Mirza

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This article is about the title. For the genus of primates, see Giant mouse lemur.

Mirza (Persian: میرزا; Turkish, Uzbek: mirzo; Russian: мурза; Bashkir мырҙа (mïrða); Circassian: мырзэ) (common variance in Tatar nobility as Morza) is a title of Persian origin, denoting the rank of a high nobleman or Prince.[1] It is usually translated into English as a royal or imperial Prince of the Blood. It signified male-line descent and relationship to the Imperial Families of Turkey, Persia and later South Asia and was the title borne by members of the highest aristocracies in Tatar states, such as the Khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan.

Under Catherine the Great, empress of Russia, the Murzas gained equal rights with the Russian nobility due to their extreme wealth. In Return, the Mirzas Financed her Russo-Turkish war against the Ottoman Empire.[2] Abdul Mirza was given the title Prince Yusupov, and his descendant Prince Felix Yusupov married a niece of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.[3]

Etymology[edit]

The word Mīrzā is derived from the Persian term ‘Amīrzāde which literally means "child of the ‘Amīr" or "child of the ruler" in Persian. ‘Amīrzād in turn consists of the Arabic title ‘Amīr (engl. Emir), meaning "commander" and "Prince", and the Persian suffix -zād, meaning "birth" or "lineage". Due to vowel harmony in Turkic languages, the alternative pronunciation Morza (plural morzalar; derived from the Persian word) is also used. The Word Mirza means Royalty in almost every old version of Persian, Arab, Turkish and Indian languages. The "Mirza Lineage" is currently spread across Russia, India, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Pakistan, Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey.[4]

Variant spellings in English include miriza, mirize, mirze, morsey, mursay, murse, meirsa, mirzey, mursi, murze, murza, mirza, myrza, meerza.[5]

History[edit]

Persian Kingdom[edit]

The titles themselves were given by the Kings, Sultans and Emperors (equivalent to the western Fount of honour) to their sons and grandsons, or even distant kins. Noblemen loyal to the kings also received this Title, although their usage differed. Aristocratic families (royal descent) from South Asia and individuals descended from the Persian nobility have 'Mirza' in their name. The "Mirza" Family is considered by some to be one of the Oldest Persian-Arab Families, Dating back multiple Centuries.[6]

The title itself came from the title emir. Emir, meaning "commander" or "Prince", -derived from the Semitic root Amr, "command". Originally simply meaning commander or leader, usually in reference to a group of people. It came to be used as a title of governors or rulers, usually in smaller states, and usually renders the English word "prince. Amir Sadri." The word entered English in 1595, from the French émir.[7]

South Asia[edit]

Mirzas of the Mughal imperial family, 1878

Mirza was given to imperial prince; a title or part of a name implying relationship to the Turk dynasties like Mughal dynasty (the Imperial House of Timur).[8] But in Indian royal families, the title can be placed both before the name and after it, such as Prince Mirza Mughal and Prince Kamran Mirza. Prince Khusrau Mirza was the grandson of Emperor Babur (Babur Mirza), son of Emperor Jahangir and a brother of Emperor Shah Jahan. Emperor Akbar Shah II was Prince Mirza Akbar before his coronation. Emperor Babur took the imperial title of Padishah on 6 March 1508, before which he used the title Mirza.[9]

Because the Bengali language has no phoneme /z/, Mirza has the local form Mridha (from Mirdhjah) in Bengal and Bihar.[10]

Imperial Family of Hindustan[edit]

Further information: Mughal Emperors

Royal Family of Bengal[edit]

Royal Family of Awadh[edit]

Royal Family of Berar[edit]

  • Mirza Azam 1707, seventh Mughal Emperor.
  • Prince Bedar Bakht Mirza, son of Emperor Mirza Azam
  • Prince Mohammed Beg Feroz Bakht Mirza, son of Prince Bedar Bakht Mirza
  • Prince BulaquiBeg Mirza, son of Prince Mirza Feroz Bakht
  • Prince Sultan Bahaddur Aduli Mirza, son of Mirza Bulaqui Baig Bahaddur
  • Prince Sultan Bahaddur SardarBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur AduliBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan Bahaddur UmraoBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur SardarBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurHatamBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur SardarBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurHasanBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur UmraoBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurMehboobBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur HatamBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan Bahaddur MuqaddarBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur HasanBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurAlamBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur HasanBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurRoshanBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MehboobBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurQaderBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MehboobBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurHasanBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MuqaddarBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurKhaliqueBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MuqaddarBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurWasiqueBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MuqaddarBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurSaquibalamBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MuqaddarBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurAnzarBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MuqaddarBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurFauwazBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MuqaddarBeg Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Numan Baig Mirza, son of Dr. Hasan Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Afzal Baig Mirza, son of Khalique Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Shahnawaz Baig Mirza, son of Khalique Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Muqadder Baig Mirza, son of Saquib Alam Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Shafaqat Baig Mirza, son of Qader Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Sharafat Baig Mirza, son of Shafaqat Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Shabaz Baig Mirza, son of Shafaqat Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Sulaiman Mirza, son of Hatam Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Mirza Abdul Razzak I son of Hatam Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Mirza Abdul Rasheed son of Mirza Abdur Razzak
  • His Highness Prince Mirza Abdul Razzak II a.k.a Mohammed Rizwan Mirza son of Mirza Abdul Rasheed
  • His Highness Prince Mirza Mohammad Gibran son of Mohammed Rizwan Mirza

Notable Mirzas[edit]

Academics and literature[edit]

  • Mirza Ghalib (born: Mirza Asadullah Baig Khan), a famous Urdu and Persian poet from South Asia who adorned the Mughal court
  • Mirza Khan of "Mirza & Sahiba", a tragic Romeo-and-Juliet-like love story enshrined in Panjabi literature and commonly told in the Punjab region, though in this story Mirza is used as a name and not as a title.
  • Iraj Mirza, Persian folk poet, also known as Jalaal-al-mamalek.
  • Muhammad Munawwar Mirza, a prominent scholar, historian, writer and intellectual from Pakistan
  • Nawab Mirza Khan "Daagh" a famous Urdu poet

Advocate[edit]

Arts[edit]

  • Aziz Mirza (born 1947) is an Indian film director, producer and writer
  • Haroon Mirza is a living Anglo-Pakistani artist born in London in 1977.

Government[edit]

Military[edit]

Nobility[edit]

Religion[edit]

Sport[edit]

See also[edit]

Further Study[edit]

  • Life of a Mirza Chapter 7 (pg 225-227) The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture (2004) by Annemarie Schimmel ISBN 1-86189-185-7
  • Mirzah in The Wordsworth Dictionary of Phrase and Fable By Ebenezer Cobham Brewer: The quintessential guide to myth, folklore, legend, legend and literature. ISBN 1-84022-310-3
  • MI’RZA Chambers’s Encyclopaedia: A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge For the People. ISBN 1-149-98693-X
  • A. Jaimoukha The Circassians: A Handbook Routledge, Palgrave, 2001, pp 157–60) ISBN 0-312-23994-7

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ This species of nobility is traced very far, and is not creative. The title descends to all the sons of the family, without exception. In the Royal family it is placed after the name instead of before it, thus, Abbas Mirza and Hosfiein .'Mi Mirza. Mirza is a civil title, and Khan is a military one. The title of Khan is creative, but not hereditary. pg 601 Monthly magazine and British register, Volume 34 Publisher Printed for R. Phillips, 1812 Original from Harvard University
  2. ^ Life in Samarkand Caucasus and Central Asia vis-à-vis Russia, the West, and Islam, Madina Tlostanova: Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge (ISSN: 1540-5699)]
  3. ^ Rulers of the Khanate of Crimea
  4. ^ mirza. CollinsDictionary.com. Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved 2 October 2012
  5. ^ OED: http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/119129?redirectedFrom=mirza#eid Accessed June 17, 2013
  6. ^ Sensagent.com reached: 30.06.2010
  7. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=amir&searchmode=none EtymologyOnLine
  8. ^ http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00urdu/hali/majalis/10glossary.html
  9. ^ pg 24. The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture
  10. ^ The Khan Mohammad Mridha Mosque is named for a man known in Mughal records as Khan Muhammad Mirza; see https://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.jsp?site_id=4450 Mughal dynasty (the Imperial House of Timur "Sarai Mulk Khanam Qutubuddunniya wa Deen Amir Qutubuddin Taimur Baig Sahib-e-kiran").
Sources