currently holds the rank of Colonel General of the militsiya. Vitaliy Zakharchenko succeeded him in November 2011.[11][12]

Recent developments[edit]

Officers and a patrol car of the DAI, the Militsiya's traffic corps, at work in central Kiev.
Two officers of the 'ДАI', (Militsiya traffic corps) at work in Odessa. Note: the French-style kepi worn by the officers is part of the traditional summer uniform for the Militsiya in some of Ukraine's southern oblasts.

In May 2007, the ongoing political crisis in Ukraine lead to a jurisdictional dispute over the country's Internal Troops. Following minor political clashes involving the militsiya and presidential security forces, President Viktor Yuschenko issued a decree re-subordinating Internal Troops from the Ministry of Internal Affairs directly to the President. The MVS criticized both the decree and the subsequent troop movements. Both sides in the political crisis avoided further clashes between law enforcers. Internal Troops, as well as all militsiya units returned to their routine tasks and re-established practical co-ordination. However, the legal dispute over Internal Troops remained unsolved. The Troops command declared its subordination to the President, according to the decree which is currently being appealed in court by the Cabinet of Ministers.

On 10 October 2008 officers from the Security Service of Ukraine detained deputy platoon commander of the Kharkiv city division patrol and inspection service regiment of the Main Interior Affairs Ministry Directorate in Kharkiv region on suspicion of pushing narcotics.[13]

According to the head of the law enforcement trade union Anatolii Onyschuk, sociologic research shows that 3.9% of the Ukrainian militiamen trust the state, while 67.7% distrusted the state.[13]

MVS units are heavily involved in the crackdown of the ongoing 2013 Euromaidan protest campaign, which escalated into revolution after violent November 30 dispersal of a peaceful protest in Kiev. Some MVS (first of all, the Berkut anti-riot units) are widely reported as unlawful and inhumane during the protests, others (namely the Internal Troops) sustained heavy casualties from protesters' attacks but refrained from returning violence, while the rest are known to either oppress the protesters without violence or even help them in a random manner. This did not end the protests.[14]

Transportation[edit]

Traffic police officers and their patrol vehicle.

The Ukrainian militsiya uses a number of different models of automobile which range greatly in age and technical specification.

Current patrol fleet[edit]

Patrol Cars[edit]

Vans[edit]

All Terrain Vehicles[edit]

Ministers of Internal Affairs of Ukraine[edit]

Minister of Internal Affairs of Ukraine
Міністр внутрішніх справ України
Lesser Coat of Arms of Ukraine.svg
Incumbent
Arsen Avakov (politician) (acting)

since February 22, 2014
Appointer President of Ukraine
Term length Duration of the presidential term (5 years) or less due to earlier resignation or dismissal by the President
Inaugural holder Andriy Vasylyshyn
Formation August 24, 1991
Succession First Deputy Minister

The Ministry of Internal Affairs is headed by a minister who is also recognised as head of the national (state) police service, the militsiya. Many former ministers have previously had experience of serving in the police, and many were, prior to taking up their posts, generals of the militsiya. Typically the minister of internal affairs afforded the rank of Colonel General of Militsiya upon taking up his post in the Ukrainian Cabinet. Yuriy Lutsenko and Vasyl Tsushko are the only former holders of the office who had never served in any law enforcement agency.

Yuriy Lutsenko was the first civilian Minister of Internal Affairs.
List of Ministers of Internal Affairs of Ukraine
Name From Until President Notes
Andriy Vasylyshyn August 24, 1991 July 21, 1994 Leonid Kravchuk First post-independence minister
Volodymyr Radchenko July 28, 1994 July 3, 1995 Leonid Kuchma Acting July 21–28, 1994
Yuriy Kravchenko July 3, 1995 March 26, 2001 Leonid Kuchma Involved in 'Eagles of Kravchenko' case
Yuriy Smirnov March 26, 2001 August 27, 2003 Leonid Kuchma
Mykola Bilokon August 27, 2003 February 3, 2005 Leonid Kuchma
Yuriy Lutsenko February 4, 2005 December 1, 2006 Viktor Yushchenko First civilian minister
Vasyl Tsushko December 1, 2006 December 18, 2007 Viktor Yushchenko First minister never directly subordinate to the president
Yuriy Lutsenko December 18, 2007 January 28, 2010 Viktor Yushchenko Acting January 28-March 11, 2010[15][16] In May 2009 first deputy (Interior) Minister Mykhailo Kliuyev served as acting Minister during a seven day investigation.[17][18] After that Lutsenko resumed the post.[19]
Anatoliy Mohyliov March 11, 2010 November 7, 2011[11] Viktor Yanukovich First post-Orange revolution minister
Vitaliy Zakharchenko November 7, 2011[12] February 21, 2014.[20] Viktor Yanukovich Former head of the State Tax Service of Ukraine[12]
Arsen Avakov February 27, 2014 Oleksandr Turchynov

The minister of Internal Affairs is responsible directly to the Prime Minister of Ukraine, to the Ukrainian Parliament (Verkhovna Rada) and ultimately the President of Ukraine. His office is located in Kiev's Pechersk District.

Rank structure[edit]

Cadet Officers Private Officers Non-commissioned Officers
Shoulder insignia
for every day uniform
Ukr Police cadet rank.png Ukr Policeman rank 1.jpg Ukr Police rank 3.jpg Ukr Police rank 4.jpg Ukr Police rank 5.jpg Ukr Police rank 6.jpg Ukr Police rank 6a.png Ukr Police rank 6b.png
Rank Cadet
of militsiya
Private
of militsiya
Junior sergeant
of militsiya
Sergeant
of militsiya
Senior sergeant
of militsiya
Starshina
of militsiya
Praporshchik
of militsiya
Senior praporshchik
of militsiya
Junior Commissioned Officers Senior Commissioned Officers General Officers
Shoulder insignia
for every day uniform
Ukr Police rank 7.png Ukr Police rank 8.png Ukr Police rank 9.png Ukr Police rank 10.png Ukr Police rank 11.png Ukr Police rank 12.png Ukr Police rank 13.png Ukr Police rank 14.png Ukr Police rank 15.png Ukr Police rank 16.png
Rank Junior lieutenant
of militsiya
Lieutenant
of militsiya
Senior lieutenant
of militsiya
Captain of
militsiya
Major of
militsiya
Lieutenant colonel
of militsiya
Colonel
of militsiya
Major General
of militsiya
Lieutenant General
of militsiya
Colonel General
of militsiya

Structure[edit]

The Ministry has 30 departments and three agencies that are subordinated to it. The Minister has up to eight deputies (other than his first deputy) that head the Ministry's main departments. Each region such as (autonomous republic, oblast, and cities with special status) has its own administration that mirrors all the departments of the central administration and works semi-independently and along with a regional office of the General Prosecutor of Ukraine.

A uniformed officer of the militsiya guards the German Embassy in Kiev during a non-violent political protest.
Motorcycle-mounted militsiya officers escort a car through central Kiev.
Water cannons of the militsiya.

The following is the list of the main departments of the Ministry. Departments headed by a deputy minister are identified in bold.

Departments of the Militsiya[edit]

The Following are constituent departments of the militsiya:

Leadership (consisting of the minister and his first deputy)
Office of Ministry (Department in monitoring of human rights in activities of OVS)
Advisers to the MVS
Deputy Minister - Chief of HUBOZ
  • Chief Department in the fight against the organized crime (HUBOZ)
  • Internal Security Service of HUBOZ
Deputy Minister - Chief of Criminal Militsiya (consists of at least nine subordinated departments)
Deputy Minister - Chief of Militsiya of Civil Security
  • Department of Civil Security
  • Department of the State Auto Inspection (DAI)
  • Department of Veterinary Militsiya in conducting quarantine in veterinary events
  • Department of State Security Service (formerly part of Militsiya of civil security, it is currently a separate department)
  • Department of transportation militsiya
Deputy Minister - Chief of HSU
  • Chief Detection Department
  • Department of Investigation (Inquiry)
  • State Science-Research Expert-Criminal Center
Deputy Minister - Chief of Staff (several independent departments and directorates which are primarily for administrative support)
Deputy Minister
  • Department of public relationship and international activity
  • State Department on issues of citizenship, immigration, and registration of physical persons
Deputy Minister
  • Supporting departments
Deputy Minister - Chief of MVS in Crimea
Service uniform sleeve insignia for uniformed officers
Branch Criminal Traffic Public Order State Security Service Berkut
Insignia MVS Public Order.jpg UA GAI Emblem.jpg MVS Public Order.jpg MVS Security Service.jpg Berkut emblem.png

Other departments of the ministry[edit]

Departments of the Ministry of Internal Affairs not directly related to the Ministry's role as a civilian law enforcement agency are:

  • GUVV - Chief Directorate of Internal Troops (special militarized department)
  • Control-revisionary directorate
  • Sub-Department of special communication
  • Department of documentary service and scheduling
  • Working office of the Ukrainian Bureau of Interpol (special department, formerly part of Criminal Militsiya)[21] (formerly under the Criminal Militsiya and HUBOZ)

State scientific research institute and higher educational institutions support the Chief of Staff.

Educational institutions of the Ministry[edit]

Two female officer cadets of the Militsiya (from Lviv State University of Interior) in Lviv.

Each university and institute often also has its own base program

  • Academy of Management
  • Kiev National University of Interior
  • Kharkiv National University of Interior
    • Kirovohrad campus (Legal institute)
    • Kherson campus (Legal institute)
      • Sumy city affiliation
  • Dnipropetrovsk State University of Interior
    • Zaporizhia campus (Legal institute)
      • Kryvyi Rih department
  • Luhansk State University of Interior of Didorenko
    • Donetsk campus (Legal institute) contains a scientifically-researching center of psycho-training technologies
  • Lviv State University of Interior
    • Prykarpattya campus (Legal institute)
  • Odessa State University of Interior
    • Crimea campus (Legal institute)

Deployment outside Ukraine[edit]

Deployments in various UN missions as of November 2009:

Criticism[edit]

According to Amnesty International, torture and ill-treatment by the militia is widespread in Ukraine.[5][2] This allegation was confirmed by President Viktor Yanukovych in December 2011.[3] Several militia officers were arrested in 2010 for allegedly torturing detainees.[4]

Some militia agents in Ukraine worked as racketeers and debt collectors.[23]

Overall the level of trust in the Ukrainian police and other law enforcement bodies is low.[24] In a 2012 poll, the police were positively assessed by 26%, and negatively by 64%.[24][nb 1]

In 2013 the Ukrainian police received the highest percentage among Ukrainians of having given a bribe too with 49%.[1] Simultaneous they considered (with 64%) its police as the second most corrupt sphere in the country.[1]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In a 2012 United Kingdom poll 79% said they trusted the police very or fairly strongly.;[25]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Transparency International Global Corruption Barometer: Ukraine has become more corrupt over the last two years, The Ukrainian Week (9 July 2013)
  2. ^ a b Ukraine: Victims of police brutality, Amnesty International USA (September 27, 2005)
    Amnesty International: Ukrainian police told not to touch foreign fans during Euro 2012, Kyiv Post (4 July 2012)
  3. ^ a b Yanukovych calling for greater control over detention facilities, Kyiv Post (15 December 2011)
  4. ^ a b Ukrainian Police Arrested For Alleged Torture, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (April 1, 2010)
  5. ^ a b Ukrainian Police-Abuse Protests Come To The Capital, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (17 July 2013)
  6. ^ (Ukrainian) Eneyida. Ivan Kotlyarevsky
  7. ^ http://www.soldat.ru, upravlenia vv 1968-91
  8. ^ У МВС вшанували учасників ліквідації наслідків аварії на ЧАЕС (ФОТО) (Ukrainian)
  9. ^ Ukraine Ex-Minister Ordered Journalist's Murder, Voice of America News.com (September 15, 2010)
  10. ^ Court sentences Pukach to life for murdering Gongadze, disregards claims against Kuchma, Lytvyn, Kyiv Post (29 January 2013)
    Ukraine police officer accuses ex-president after being jailed for life, Reuters (29 January 2013)
    Gongadze killer pointed on Kuchma and Lytvyn. "LIGABusinessInform". 2013-1-29
  11. ^ a b Yanukovych appoints Mohyliov to Crimean post, Kyiv Post (7 November 2011)
  12. ^ a b c Chief tax officer Zakharchenko appointed interior minister of Ukraine, Kyiv Post (7 November 2011)
  13. ^ a b "Ukranian News". Ukranews.com. Retrieved 2013-03-15. 
  14. ^ Live updates of the protests, Kyiv Post (27, 28 & 29 November 2013)
  15. ^ Lutsenko says he's calm about his dismissal, Kyiv Post (28 January 2010)
  16. ^ Regions Party: Kliuyev is legitimate head of Interior Ministry, Kyiv Post (1 February 2010)
  17. ^ Speaker:Lutsenko suspended as Ukraine's interior minister, Kyiv Post (May 18, 2009)
  18. ^ Kliuyev to serve as Ukraine's interior minister during Lutsenko's suspension from duty, Kyiv Post (May 16, 2009)
  19. ^ Lutsenko says he will resume fulfilling duties as interior minister, Kyiv Post (May 27, 2009)
  20. ^ Rada suspends Acting Interior Minister Zakharchenko from his duties, Interfax-Ukraine (21 February 2014)
  21. ^ Ukrainian bureau of Interpol at the Interpol website
  22. ^ a b c d e f g UN Mission's Contributions by Country for November 2009
  23. ^ The Chernihiv entrepreneur was abducted, beaten, and extorted for money. News television program "Vikna" (S-TV). 2013-1-28
  24. ^ a b Nations in Transit 2013: Ukraine, Freedom House (2012)
  25. ^ Police are twice as trusted as government, poll finds, theguardian.com (24 September 2012)

Further reading[edit]

  • Full collection of laws of the Russian Empire since 1649. Vol.5. Saint Petersburg, 1830. page 13. (Полное собрание законов Российской империи с 1649 г. - Спб., 1830. - Т. 5. - С. 13)

External links[edit]