Minuscule 541

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New Testament manuscripts
Minuscule 541
Tables of κεφαλαια (chapters) to the Gospel of Matthew
Tables of κεφαλαια (chapters) to the Gospel of Matthew
Text Gospel of Matthew-Gospel of Mark
Date 15th century
Script Greek
Now at University of Michigan
Size 21 cm by 14.2 cm
Type Byzantine text-type
Category V
Hand neatly written
Note full marginalia
in bad condition

Minuscule 541 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), 554 (in the Scrivener's numbering), ε 400 (in Soden's numbering),[1] is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on a parchment. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 15th century.[2]

The manuscript was adapted for liturgical use. It is incomplete.


The codex contains some parts of the Gospel of Matthew and Gospel of Mark, on 49 parchment leaves (size 21 cm by 14.2 cm), with numerous lacunae. The text is written in one column per page, 21 lines per page.[2] It is neatly written, but has survived in bad condition. The iota adscript does not occur.[3]

Matthew 18:32-24:10; 26:8-28:20; Mark 1:16-13:9; 14:9-26.[4][5]

The text is divided according to the κεφαλαια (chapters), whose numbers are given at the margin, with their τιτλοι (titles) at the top and foot of the pages. There is also a division according to the smaller Ammonian Sections, with references to the Eusebian Canons (only partially).[4] The τιτλοι and numbers of the κεφαλαια are red in Matthew and black in Mark. The Ammonian Sections are red in Matthew, in Mark are often black. The references to the Eusebian Canons are mostly omitted.[3]

It contains lists of the κεφαλαια (list of contents) before each Gospel, lectionary markings at the margin (for liturgical use), subscriptions at the end of each Gospel (with numbers of στιχοι).[5][4] There are many abridgements in the writing.[5] The rubrical directions in margin are both in black and red. Some corrections seem to be written by prima manu others plainly secondary manu (Matthew 20,13.20; 21,42; 27,64; Mark 1:22; 5:19; 6:15; 10:32; 11:3).[3]


According tο Scrivener, N εφελκυστικον occurs only seven times, a hiatus for the lack of it thrice."[6] There are unusual number of iotacistic errors (115 occurrences): ι for η, η for ι, ο for ω, ω for ο, η for ει, ει for η, ε for αι, αι for ε, ι for ει (only 1), ει for ι, ε for η (only 1), ου for ω, ω for ου, υ for ι, οι for ι, ει for οι (only 1), συ for σοι (2), η for υ.[6][n 1]

There are many omissions by homoioteleuton (Matthew 21:32; 22:2.3; 23:3.12; Mark 2:22; 4:24; 7:20; 8:11.37; 9:5; 10:19.32; 11:15.28).[3]


The Greek text of the codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type. Aland placed it in Category V.[7]

It has some corrections – by erasure – made both by the first hand and later.[3]

The Lady Burdett-Coutts


The manuscript is dated, probably by the first hand, to the year 1323,[5] but dated by paleographers to the 15th century.[2]

In 1864 the manuscript was purchased from a dealer at Janina in Epeiros, by Baroness Burdett-Coutts (1814–1906), a philanthropist,[8] together with other Greek manuscripts (among them codices 532-546).[4] They were transported to England in 1870-1871.[9]

The manuscript was presented by Burdett-Coutts to Sir Roger Cholmely's School, and was housed at the Highgate (Burdett-Coutts II. 26. 2), in London.[4] It was examined and collated by Scrivener in his Adversaria critica sacra (1893).[10]

It was added to the list of the New Testament manuscripts by F. H. A. Scrivener and C. R. Gregory.[5] Gregory saw it in 1883.[4]

In 1922 it was acquired for the University of Michigan.[11] The manuscript was digitalized by the CSNTM in 2008.[12]

It is currently housed at the University of Michigan (Ms. Inv. No. 23b) in Ann Arbor.[2]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Another manuscript with unusual number of itacistic errors is Minuscule 543.


  1. ^ Gregory, Caspar René (1908). Die griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testament. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung. p. 67. 
  2. ^ a b c d Aland, Kurt; M. Welte; B. Köster; K. Junack (1994). Kurzgefasste Liste der griechischen Handschriften des Neues Testaments. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. p. 78. ISBN 3-11-011986-2. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose (1893). Adversaria Critica Sacra: With a Short Explanatory Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. XLVII. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Gregory, Caspar René (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testaments 1. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung. p. 201. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose; Edward Miller (1894). A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament 1 (4 ed.). London: George Bell & Sons. p. 254. 
  6. ^ a b Frederick Henry Ambrose Scrivener, Adversaria Critica Sacra: With a Short Explanatory Introduction (Cambridge, 1893), p. XLVIII.
  7. ^ Aland, Kurt; Aland, Barbara (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1. 
  8. ^ Parker, Franklin (1995). George Peabody, a biography. Vanderbilt University Press. p. 107. 
  9. ^ Robert Mathiesen, An Important Greek Manuscript Rediscovered and Redated (Codex Burdett-Coutts III.42), The Harvard Theological Review, Vol. 76, No. 1 (Jan., 1983), pp. 131-133.
  10. ^ F. H. A. Scrivener, Adversaria critica sacra (Cambridge, 1893).
  11. ^ Kenneth W. Clark, A Descriptive Catalogue of Greek New Testament Manuscripts in America (Chicago, 1937), p. 294.
  12. ^ Images of the minuscule 541 at the CSNTM

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]