Minority interpretations of quantum mechanics
|This article relies too much on references to primary sources. (April 2012)|
Quantum mechanics is an important field within physics. It is primarily defined by its mathematical formalism. It differs from the ordinary field theories of physics, in that its mathematical formalism refers not to ordinary physical space-time, but rather to an abstract space called configuration space, which does not yield ordinary visualizable pictures of space-time and causal linkage. Moreover, it rests on the postulate of the quantum, that some of the real facts of Nature are discrete or discontinuous. This entails that the 'gaps' in between are unknowable. The result is that ordinary physical intuition sees apparent paradoxes in quantum mechanics. This has led to various "interpretations" within the scientific community, some having more academic following than others. Below is a list of approaches which, independently of their intrinsic value, remain today less known, or are simply less debated by the scientific community, for different reasons.
- Calogero conjecture
- Landé Interpretation
- Time-symmetric interpretations such as the Two-state vector formalism 
- Pondicherry Interpretation
- London (Ticker Tape) Interpretation
- Theory of Incomplete Measurements
- Montevideo Interpretation
- Quantum Bayesianism
- Synchronized Chaos Interpretation
- Vaxjo Interpretation 
- Dimensional Theory 
- Intrinsic Quantum State Interpretation 
- Cosmological Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, proposed by Anthony Aguirre and Max Tegmark
- Popper's interpretation
- Zitterbewegung interpretation 
- Elementary cycles. The idea at the base of this interpretation is the empirical fact that, as noted by Louis de Broglie with the wave–particle duality, elementary particles have recurrences in time and space determined by their energy and momentum through the Planck constant. This implies that every system in nature can be described in terms of elementary space-time cycles. These recurrences are imposed as semiclassical quantization conditions, similarly to the quantization of a particle in a box. The resulting cyclic mechanics are formally equivalent to both the canonical formulation and Feynman formulation of quantum mechanics, for reviews see  It is an evolution of the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization or the zitterbewegung and suggests that quantum mechanics emerges as statistical description of extremely fast periodic dynamics, as proposed by 't Hooft Determinism. The idea has originated applications in modern physics, such as a geometrical description of gauge invariance  and an interpretation of the Maldacena duality.
- Hidden-measurements interpretation. This is a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics which explains the measurement process by assuming that there are fluctuations in the way the measuring system interacts with the measured entity. According to this interpretation, the quantum probabilities, and the associated Born rule, find their origin in a condition of lack of knowledge about which specific measurement-interaction takes place (i.e., is actualized) each time a measurement is executed.
- Interpretation of quantum mechanics (list of more mainstream theories)
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