Minuscule 235

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Minuscule 235
New Testament manuscript
Name Codex Havniensis 2
Text Gospels
Date 1314
Script Greek
Now at Det Kongelige Bibliotek
Size 21.8 cm by 15.4 cm
Type Byzantine text-type
Category V
Note ill divided words

Minuscule 235 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), ε 456 (Soden),[1] known as Codex Havniensis 2 is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on paper. It is dated by a colophon to the year 1314. The manuscript has complex contents.[2] It has marginalia.


The codex contains a complete text of the four Gospels, on 280 paper leaves (size 21.8 cm by 15.4 cm).[2] The text is written in one column per page, 23 lines per page (size of column 15.2 by 9.5 cm),[2] the capital letters in red.[3] The initials at the beginning of Matthew and Mark are the same as in Lectionary 6.[3]

The text is divided according to the Ammonian Sections, whose numbers are given at the margin. It contains tables of the κεφαλαια (tables of contents) before each Gospel, lectionary markings at the margin, and incipits. The words are often ill divided and the stops misplaced (as in minuscule 80).[4]


The Greek text of the codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type. Aland placed it in Category V.[5] According to the Claremont Profile Method it represents textual family Kx in Luke 10 and Luke 20. In Luke 1 it has mixed Byzantine text.[6]

The text often agrees with D, K, 33, Philoxenian Syriac. Hermann von Soden lists it as Is (along with codices 157, 245, 291, 713, 1012), but Soden examined it only in the Gospel of John.[7]


The manuscript was written by the hand of Philothens, a monk.[3] It was bought at Venice by Friedrich Rostgaard in 1699.[3] It was examined by C. G. Hensler (1784) and Charles Graux (1878). C. R. Gregory saw it in 1878 and in 1891.[3]

It is currently housed at the Det Kongelige Bibliotek (GkS 1323, 4) at Copenhagen.[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Gregory, Caspar René (1908). Die griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testament. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung. p. 56. 
  2. ^ a b c d K. Aland, M. Welte, B. Köster, K. Junack (1994). Kurzgefasste Liste der griechischen Handschriften des Neues Testaments. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. p. 61. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Gregory, Caspar René (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testaments 1. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs. p. 170. 
  4. ^ Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose; Edward Miller (1894). A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament 1 (4 ed.). London: George Bell & Sons. p. 223. 
  5. ^ Aland, Kurt; Aland, Barbara (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1. 
  6. ^ Wisse, Frederik (1982). The Profile Method for the Classification and Evaluation of Manuscript Evidence, as Applied to the Continuous Greek Text of the Gospel of Luke. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 57. ISBN 0-8028-1918-4. 
  7. ^ R. Waltz, Minuscule 235, Encyclopedia of Textual Criticism

Further reading[edit]

  • Charles Graux, Notices sommaires des manuscritti grecs de la grande bibliotheque royale de Copenhague, Paris 1879.

External links[edit]