Miracle Mineral Supplement
Miracle Mineral Supplement, often referred to as Miracle Mineral Solution, Master Mineral Solution, or MMS, is the colloquial product name for an aqueous solution of 28% sodium chlorite in distilled water. The product contains essentially the same ingredient as industrial-strength bleach before "activation" with a food-grade acid. The name was first coined by Jim Humble in his 2006 self-published book, The Miracle Mineral Solution of the 21st Century. A more dilute version is marketed as Chlorine Dioxide Solution (CDS). MMS is promoted as a cure for HIV, malaria, hepatitis viruses, the H1N1 flu virus, common colds, acne, cancer, and more. There have been no clinical trials to provide evidence in support of these claims, which come only from anecdotal reports and Humble's book. In January 2010, The Sydney Morning Herald reported that one vendor admitted that they do not repeat any of Humble's claims in writing to circumvent regulations against using it as a medicine. Sellers sometimes describe MMS as a water purifier so as to circumvent medical regulations.
When citric acid or other food acid is used to "activate" MMS as described in its instructions, the mixture produces an aqueous solution containing chlorine dioxide, a potent oxidizing agent used in the treatment of water and in bleaching. The director of the New South Wales Poisons Information Centre has stated that using the product is "a bit like drinking concentrated bleach" and that users have displayed symptoms consistent with corrosive injuries, such as vomiting, stomach pains, and diarrhea. Sodium chlorite, the main constituent of MMS, is a toxic chemical that can cause acute renal failure if ingested.
Safety and legal issues 
The Guardian has described MMS as "extremely nasty stuff, and the medical advice given is that anyone who has this product should stop using it immediately and throw it away. In Canada it was banned after causing a life-threatening reaction." In August 2009, a Mexican woman travelling with her American husband on their yacht in Vanuatu took MMS as a preventative for malaria. Within 15 minutes she was ill, and within twelve hours she was dead. The island nation's public prosecutor, Kayleen Tavoa, did not press any charges as there were no specific laws banning the importation of MMS, but advised, "While every case is assessed on its own merits, I advise that any person who misuses MMS in Vanuatu in the future would be likely to face prosecution for potentially serious criminal offences. No person should ever give MMS to another person to drink without advising them of what it is they are drinking and of the serious risks to health that may arise if they decide to drink the mixture."
In 2008, a 60-year-old Canadian man was hospitalized after a life-threatening response to MMS. Following a May 2010 advisory which indicated that MMS exceeds levels deemed to be safe by a factor of 200, a Calgary based supplier briefly stopped distribution. A February 2012 warning, which resulted in one website shutting down, advised: "There are no therapeutic products containing sodium chlorite authorized for oral consumption by humans in Canada." In the UK, the Food Standards Agency also has released a warning, following the initial warning from Health Canada and a similar warning from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, in which they stated that "MMS is a 28% sodium chlorite solution which is equivalent to industrial-strength bleach. When taken as directed it could cause severe nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, potentially leading to dehydration and reduced blood pressure. If the solution is diluted less than instructed, it could cause damage to the gut and red blood cells, potentially resulting in respiratory failure." More dilute versions have potential to do harm, although it is less likely. The Food Standards Agency has since reiterated their warning on MMS and extended it to include CDS.
Sellers attribute the vomiting, nausea, and diarrhea to the product working, but it is simply the product's toxicity.
In December 2009, an alert was issued by the Belgian Poison Control Centre to the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists. In response, an evaluation was performed by the French "Comité de coordination de toxicovigilance" in March 2010, warning about a dose dependent irritation and possible toxic effects. They also warned that patients affected by serious diseases could be tempted to stop their treatments in favour of this alternative treatment. A similar notice was released in July 2010 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration warning that the instructions for preparing the solution by mixing it with an acidic solution, or even orange juice, would produce chlorine dioxide, "a potent bleach used for stripping textiles and industrial water treatment." Because of reports including nausea, vomiting, and dangerously low blood pressure as a result of dehydration following instructed use, the FDA has advised consumers to dispose of the product immediately.
MMS is not approved for the treatment of any disease and according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, chronic exposure to small doses of chlorine dioxide could cause reproductive and neurodevelopmental damage. A short term study found no effects in hematological or urine chemistry or in physical symptoms in human volunteers over a period of 84 days. While studies of chlorine dioxide effects in humans are rare, studies on animal subjects are more common; chlorine dioxide has been shown to impair thyroid function and reduce T4 cell count in monkeys after 6 months. Another study in rats resulted in reduced red blood cells count when exposed to 100 mg/L of chlorine dioxide concentration in their drinking water, after 3 months. The United States Department of Labor restricts occupational exposure through inhalation of chlorine dioxide to 0.1 ppm since concentrations at 10ppm resulted in deaths in rats, after 10 days while a case where a worker was accidentally exposed to 19 ppm resulted in death. According to the same organisation, "chlorine dioxide is a severe respiratory and eye irritant in humans".
MMS was a cure touted by an Australian couple targeting the Seattle area. They ran websites using fake testimonials (accompanied by sexy vignettes), photographs, and Seattle addresses, to promote downloadable books touted as containing secret cures as well as selling bottles labeled "water purification drops" with a brand name of "MMS Professional". The Washington State Attorney General's Office filed suit, and in conjunctions with the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC), secured a settlement of more than US$40,000, roughly $25,000 for state legal fees and $14,000 to be divided among 200 consumers. In the ACCC legal action, the presiding judge described the cures as quack medicine and found the claims on the websites "false, misleading or deceptive".
A woman from north Mackay, Australia, without qualifications to practice, charged up to A$2,000 to inject patients with MMS in her garage which lacked proper facilities for sterilization, and went as far as advising a person to avoid chemotherapy while promoting a treatment with "no scientific basis". The Queensland Office of Fair Trading got a court order prohibiting her from "making any claims she is able to treat, cure, or benefit any person suffering from cancer" and she was charged court costs of A$12,000.
See also 
- Patent medicine
- Rhys Morgan, teenage blogger whose actions helped clamp down on illegal distribution
- Snake oil
- "Miracle Mineral". Miracle Mineral. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
- "Agency warning on chlorine solutions" (Press release). Food Standards Agency. July 3, 2012. Retrieved November 11, 2012.
- F.D.A. Warning letter
- Calligeros, Marissa (24 April 2009). "Backyard cancer 'healer' deceived patients". The Brisbine Times. Retrieved 28 December 2009.
- Harvey, Sarah (2010-01-24). "'Miracle' chemical dubbed a danger". Sunday Star Times. Retrieved 2012-06-12.
- Jensen, Erik (2010-01-09). "Deadly chemical being sold as miracle cure". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2011-02-18.
- How To Use The Miracle Mineral Supplement
- "FDA Warns Consumers of Serious Harm from Drinking Miracle Mineral Solution (MMS)". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2010-07-30.
- Jensen, Erik (2010-01-09). "Deadly chemical being sold as miracle cure". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2012-01-24.
- Sodium Chlorite - Summary Report of the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products - Veterinary Medicines Evaluation Unit 
- "Health Risks Associated with Use of Miracle Mineral Solution". Health Canada. 12 May 2010. Retrieved 2011-02-17.
- Lin JL, Lim PS (1993). "Acute sodium chlorite poisoning associated with renal failure". Ren Fail 15 (5): 645–8. PMID 8290712.
- Robbins, Martin (2010-09-15). "The man who encourages the sick and dying to drink industrial bleach". The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- Gibson, Joel (January 9, 2010), "Death in paradise", The Sydney Morning Herald, ISSN 03126315, retrieved February 11, 2012
- "Prosecutor decides no charges can be laid in case of death linked to MMS", Vanuatu Daily Post (The Trading Post), November 10, 2010, retrieved February 11, 2012
- Gandia, Renato (February 15, 2012). "Sketchy supplements on Calgary website prompt Health Canada warning". Calgary Sun. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
- "Health risks associated with use of Miracle Mineral Solution" (Press release). Health Canada. May 12, 2010. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
- "Sodium chlorite solution not authorized for oral consumption by humans" (Press release). Health Canada. February 15, 2012. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
- Tobin, Anne-Marie (February 15, 2012), "Website shut down after selling product called MMS", Global Calgary (Shaw Media), retrieved February 21, 2012
- "Praise for Rhys Morgan, 15, over 'miracle' cure alert". BBC News Online. 15 October 2010.
- Food Standards Agency. "Warning against consumption of Miracle Mineral Solution".
- "Alert issued on danger supplement". BBC News. 2010-09-24.
- Bleach-based cure-all online remedies could kill, warns government
- "Product Warning: Miracle Mineral Solution". Montserrat: Ministry of Health. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- "Evaluation des risques liés à la consommation du produit dénommé " Solution Minérale Miracle " (MMS)". Comité de coordination de Toxicovigilance. march 2010.
- "Chlorite (sodium salt) (CASRN 7758-19-2) | IRIS | US EPA". Epa.gov. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
- "Chlorine dioxide (CASRN 10049-04-4) | IRIS | US EPA". Epa.gov. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
- Bercz JP, Jones L, Garner L, Murray D, Ludwig DA, Boston J (2010-02-25). "Subchronic toxicity of chlorine dioxide and related compounds in drinking water in the nonhuman primate". Environ. Health Perspect. 46: 47–55. PMC 1569048. PMID 7151767.
- "Toxicity of Chlorine Dioxide in Drinking Water - International Journal of Toxicology". Informaworld.com. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
- "Chlorine Dioxide". Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
- Australian Competition and Consumer Commission v Leanne Rita Vassallo and Aaron David Smith (FCA 954 August 20, 2009). Text
- Pulkkinen, Levi (August 3, 2009), "Sexy stories, bogus cures lead to action by state AG", seattlepi.com staff, SeattlePI.com, OCLC 3734418, retrieved February 12, 2012
- "Washington Attorney General reels in refunds for consumers hooked by Aussies’ quack medicine web sites" (Press release). Washington State Office of the Attorney General. March 8, 2010. Retrieved February 12, 2012.
- "Aussie net scammers stung after $1.2m haul", iTnews for Australian Business (Haymarket Media), Aug 26, 2009, retrieved February 12, 2012
- "Woman told to stop selling cancer 'miracle drug'", ABC News (Australia), April 23, 2009, retrieved February 12, 2012
- "Unregistered health provider ordered to stop misleading cancer patients" (Press release). Minister for Tourism and Fair Trading, The Honourable Peter Lawlor. April 23, 2009. Retrieved February 12, 2012.