Minuscule 438

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New Testament manuscripts
Minuscule 438
Text Gospels
Date 12th century
Script Greek
Now at British Library
Size 25.7 cm by 18 cm
Type Byzantine text-type
Category V

Minuscule 438 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), ε 211 (in the Soden numbering),[1] is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 12th century.[2]


The codex contains a complete text of the four Gospels on 452 parchment leaves (25.7 cm by 18 cm) with only one lacunae (Matthew 1:6-15). The leaves of the manuscript were split in two volumes (211 + 241 leaves). The text is written in one column per page, in 18 lines per page.[2]

The text is divided according to the κεφαλαια (chapters), whose numbers are given at the margin, and their τιτλοι (titles) at the top of the pages. There is also a division according to the Ammonian Sections (in Mark 234, 16:9), with references to the Eusebian Canons (not subscribed).[3]

It contains the Epistula ad Carpianum, Eusebian Canon tables, tables of the κεφαλαια (tables of contents) before each Gospel, subscriptions at the end of each Gospel, and pictures of Evangelists.[3][4]


The Greek text of the codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type. Hermann von Soden classified it to the textual family K1.[5] Aland placed it in Category V.[6]

According to the Claremont Profile Method it represents the textual family Kx in Luke 1 and Luke 20. In Luke 10 no profile was made.[5]


The manuscript was written by Gregory, a monk who died in 1189.[3] It once belonged to Anthony Askew (1722–1774) (as codices 439 and 443). It was examined by Bloomfield. The manuscript was added to the list of New Testament manuscripts by Scholz (1794–1852).[7] C. R. Gregory saw it in 1883.[3]

It is currently housed at the British Library (Add. 5111.5112) in London.[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Gregory, Caspar René (1908). Die griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testament. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung. p. 64. 
  2. ^ a b c Aland, K.; M. Welte; B. Köster; K. Junack (1994). Kurzgefasste Liste der griechischen Handschriften des Neues Testaments. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. p. 73. ISBN 3-11-011986-2. 
  3. ^ a b c d Gregory, Caspar René (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testaments 1. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs. p. 190. 
  4. ^ Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose; Edward Miller (1894). A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament 1 (4 ed.). London: George Bell & Sons. p. 239. 
  5. ^ a b Wisse, Frederik (1982). The Profile Method for the classification and evaluation of manuscript evidence, as Applied to the Continuous Greek Text of the Gospel of Luke. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 60. ISBN 0-8028-1918-4. 
  6. ^ Aland, Kurt; Aland, Barbara (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1. 
  7. ^ Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose (1894). A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament 1. London. p. 225. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]