Minuscule 234

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New Testament manuscripts
Minuscule 234
Name Codex Havniensis I
Text New Testament (except Rev.)
Date 1278
Script Greek
Found 1699
Now at Det Kongelige Bibliotek
Size 25.5 cm by 19 cm
Type Byzantine text-type
Category none
Note unusual order of books

Minuscule 234 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), δ 365 (Soden),[1] is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment. It is dated by a colophon to the year 1278.[2] It has liturgical books and marginalia.


The codex contains entire text of the New Testament (except Apocalypse), on 315 thick parchment leaves (size 25.5 cm by 19 cm).[2] The text is written in two columns per page, 35 lines per page,[2] in black ink, the capital letters in red. The order of books is unusual, the same as in codex 51: Acts, Pauline epistles, Catholic epistles, Gospels.[3]

The text is divided according to κεφαλαια (chapters), whose numbers are given at the margin, the τιτλοι (titles) at the top. The text of the Gospels has also a division according to the smaller Ammonian Sections (Matthew 359, Mark 241, Luke 342, John 232), with references to the Eusebian Canons.[3]

It contains Prolegomena to the four Gospels, Epistula ad Carpianum, the Eusebian Canon tables, tables of the κεφαλαια (tables of contents) before each Gospel, lectionary markings at the margin (for liturgical use), incipits, liturgical books with hagiographies (Synaxarion and Menologion), Verses in Matthew and Mark, Euthalian Apparatus in the Catholic epistles, Hebrews has three Prolegomena.[3] The text has many corrections.[4]


The Greek text of the codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type. Aland did not place it in any Category.[5] According to the Claremont Profile Method it represents the textual family Kx in Luke 1 and Luke 20. In Luke 10 no profile was made. It belongs to the textual cluster 74.[6]


The manuscript is one of several copies written by Theodore Hagiopetrites (as codex 74, 412, and others).[4] It was bought at Venice by Friedrich Rostgaard in 1699.[3] It was examined by Hensler, Birch, Delitzsch, Graux, and C. R. Gregory (1891).[3]

It is currently housed at the Det Kongelige Bibliotek (GkS 1322, 4) at Copenhagen.[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Gregory, Caspar René (1908). Die griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testament. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung. p. 56. 
  2. ^ a b c d K. Aland, M. Welte, B. Köster, K. Junack, "Kurzgefasste Liste der griechischen Handschriften des Neues Testaments", Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York 1994, p. 61.
  3. ^ a b c d e Gregory, Caspar René (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testaments 1. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs. p. 170. 
  4. ^ a b Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose; Edward Miller (1894). A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament 1 (4 ed.). London: George Bell & Sons. p. 223. 
  5. ^ Aland, Kurt; Barbara Aland; Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.) (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 132, 138. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1. 
  6. ^ Wisse, Frederik (1982). The Profile Method for the Classification and Evaluation of Manuscript Evidence, as Applied to the Continuous Greek Text of the Gospel of Luke. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 57. ISBN 0-8028-1918-4. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Charles Graux, Notices sommaires des manuscritti grecs de la grande bibliotheque royale de Copenhague, Paris 1879.