September 15, 1941 |
Lipniki, Volhynia, Reichskommissariat Ukraine, Greater German Reich
|Rank||Brigadier General, Polish Air Force|
Time in space
|7d 22h 02m|
|Selection||1976 Intercosmos Group|
Mirosław Hermaszewski (born September 15, 1941), is a retired Polish Air Force officer and cosmonaut. He became the first (and to this day remains the only) Polish national in space when he flew aboard the Soyuz 30 spacecraft in 1978.
Mirosław Hermaszewski was born into a Polish family in Lipniki, Volhynia, formerly in Poland (Wołyń Voivodeship) but at the time part of the Reichskommissariat Ukraine, in present day - Ukraine. He is a survivor of the Volhynian massacres during World War II, during which Ukrainian nationalists murdered 19 members of his family, including his father.
In 1965, he graduated from the military pilot school in Dęblin. In 1978, he was chosen from almost 500 Polish pilots to take part in the Intercosmos space program. Together with Pyotr Klimuk, he spent almost eight days on board the Salyut 6 space station (from 17:27, June 27, 1978 'til 16:31, July 5). During their time in orbit, they carried out geoscience experiments and photographed the Earth.
During the period of martial law in Poland, Hermaszewski was a member of the Military Council of National Salvation (Wojskowa Rada Ocalenia Narodowego, WRON), a military quasi-government. Later, he was a commander of the Fighter Pilots School in Dęblin. In 1988, he was promoted to general.
He is married to Emilia Hermaszewska and has two children, Miroslaw (born 1966) and Emilia (born 1974).
Honours and awards
- Order of Polonia Restituta – 2003
- Order of the Cross of Grunwald 1st Class – 1978
- Cross of Merit
- Medal of the 40th Anniversary of People's Poland
- Gold Medal of the Armed Forces in the Service of the Fatherland
- Silver Medal of the Armed Forces in the Service of the Fatherland
- Bronze Medal of the Armed Forces in the Service of the Fatherland
- Gold Medal of Merit for National Defence
- Silver Medal of Merit for National Defence
- Bronze Medal of Merit for National Defence
- Aviator badge
- Parachutist Badge
- Honorable title and an Order of "People's Poland Cosmonaut" – 1978
- Honorable title and an Order of "People's Poland Military Pilot Merit" – 1978
- Gold Order of Merit of Lower Silesia - 2013
- Janek Krasicki Gold Order – 1978
- Order of the Smile – 1986
- Gold Star Hero of the Soviet Union (nr 11301) – USSR, 1978
- Order of Lenin – USSR, 1978
- Medal "For Merit in Space Exploration" – Russia, 2011
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mirosław Hermaszewski.|
- "Hermaszewski wspomina historię swojej rodziny podczas rzezi wołyńskiej" [Hermaszewski recalls history of his family during Volhynian slaughter] (in Polish). 11 July 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- Astronautyka. Warsaw: Ossolineum. 1989. ASIN B001CZAYTO.
- "Biografia" [Biography] (in Polish). 20 April 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- Official Website (Polish)
- Circumstances of space travel of the first Pole in a documentary by Maciej Odolinski
- Spacefacts biography of Mirosław Hermaszewski