Ministry of National Defense (Chile)

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Logo of the Ministry of National Defense
Flag of the Minister of National Defense

The Ministry of National Defense (Spanish: Ministerio de Defensa Nacional) is the cabinet-level administrative office in charge of "maintaining the independence and sovereignty" of Chile. It is also charged with planning, directing, coordinating, executing, controlling and informing the defense policies formulated by the President of Chile. The minister supervises all the Chilean armed forces. The current Defense Minister is Jorge Burgos.

History[edit]

During the first days of the independence movements, the senior "secretary" of the respective Junta would function as the Secretary of Government with administrative power over the army. The office officially first came to be on March 17, 1814, when then Supreme Director Francisco de la Lastra dictated the Constitutional Norms approved on that date. It was then named Secretariat of War. It was abolished the same year by the Spanish authorities when, after the Battle of Rancagua, they re-asserted royal power.

On October 23, 1818, after independence the secretariat was re-established, but this time with the inclusion of the Department of Navy as a "Secretariat of War and Navy" (1818-1837), though in common usage, the secretaries started to be called ministers when they held both secretariats (War and Navy) concurrently. Later on February 1, 1837 the office was officially renamed "Ministry of War and Navy" (1837-1932). In 1924, War and Navy were separated into two independent ministries, but on July 8, 1932 both branches were reunited again into one ministry renamed "Ministry of Defense", with the addition of the department of Aviation that had belonged to the Ministry of the Interior until that date.

On October 28, 1947, by Decree 2.320, it fell under the purview of this ministry the control of the Supreme Command of National Defense, the General Staff of the Armed Forces, the Central Purchasing Committee of the Armed Forces, the Civil Defense Forces and the Chilean chapter of the Red Cross. In 1960, the oversight was expanded to include the Superior Council on National Security (Consusena) and the Council of Commanders-in-Chief. According to Decree 200 of April 15, 1976, the oversight was again expanded to include the National Police (Carabineros and Investigaciones).

As indicated before, this ministry has undergone several reorganizations during its long history, reflected in its different names:

  • Secretariat of War (1814)
  • Secretariat of War and Navy (1818-1831)
  • Ministry of War and Navy (1831-1924)
  • Ministry of War and Ministry of Navy (1924-1932)
  • Ministry of National Defense - First Creation (1932)
  • Ministry of War and Aviation and Ministry of Navy (1932)
  • Ministry of National Defense - Second Creation (1932–present)

Organization[edit]

The main dependencies of the Ministry are:

  • Undersecretary of Defense: in charge of the defence policy
  • Undersecretary of the Armed Forces in charge of the administratives duties
  • Joint Staff Command

Titulars[edit]

Patria Vieja period[edit]

Picture Name Entered Office Exited Office Notes Appointed by
Andrés Nicolás de Orjera March 14, 1814 July 23, 1814 Secretary of War Francisco de la Lastra
MRodriguezE.jpg Manuel Rodríguez Erdoyza August 10, 1814 October 2, 1814 Secretary of War Government Junta

Ministers of War and Navy[edit]

Picture Name Entered Office Exited Office Notes Appointed by
JIgnacioZenteno.jpg José Ignacio Zenteno del Pozo February 18, 1817 October 8, 1820 Bernardo O'Higgins
José Antonio Rodríguez Aldea October 8, 1820 January 7, 1823 Secretary of War
Joaquín Echeverría Larraín January 28, 1823 Secretary of Navy
Fernando Elizalde January 7, 1823 Secretary of War
AgustinVialSantelices.jpg Agustín Vial Santelices January 28, 1823 April 4, 1823 Secretary of War Government Junta
MEgana.jpg Mariano Egaña Fabres Secretary of Navy
Juan de Dios Rivera April 4, 1823 July 12, 1824 Ramón Freire
Santiago Fernández Barriga July 12, 1824 February 22, 1825
José Ignacio Eyzaguirre Arechavala February 22, 1825 June 18, 1825 Secretary of War
FRVicuna.jpg Francisco Ramón Vicuña Larraín Secretary of Navy
Rafael Correa de Saa Lazón June 18, 1825 October 9, 1825 Secretary of War
Juan de Dios Vial del Río Secretary of Navy
José María Novoa López October 9, 1825 June 21, 1826
Tomás Obejero June 21, 1826 September 26, 1826 Interim
LdelaCruz.jpg Luis de la Cruz y Goyeneche September 26, 1826 March 8, 1827 Agustín Eyzaguirre
José Manuel Borgoño Núñez y Silva March 8, 1827 July 16, 1829 Ramón Freire
José Santiago Muñoz Bezanilla July 16, 1829 November 9, 1829 Francisco Ramón Vicuña
José Antonio Pérez de Cotapos November 9, 1829 December 7, 1829
José María Benavente.jpg José María Benavente Bustamante February 20, 1830 September 25, 1830 Appointed by Francisco Ruiz-Tagle
Reappointed by José Tomás Ovalle
JoseMariaCruz.jpg José María de la Cruz Prieto September 25, 1830 March 24, 1831 Appointed by
Reappointed by Fernando Errázuriz
DPortalesP.jpg Diego Portales Palazuelos March 24, 1831 August 31, 1831 Appointed by
Reappointed by José Joaquín Prieto
Bartolomé Mujica August 31, 1831 September 19, 1831 Secretary of War
Manuel José Calderón Secretary of Navy
DPortalesP.jpg Diego Portales Palazuelos September 19, 1831 December 4, 1832
Ramón de la Cavareda Trucíos December 4, 1832 April 21, 1835
DPortalesP.jpg Diego Portales Palazuelos April 21, 1835 June 7, 1836
Ramón de la Cavareda Trucíos June 7, 1836 March 27, 1841
MMonttTorres.jpg Manuel Montt Torres March 27, 1841 September 18, 1841 Interim
JoseMariaCruz.jpg José María de la Cruz Prieto September 18, 1841 April 20, 1842 Manuel Bulnes
JSAldunate.jpg José Santiago Aldunate Toro April 20, 1842 September 18, 1846
José Manuel Borgoño Núñez September 18, 1846 April 8, 1848
Pedro Nolasco Vidal April 8, 1848 September 18, 1851
JFGanaLopez.png José Francisco Gana September 18, 1851 January 13, 1853 Manuel Montt
Pedro Nolasco Vidal January 13, 1853 September 18, 1856
JFGanaLopez.png José Francisco Gana September 18, 1856 September 29, 1857
Manuel García Banqueda September 29, 1857 July 9, 1862 Appointed by
Reappointed by José Joaquín Pérez
Marcos Maturana del Campo.jpg Marcos Maturana del Campo July 9, 1862 March 30, 1865
José Manuel Pinto Arias March 30, 1865 September 8, 1866
FedericoErrazuriz.JPG Federico Errázuriz Zañartu September 8, 1866 November 13, 1868
Francisco Echaurren García-Huidobro November 13, 1868 August 2, 1870
José Ramón Lira Calvo August 2, 1870 September 18, 1871
AnibalPinto.jpg Aníbal Pinto Garmendia September 18, 1871 April 3, 1875 Federico Errázuriz Zañartu
IgnacioZentenoGana.jpg Ignacio Zenteno Gana April 3, 1875 April 19, 1875
MSanchezFontecilla.jpg Mariano Sánchez Fontecilla April 19, 1875 September 18, 1876
BPratsPerez.jpg Belisario Prats Pérez September 18, 1876 October 27, 1877 Aníbal Pinto
Manuel García de la Huerta Pérez October 27, 1877 August 5, 1878
CSaavedraRodriguez.jpg Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez August 5, 1878 April 17, 1879
Basilio Urrutia Vásquez April 17, 1879 August 20, 1879
RSotomayorBaeza.jpg Rafael Sotomayor Baeza August 20, 1879 June 16, 1880
ELillo.jpg Eusebio Lillo Robles June 16, 1880 July 15, 1880
JoseFranciscoVergara.jpg José Francisco Vergara Donoso July 15, 1880 September 18, 1881
CCastellonL.jpg Carlos Castellón Larenas September 18, 1881 January 18, 1884 Domingo Santa María
PLynch.jpg Patricio Lynch y Solo de Zaldívar January 18, 1884 May 7, 1884
CarlosAntunez.jpg Carlos Antúnez González May 7, 1884 September 18, 1886
Evaristo Sánchez Fontecilla September 18, 1886 November 30, 1886 José Manuel Balmaceda
Nicolás Peña Vicuña November 30, 1886 June 28, 1887
Manuel García de la Huerta Pérez June 28, 1887 April 13, 1888
Evaristo Sánchez Fontecilla April 13, 1888 November 2, 1888
Ramón Donoso Vergara.jpg Ramón Donoso Vergara November 2, 1888 May 1, 1889
José Miguel Valdés Carrera May 1, 1889 June 11, 1889
Abraham König Velásquez June 11, 1889 October 23, 1889
IsmaelValdesValdes.jpg Ismael Valdés Valdés October 23, 1889 November 7, 1889
LBarrosBorgono.jpg Luis Barros Borgoño November 7, 1889 January 21, 1890
JVelasquezB.jpg José Velásquez Bórquez January 21, 1890 August 7, 1890
FErrazurizEchaurren.jpg Federico Errázuriz Echaurren August 7, 1890 October 15, 1890
José Francisco Gana Castro October 15, 1890 March 29, 1891
JVelasquezB.jpg José Velásquez Bórquez March 29, 1891 August 29, 1891
Adolfo Holley.jpg Adolfo Holley Urzúa September 7, 1891 December 26, 1891 Revolutionary Junta of Iquique
Ventura Blanco Viel December 26, 1891 March 14, 1892 Jorge Montt
LBarrosBorgono.jpg Luis Barros Borgoño March 14, 1892 July 9, 1892
Luis Arteaga July 9, 1892 September 22, 1892
FranciscoAntonioPintoCruz.jpg Francisco Antonio Pinto Cruz September 22, 1892 April 22, 1893
Isidoro Errázuriz April 22, 1893 August 8, 1893
Manuel Villamil Blanco August 8, 1893 October 6, 1893
Juan Antonio Orrego October 6, 1893 April 26, 1894
Santiago Aldunate Bascuñan April 26, 1894 December 7, 1894
Carlos Rivera Jofré December 7, 1894 August 1, 1895
IsmaelValdesValdes.jpg Ismael Valdés Valdés August 1, 1895 November 24, 1895
LBarrosBorgono.jpg Luis Barros Borgoño November 24, 1895 September 18, 1896
MBulnesPinto.jpg Manuel Bulnes Pinto September 18, 1896 November 26, 1896 Federico Errázuriz Echaurren
EFernandezAlbano.jpg Elías Fernández Albano November 26, 1896 June 26, 1897
Benjamín Vergara June 26, 1897 August 25, 1897
Carlos Palacios Zapata August 25, 1897 December 23, 1897
Patricio Larraín Alcalde December 23, 1897 May 5, 1898
VenturaBlancoViel.jpg Ventura Blanco Viel May 5, 1898 December 19, 1898
CarlosConchaSubercaseaux.jpg Carlos Concha Subercaseaux December 19, 1898 June 27, 1899
JavierAngelFigueroa.jpg Javier Angel Figueroa Larraín June 27, 1899 September 2, 1899
CarlosConchaSubercaseaux.jpg Carlos Concha Subercaseaux September 2, 1899 November 27, 1899
Ricardo Matte Pérez November 27, 1899 November 3, 1900
ArturoBesaNavarro.jpg Arturo Besa Navarro November 3, 1900 March 14, 1901
Vicente Palacios Baeza March 14, 1901 May 1, 1901
Wenceslao Bulnes May 1, 1901 September 18, 1901
BeltranMathieuAndrews.jpg Beltrán Mathieu Andrews September 18, 1901 May 6, 1902 Germán Riesco
Víctor Manuel Lamas May 6, 1902 November 20, 1902
Francisco Baeza November 20, 1902 April 4, 1903
Ricardo Matte Pérez April 4, 1903 September 1, 1903
Carlos Besa Navarro September 1, 1903 October 23, 1903
Luis Barros Méndez October 23, 1903 January 10, 1904
AnibalCruzDiaz.jpg Aníbal Cruz Díaz January 10, 1904 March 12, 1904
AscanioBascunan.jpg Ascanio Bascuñan Santa María March 12, 1904 April 12, 1904
Joaquín Muñoz Hurtado April 12, 1904 October 30, 1904
AscanioBascunan.jpg Ascanio Bascuñan Santa María October 30, 1904 March 18, 1905
Ramón Corvalán Melgarejo March 18, 1905 August 1, 1905
LUribeO.jpg Luis Uribe Orrego August 1, 1905 October 21, 1905
Manuel Fóster Recabarren October 21, 1905 March 19, 1906
Manuel Covarrubias March 19, 1906 May 7, 1906
Salvador Vergara May 7, 1906 September 18, 1906
Belisario Prats Bello September 18, 1906 October 29, 1906 Pedro Montt
José Francisco Fabres October 29, 1906 June 12, 1907
Alejandro Lira June 12, 1907 October 25, 1907
Belisario Prats Bello October 25, 1907 August 29, 1908
AnibalRodriguez.jpg Aníbal Rodríguez Herrera August 29, 1908 January 22, 1909
DZañartuRio.jpg Darío Zañartu del Río January 22, 1909 June 15, 1909
Roberto Huneeus Gana June 15, 1909 September 15, 1909
AnibalRodriguez.jpg Aníbal Rodríguez Herrera September 15, 1909 June 25, 1910
Carlos Larraín Claro June 25, 1910 December 23, 1910
Arístides Pinto Concha December 23, 1910 January 11, 1911 Ramón Barros Luco
Ramón León Luco January 11, 1911 July 11, 1911
AnibalRodriguez.jpg Aníbal Rodríguez Herrera July 11, 1911 August 15, 1911
AlejandroHuneeus.jpg Alejandro Huneeus García-Huidobro August 15, 1911 January 23, 1912
Alejandro Rosselot January 23, 1912 May 29, 1912
Luis Devoto May 29, 1912 August 8, 1912
Claudio Vicuña Subercaseaux August 8, 1912 January 13, 1913
JMatteGormaz.jpg Jorge Matte Gormaz January 13, 1913 November 16, 1913
Ramón Corvalán Melgarejo November 16, 1913 September 6, 1914
Alfredo Barros Errázuriz September 6, 1914 December 15, 1914
Ricardo Cox Méndez December 15, 1914 June 7, 1915
Guillermo Soublette June 7, 1915 December 23, 1915
Salvador Vergara December 23, 1915 January 8, 1916 Juan Luis Sanfuentes
CornelioSaavedraMontt.jpg Cornelio Saavedra Montt January 8, 1916 July 1, 1916
JBoonen.jpg Jorge Boonen Rivera July 1, 1916 November 20, 1916
Oscar Urzúa Jaramillo November 20, 1916 July 14, 1917
Pedro Nicolás Montenegro July 14, 1917 October 13, 1917
Oscar Viel Cavero October 13, 1917 January 18, 1918
Luis Vicuña Cifuentes January 18, 1918 April 22, 1918
Jorge Valdivieso Blanco April 22, 1918 September 6, 1918
Víctor Robles September 6, 1918 November 28, 1918
EBermudezPaz.jpg Enrique Bermúdez de la Paz November 28, 1918 September 23, 1919
AnibalRodriguez.jpg Aníbal Rodríguez Herrera September 23, 1919 November 8, 1919
Germán Ignacio Riesco Errázuriz November 8, 1919 March 29, 1920
Régulo Valenzuela March 29, 1920 June 16, 1920
Pedro Opazo.jpg Pedro Opazo Letelier June 16, 1920 July 1, 1920
LErrazurizLazcano.jpg Ladislao Errázuriz Lazcano July 1, 1920 December 23, 1920
Carlos Silva Cruz December 23, 1920 May 12, 1921 Arturo Alessandri
Enrique Balmaceda Toro May 12, 1921 August 16, 1921
Remigio Medina August 16, 1921 November 3, 1921
Samuel Claro Lastarria November 3, 1921 March 22, 1922
Ignacio Marchant Scott March 22, 1922 April 1, 1922
Roberto Sánchez García de la Huerta April 1, 1922 August 29, 1922
Hernán Correa Roberts August 29, 1922 December 21, 1922
José Onofre Bunster Villagra December 21, 1922 January 12, 1923
Gustavo Silva Campo January 12, 1923 March 16, 1923
Jorge Andrés Guerra March 16, 1923 June 15, 1923
Altamirano.jpg Luis Altamirano Talavera June 15, 1923 January 4, 1924
Alfredo Ewing January 4, 1924 February 1, 1924
Luis Brieba February 1, 1924 July 22, 1924
Luis Gaspar Mora Sotomayor July 22, 1924 September 5, 1924
JuanPabloBennett.jpg Juan Pablo Bennett Argandoña September 5, 1924 September 11, 1924
LuisGomezCarreno.jpg Luis Gómez Carreño September 12, 1924 December 19, 1924 September Junta

Ministers of War[edit]

Picture Name Entered Office Exited Office Notes Appointed by
Emiliano Ortiz Vega December 19, 1924 January 23, 1925 September Junta
CarlosIbanezDC.jpg Carlos Ibáñez del Campo January 29, 1925 February 22, 1927 January Junta
Emiliano Ortiz Vega February 22, 1927 May 23, 1927 Emiliano Figueroa
Carlos Frödden Lorenzen May 23, 1927 June 21, 1927 Minister of National Defense Carlos Ibáñez del Campo
BBlanche.jpg Bartolomé Blanche Espejo June 21, 1927 November 7, 1930
PedroCharpin.png Pedro Charpin Rival November 7, 1930 July 26, 1931
Carlos Sáez Morales July 26, 1931 August 14, 1931 Appointed by Pedro Opazo
Reappointed by Juan Esteban Montero
Enrique Bravo Ortiz August 14, 1931 September 3, 1931
Carlos Vergara Montero September 3, 1931 March 5, 1932 Manuel Trucco

Ministers of Navy[edit]

Picture Name Entered Office Exited Office Notes Appointed by
LuisGomezCarreno.jpg Luis Gómez Carreño December 19, 1924 January 23, 1925 September Junta
Braulio Bahamonde January 29, 1925 December 23, 1925 January Junta
Arturo Swett Otaegui December 23, 1925 February 22, 1927 Emiliano Figueroa
Carlos Frödden Lorenzen February 22, 1927 May 23, 1927
May 23, 1927 June 21, 1927 Minister of National Defense Carlos Ibáñez del Campo
June 21, 1927 August 5, 1930
Edgardo von Schröeders Sarratea August 5, 1930 April 27, 1931
Hipólito Marchant Morales April 27, 1931 July 26, 1931
Calisto Rogers Ceas July 26, 1931 September 3, 1931 Appointed by Pedro Opazo
Reappointed by Juan Esteban Montero
Enrique Spoerer Jardel September 3, 1931 March 5, 1932 Manuel Trucco

Ministers of National Defense (First Creation)[edit]

Picture Name Entered Office Exited Office Notes Appointed by
Miguel Urrutia Barboza March 9, 1932 April 7, 1932 Juan Esteban Montero
Ignacio Urrutia Manzano April 7, 1932 June 4, 1932
Marmaduque Grove.jpg Marmaduque Grove Vallejo June 5, 1932 June 17, 1932 Socialist Junta
APugaOsorio.jpg Arturo Puga Osorio June 17, 1932 July 8, 1932

Ministers of War and Aviation[edit]

Picture Name Entered Office Exited Office Notes Appointed by
Pedro Lagos Lagos July 8, 1932 September 14, 1932 Carlos Dávila
Luis Otero Mujica September 14, 1932 October 3, 1932 Bartolomé Blanche
Carlos Sáez Morales October 3, 1932 December 24, 1932 Abraham Oyanedel

Ministers of Navy[edit]

Picture Name Entered Office Exited Office Notes Appointed by
Francisco Nieto July 8, 1932 August 12, 1932 Carlos Dávila
Alberto Barbosa Baeza August 12, 1932 August 13, 1932
José Manuel Montalva Barrientos August 13, 1932 October 3, 1932
Arturo Swett Otaegui October 3, 1932 December 24, 1932 Abraham Oyanedel

Ministers of National Defense (Second Creation)[edit]

Picture Name Entered Office Exited Office Notes Appointed by
EmilioBelloCodesido.jpg Emilio Bello Codecido December 24, 1932 April 9, 1938 Arturo Alessandri
Francisco Garcés Gana April 9, 1938 September 25, 1938 Interim
EmilioBelloCodesido.jpg Emilio Bello Codecido September 25, 1938 December 24, 1938
Alberto Cabero Díaz December 24, 1938 April 13, 1939 Pedro Aguirre Cerda
Guillermo Labarca Hubertson April 13, 1939 December 26, 1939
Alfredo Duhalde Vásquez.jpg Alfredo Duhalde Vásquez December 26, 1939 October 24, 1940
Juvenal Hernández Jaque October 24, 1940 June 10, 1941
Carlos Valdovinos Valdovinos June 10, 1941 November 21, 1941
Juvenal Hernández Jaque November 21, 1941 April 2, 1942 Jerónimo Méndez
Alfredo Duhalde Vásquez.jpg Alfredo Duhalde Vásquez April 2, 1942 1944 Juan Antonio Ríos
Oscar Escudero Otarola 1944 1945
Arnaldo Carrasco 1945 1946
Manuel Bulnes Sanfuentes 1946 April, 1947 Gabriel González Videla
Juvenal Hernández Jaque April, 1947 August, 1947
GBarriosTirado.png Guillermo Barrios Tirado August, 1947 November 3, 1952
Abdón Parra November 3, 1952 1954 Carlos Ibáñez del Campo
Tobías Barros Ortiz 1954 1955
Benjamín Videla 1955 1955
Francisco O'Ryan Orrego 1955 1957
Adrián Barrientos 1957 November 3, 1958
Luis Vidal Vargas November 3, 1958 1958 Jorge Alessandri
Carlos Vidal 1958 1961
Joaquín Fernández y Fernández 1961 1961
Julio Pereira 1961 1963
Carlos Vidal 1963 November 3, 1964
Juan De Dios Carmona November 3, 1964 1969 Eduardo Frei Montalva
Tulio Marambio 1969 1970
Sergio Ossa Pretot 1970 November 3, 1970
Alejandro Ríos Valdivia November 3, 1970 January 7, 1972 Salvador Allende
José Tohá.jpg José Tohá González January 7, 1972 July 5, 1973
Clodomiro Almeyda BCN.jpg Clodomiro Almeyda Medina July 5, 1973 August 9, 1973
Carlosprats.PNG Carlos Prats González August 9, 1973 August 23, 1973
Orlando Letelier, Washingron DC, 1976 (de Marcelo Montecino).jpg Orlando Letelier Del Solar August 28, 1973 September 11, 1973
Patricio Carvajal.jpg Patricio Carvajal Prado September 11, 1973 1974 Augusto Pinochet
Oscar Bonilla Bradánovich 1974 1975
Hermán Brady Roche 1975 1978
César Benavides.jpg César Raúl Benavides 1978 1980
Carlos Forestier Hansen 1980 1982
Washington Carrasco Fernández 1982 1983
Patricio Carvajal.jpg Patricio Carvajal Prado 1983 March 11, 1990
Patricio Rojas Saavedra March 11, 1990 March 11, 1994 Patricio Aylwin
EPerezYoma.jpg Edmundo Pérez Yoma March 11, 1994 1998 Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle
JoseFlorencioGuzman.jpg José Florencio Guzmán 1998 1998
RTroncoso.jpg Raúl Troncoso Castillo 1998 1999
EPerezYoma.jpg Edmundo Pérez Yoma 1999 March 11, 2000
MFernandez.jpg Mario Fernández Baeza March 11, 2000 January 7, 2002 Ricardo Lagos
MBacheletJ.jpg Michelle Bachelet Jeria January 7, 2002 October 1, 2004
Jaime Ravinet.jpg Jaime Ravinet De La Fuente October 1, 2004 March 11, 2006
Vivianne Blanlot Soza March 11, 2006 March 27, 2007 Michelle Bachelet
Jose Goni 080408-N-2855B-062 0ZK4F.jpg José Goñi March 27, 2007 March 12, 2009
Francisco Vidal.jpg Francisco Vidal Salinas March 12, 2009 March 11, 2010
Jaime Ravinet.jpg Jaime Ravinet de la Fuente March 11, 2010 January 16, 2011 Sebastián Piñera
Andrés Allamand Zavala.jpg Andrés Allamand Zavala January 16, 2011 November 5, 2012
Rodrigo Hinzpeter.jpg Rodrigo Hinzpeter November 5, 2012 March 11, 2014
Jorge Burgos Varela, ministro de defensa.jpg Jorge Burgos March 11, 2014 Incumbent Michelle Bachelet

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • República de Chile (1942). "VI. Poder Ejecutivo - Nómina de Gobernantes, Presidentes y Ministros desde la Independencia.". Manual del Senado. 1810-1942 (in Spanish). Santiago de Chile: Imprenta Universitaria.  (Spanish)
  • Valencia Avaria, Luis (1986). Anales de la República: textos constitucionales de Chile y registro de los ciudadanos que han integrado los poderes ejecutivo y legislativo desde 1810 (in Spanish) (2ª edición ed.). Santiago de Chile: Editorial Andrés Bello.  (Spanish)

External links[edit]