Mirza Aslam Beg

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Mirza Aslam Beg
General Shamim Alam Khan receiving the Sitar-e-Basalat.jpg
General Beg (right) decorating General Shamim Allam at JS HQ.
Birth name Mirza Aslam Beg
Nickname(s) General Beg
Born (1931-08-02) August 2, 1931 (age 82)
Azamgarh district, Uttar Pradesh, British Indian Empire (Present day, India)
Allegiance  Pakistan
Service/branch  Pakistan Army
Years of service 1952–1991
Rank US-O10 insignia.svg General
Service number (PA No. – 4064)
Unit Baloch Regiment
Commands held Chief of Army Staff
Adjutant General (AG)
Chief of General Staff (CGS)
XI Corps, Peshawar
Vice Chief of Army Staff
Chief Instructor (CI) at NDU
14th Army Division, Okara
Battles/wars Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
Siachen conflict
Afghanistan war of 1991
Operation Desert Storm
Awards Order of Excellence Nishan-e-Imtiaz.pngNishan-e-Imtiaz (Military)
Crescent of Excellence Hilal-e-Imtiaz.pngHilal-e-Imtiaz (Military)
Star of Good Conduct Sitara-e-Basalat.pngSitara-e-Basalat (civil)
PAK Tamgha-e-Jamhuria ribbon.svgTamgha-e-Jamhuriat (civil)

Mirza Aslam Beg, (Urdu: مرزا اسلم بیگ; born 2 August 1931), is a retired four-star general of the Pakistan Army, who served as its Chief of Army Staff from 1988 until his retirement in 1991. His appointment as chief of army staff came when his predecessor, President General Zia-ul-Haq, died in an air crash on 17 August 1988.

Beg's tenure witnessed Benazir Bhutto as being elected Prime Minister in November 1988, and the restoration of democracy and the civilian control of the military in the country. Controversial accusations were leveled against him of financing Islamic Democracy Alliance (IDA), the conservative and right-wing opposition alliance against left-wing PPP, and rigging subsequent general elections in 1990.[1] As a result of general elections, Nawaz Sharif was elected Prime Minister in 1990, but fell out with Beg when the latter recommended support for Iraq during the Gulf War.[2] Beg was denied an extension from President Ghulam Ishaq Khan soon after in 1991, and replaced by General Asif Nawaz as chief of army staff.[3] Apart from his military career, Beg briefly tenured as professor of security studies at the National Defence University (NDU) and regularly writes columns in The Nation.[4]

Beg's post-retirement has been characterized by controversy. He was accused of playing an internal role in the airplane crash that killed General Zia,[5][6] and was summoned to the Supreme Court of Pakistan in 2012 for his alleged role in the Mehran scandal, for bribing opposition politicians with millions of rupees prior to elections in 1990.[7][8]

Biography[edit]

Early life in India and education[edit]

Mirza Aslam Beg was born in the small village, Muslimpatti,[9] in Azamgarh district, Uttar Pradesh of British Indian Empire, to the Urdu-speaking Indian Muslim family on 2 August 1931.[10][11] His father, Mirza Murtaza Beg, was an advocate and practicing lawyer who had hold a well known prestige and respected name in the law circles of the Allahabad High Court.[12] The Beg family had traced a long ancestral roots of the Mughal Royal family who once emperors of India from early 15th century to the early 18th century.[13]

He was educated at the Azamgarh where he graduated from a local high school and enrolled at the Shibli Academy for his undergraduate studies, in 1945.[14] Subsequently, he earned Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree in Liberal Arts from Shibli Academy in 1949.[14]

During his college years, Mirza played collegiate field hockey and was vital member of his hockey team which consisted mainly Muslims.[14] According to his memoirs, Beg sought revenge on a Hindu politician belonging to Congress Party after the politician had beaten up a member of his hockey team.[14] Egged on by a mob of students, Beg used his hockey stick to beat up the politician at a public meeting.[14] This incident came after his graduation from college in 1949, and Beg's family decided to move to Pakistan in 1949 after the Indian partition.[14]

Career in the military[edit]

The Beg family set sailed for Karachi from Mumbai via Pakistan Navy ship in 1949. His elder brother was already a commissioned officer in the Pakistan Army and encouraged young Beg to follow his path to seek a career in the army.[14] Beg recalled his memoirs to his Indian interviewer and called Pakistan as "my dream country".[14] In 1950, Beg was accepted at the Pakistan Military Academy and graduated with a bachelor's degree in War studies from a class of 6th PMA Long Course, in 1952.

In 1952, he gained commissioned as second lieutenant in the Baloch Regiment and initially assisting the command of an infantry platoon.[11] From 1952-1958, he progressed well towards the military ranks, having being promoted to army lieutenant in 1956; and army captain in 1958. He received recommendations from his field commanding officer and was selected by the special branch to join the special forces.[11] In 1958, he passed the physical and psychological analysis tests for the special forces.[11] Beg departed to United States, to complete special forces training with the US Army Special Forces in Fort Bragg, North Carolina.[11]

In 1960, he returned to Pakistan and was inducted in the Special Service Group (SSG) after receiving the promotion to the rank of Major.[15] His new assignment was in field and commanded a commando company of the SSG.[15] His first combat experience took place in 1960 in Western Pakistan when he commanded his commando company to remove the Nawab of Dir in Chitral in the northern part of North-West Frontier Province.[15] He served well in 1965 war with India and commanded a SSG counter-initiatives company against the Indian Army.

Academia and professorship[edit]

After the 1965, Mirza was promoted as Lieutenant-Colonel in 1967 and entered in the National Defence University (NDU) to continue his higher education. His course mate included Lieutnenat-Colonel Zahid Ali Akbar who would later directed the Program-706 in 1970s.[16]

He earned Master of Science in War studies from NDU and published his master's thesis, entitling, "A journey of pain and fear" which provide critical analysis of state sponsored terrorism and its effects on geo-military positions of the countries.[17] In 1971, he was called back to the battle assignments and commanded a SSG regiment during the 1971 war with India. After the war, he left special forces after being promoted to one-star rank, Brigadier, and moved onto to accept the war studies professorship at the NDU.[18] From 1975–78 Brigadier Mirza Aslam BeG tenured as the professor of war studies and remains Chief Instructor of Armed Forces War College (afwc) at the then National Defence University until January 1978.[18]

About the 1971 war, Beg maintained that Pakistan Armed Forces "learned a valuable strategic lesson", and that quoted that the government also learned that "there is no point in going to war unless you are absolutely certain you have the capability to win".[19] From 1994–99, Beg continued his teaching at NDU and published his two books on national security, nuclear weapons development, defence diplomacy and international relations.[20][21]

Senior command appointments[edit]

In 1978, Beg left the university after being promoted to two-star appointment and elevated as Major-General in the army.[22] Beg became GOC of the 14th Army Division, stationed at the Okara Military District of Punjab Province in Pakistan.[22] On March 1979, chief of army staff, General Zia-ul-Haq, directed the II Strike Corps' "to ascertain the likely reaction of the Pakistan Armed Forces officers if Bhutto was hanged", in accordance to the Supreme Court's verdict.[22] During this meeting Beg objected the hanging of Bhutto and maintained to his senior commanders that: The hanging of Bhutto would be an unwise act, as it could cause very serious "political aberrations" that will be difficult to correct."[22] Beg was relieved from his command as a result and instead posted as an Adjutant-General at the GHQ in Rawalpindi, which he served until 1980.[22] He was later elevated as the Chief of General Staff (CGS) of the Pakistan Army until 1985. As CGS, Beg was in charge of planning the counter-offensive to the 1984 Indian invasion of Siachen marking the beginnings of the ongoing Siachen conflict.[23] After serving at the GHQ, Beg was elevated to three-star assignment and promoted as lieutenant-general in 1985. Ultimately,he was named field operations commander of the XI Corps stationed in Peshawar, which had been facing the indirect war with Soviet Army in Afghanistan, since 1980.[24]

Chief of army staff[edit]

By March 1987, Beg was promoted to four-star assignment and was appointed as Vice Chief of Army Staff (VCOAS) of Pakistan Army, though he remained under President General Zia-ul-Haq, who had been the chief of army staff since 1976.[25] Beg succeeded General Zia-ul-Haq as the new chief of army staff when President General Zia-ul-Haq's plane crashed on 17 August 1988.[26] American military authors regarded Beg as "mild but bookish general" keen to drive the country towards the tracks of democracy.[13]

The United States military regarded Beg as "Unpredictable General"[26] could not be counted on to continue close military cooperation with the United States as Zia did in 1980s.[26] The Pentagon had commented on Beg as " a professional soldier" with no political ambitions, but independent-minded and unpredictable.[26] In 1988, one Pentagon military official added that Beg is hard to figure out and difficult to read his mindset unlike other Pakistan army generals, he hasn't been particularly friendly with the US."[26] Against the popular perception to take over, Beg endorsed Ghulam Ishaq Khan as President and ultimately called for new general elections which resulted in a peaceful democratic transfer of government to the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) with Benazir Bhutto as the Prime minister.[27][28] Beg did not consult any of his corps commanders or principal staff officers (PSOs) and called on the chief of naval staff, admiral Iftikhar Sirohey, and chief of air staff air chief marshal Hakimullah, to discussed the matter briefly and within three hours of General Ziaul Haq's death, restored the Constitution and handed over power to Ghulam Ishaq Khan.[29] It was an unprecedented decision in favour of democracy and the rule of law.[29] Beg was endorsed by Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto who confirmed his four-star appointment as chief of army staff until 1991, when he was replaced by General Asif Nawaz.[28] Unlike General Zia, Beg initiated a massive re-evaluation and education training program for the inter-services officers.[30] In 1988, Beg's personal initiatives led to sending of hundreds of inter-services officers to Western universities for advanced degrees.[30] By 1991, several of the inter-services officers had gained post-graduate degree in operational and technical training.[30]

In 1988, Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto had deep respect for Beg for restoring the democracy and conferred Beg with specially designated civil award, Tamgha-e-Jamhuriat (lit. Medal of Democracy).[31] In fact, Beg is the only Pakistani and four-star general officer to have been decorated with such honor.[31] Although Benazir Bhutto was criticized by many for decorating a four-star general with a civilian award, she used to justify her decision, saying that Beg deserved this honour because he refrained from indulging in yet another military adventure like Zia and instead helped Pakistan to a peaceful transition of power through general elections.[31] He retired from the army on 16 August 1991 after completing 39 years of military service. As COAS, General Beg is credited by an Australian expert for encouraging "wider thinking about tactics" within the Pakistan Army, particularly for establishing a much improved logistics chain and "contributed immensely to the army’s warfighting capabilities."[3]

Soviet withdrawal and Afghan war[edit]

As chief of army staff, Beg determinately remained military's control over the policies regarding the national security, and highly tolerated Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's role in formulating the national security policies.[13] Beg testified that the "real causes behind the "Pressler amendment" was significant as long as Pakistan was considered an important entity of weakening Soviet Union's influence in South Asia.[32] Various writers greatly questioned his idea of "Strategic depth", which aim to transfer of Pakistan's military science command in dense Afghanistan, against the war with India.[33]

Beg endorsed the role of his deputy, Lieutenant-General Hamid Gul in Afghanistan war who masterminded the Jalalabad operation which failed brutally; Gul was deposed by Prime Minister Bhutto soon after this action.[34] Beg's role remained vital during and after the Soviet Union's troop withdrawal from Afghanistan and showed no intention to coordinate joint efforts with the U.S. to end the war in the country.[35] In late 1989, Pakistan and U.S. propagated the message of departing of communist government in order to bring the clerical government instead.[35] Authors and media reporters maintained that Beg controversially proposed an intelligence contingency plan between the agencies of Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran that would grow into the "core of the Muslim world."[35] Such idea was met in hostility in the government and Foreign Minister Yacob Khan and Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto were the ones who objected and opposed to this idea.[35]

Gulf war[edit]

In 1989, Beg drafted a contingency plan and organized a massive military exercise, Exercise Zarb-e-Momin, to prove the military solidarity contentions. One of the notable events as a stint as a chief of army staff during the end of Cold war took place in 1990, when Iraq invaded Kuwait due to amidst political tensions between two Arab countries. Beg fully endorsed the United States-led military campaign against Iraq. In a briefing given to Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and President Ghulam Ishaq Khan, Beg maintained that assessed that once the ground battle with Iraqi Army was joined, the Iraqi Army would comprehensively defeat and repel the American Army.[36]

Ironically, Beg accused the Western countries for encouraging Iraq to invade Kuwait, though he kept his armed forces fighting against Iraq in support to Saudi Arabia.[37][38] In 1990, he hold state dinner for United States Central Command (SCENTCOM) commander General Norman Schwarzkopf where, together with Chairman Joint Chiefs Admiral Iftikhar Sirohey, brief the USCENTCOM on Pakistan Armed Forces battel preparations and military operational capabilities of Pakistan armed forces in Saudi contingent.[39] The Iraq war with Kuwait was a polarizing political issue in Pakistan and Beg carefully commanded and deployed the Pakistan Armed Forces' contingent forces during the Operation Desert Storm in 1991.[38][40] Beg calculated that the popular opinion would be in favor of Iraq, as the anti-American sentiment in the Middle East began to grow at that time.[36] But, neither did Beg's strategic prediction come true nor he get extension.[36] Soon after the end of Gulf war, Beg was proceeded towards the retirement on 18 August 1991.[36]

Controversies[edit]

Mehran Bank scandal[edit]

Soon after his retirement, Beg earned public criticism from his alleged personal involvement in Mehran Bank scandal which was made public in 1990. His rival and critic, former chief of air staff air marshal Asghar Khan filed a petition in the Supreme Court against Beg, and also implicated the role of former director ISI Lieutenant-General (retired) Asad Durrani and his civilian accountant Younis Habib. According to one of the Pakistani newspaper editorial, General Durrani who had distributed ₨. 140 million to conservative mass to win over the "for-sale" leftists politicians.

The case was initiated to Supreme Court by Air Marshal Asghar Khan after Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's Interior minister, Naseerullah Babar, had disclosed this issue in the state parliament in 1994. Baber maintained that the ISI had disbursed funds to purchase the loyalty of conservative mass and nationalist public figures to manipulate the 1990 general elections and bring the conservatives in race to compete with leftist forces in the country. As chief of army staff, General Beg managed to get ₨. 140 million from civilian accountant Younis Habib and deposited in the Survey Section 202 account of Military Intelligence (MI). Approximately ₨. 6 million were channeled to election cell of President Ghulam Ishaq Khan—the election cell including the Syed Refaqat and statesmen Roedad Khan, and Ijlal Haider Zaidi.[41]

Nuclear proliferation controversy[edit]

Internationally, Beg was widely criticised for his alleged involvement with the nuclear program of Iran. In a report published by Khaled Ahmed at the The Friday Times contends that after taking over as Chief of Army Staff, General Aslam Beg began lobbying about "such cooperation with Iran" on nuclear technology as a part of his "strategy of defiance" of the United States. As chief of army staff, Beg had initiated lectureship programs on physics, chemistry, mathematics and engineering for inter-services officers, with the Pakistani scientists serving their professors, to have better understanding on nuclear policy matters and policy development.[30]

Earlier, Beg had calculated that such cooperation with Iran was popular and that, Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf Arabs were less popular as American clients in the region.[42] General Beg had encouraged dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan to proliferate technology to Iran and North Korea.[42]

The speed with which he maintained the "new nuclear policy" leads one to speculate whether he simply wanted the "obstacle" of General Zia to disappear from the scene.[42] General Zia did not know or received any payments of such agreement; in fact, Zia did not know if Beg was in act with Iran.[42] Zia was deeply committed to the Arabs, especially to Saudi Arabia, to create a restraint to contain the Iranian influence.[42] According to Ahmad, Prime minister Nawaz Sharif was shocked that Beg had signed a secret nuclear deal with Iran without telling him; therefore, the Prime minister abrogated the cooperation and tightened the security watch on A.Q. Khan.[42] However, in 2004 interview to PBS, Beg clearly denied of his involvement with Iranian program and quoted:

"If [Benazir] government wasn't aware, how was I aware? I was army chief from 1988 to 1991. If we were never told what was happening beneath the surface when the Americans knew, when the British agencies knew, when they have claimed they have penetrated the entire system including Pakistan—so are they not guilty?"

—Mirza Aslam Beg, 2004, source[43]

In 2005 interview to NBC, Beg defended his and A.Q. Khan's ground and maintained to the NBC that "nuclear Proliferators can't be stopped." Beg added that the Americans and Europeans have been engaged in nuclear proliferation as part of a concept, called "outsourcing nuclear capability," to friendly countries as a measure of defense against nuclear strike.[44] Beg pointed out that the "nuclear non-proliferation regime, therefore, is dying its natural death at the hands of those who are the exponents of the nuclear non-proliferation regime."[44] Beg also theorized that "nuclear deterrent is what holds the strategic balance between the two or more belligerents".[44]

Accusation of role in Zia's death[edit]

In an article written by prominent columnist, Khaled Ahmed, in the Express Tribune, Beg was in contact with senior scientist, dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, about bringing Iran into the fold of "nuclear prowess" much to the annoyance of his superior and senior officer, General Zia-ul-Haq.[42] At this point, without a green signal from President Zia-ul-Haq, Beg got acquainted with dr. A.Q. Khan to secretly proliferated the technology crucial to master the nuclear fuel.[45]

On 1 December 2012, President Zia's son Ijaz-ul-Haq maintained thatit was Beg who was conspired behind the death of his father.[42] At the GEO News interview, Haq added that General Beg caused the wreckage of the plane to be removed to hide the effects of a missile fired into the plane from another plane.[42] He also prevented autopsies of the dead to hide the fact that everyone on the plane had died from gas poisoning.[42] Earlier in 1988, the Shafiur Rehman Commission that was to establish the cause of the crash of Zia's plane concluded that because of Army's obstruction in the investigation, the real perpetrators behind the attack cannot be brought forward.[46]

Post-military career[edit]

After failing to persuade the government for his extension, Beg's later political ambitions forced the president Ghulam Ishaq Khan to nominate General Asif Nawaz as the designated chief of army staff three months prior to his retirement.[1] After his retirement he continued the professorship at NDU in Islamabad, and remained active in country's political and military affairs.[45]

Political activism[edit]

Upon returning to civilian life, General Beg founded and established a policy think-tank institute in Islamabad, known as Foundation for Research on International Environment National Development and Security (Friends).[47] He is the current founding chairman of the Friends think-tank since its foundations.[47] Beg later founded the nationalist political party, the Awami Qaiyadat Party (lit. National Leadership Party) which continued to be a powerful part of right-wing sphere.[48] Though, his party gained no political prominence and failed to compete in national general elections; his party remains registered in Election Commission with "Gun" as its election symbol.[48]

Criticism on President Musharraf[edit]

President General Pervez Musharraf served under both Beg and Gul, and apparently had high respect for them.[11] General Beg was one many professor under whom Musharraf had studied at NDU.[11] Musharraf had highly regarded for Beg as his of one "significant professor" in his university years, but after September 11, 2001, they gradually drifted apart.[11] Their differences surfaced for the first time in 2001, when in a television press conference, Musharraf spoke about the negative role of a few high-ranking officers.[11] Beg was labelled as one of many professors at NDU who were called "pseudo-intellectuals", by Musharraf.[11]

Later in January 2008, General Aslam Beg being part of Pakistan Ex-Servicemen Society (ESS) urged President Musharraf to voluntarily step down in the greater interests of Pakistan.[11][49]

Honors and Awards[edit]

Ribbon Description Notes
Order of Excellence Nishan-e-Imtiaz.png Nishan-e-Imtiaz Military; accompanied by a ribbon bar for wear on military service uniform
Crescent of Excellence Hilal-e-Imtiaz.png Hilal-e-Imtiaz Military; accompanied by a ribbon bar for wear on military service
Star of Good Conduct Sitara-e-Basalat.png Sitara-e-Basalat Non-combatant, civil award
PAK Tamgha-e-Jamhuria ribbon.svg Tamgha-e-Jamhuriat Civilian; Beg is the only military and Pakistani figure to have awarded this specially designed civil by Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto in 1988

Literature[edit]

Books authored by Beg[edit]

Articles and works by Beg[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Editorial (February 1, 2008). "What the generals must apologise for". The Daily Times, Pakistan. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  2. ^ U.S. Library of Congress: Pakistan and the Middle East
  3. ^ a b Ahmad Faruqui. "The army today" Dawn, 12 October 2009
  4. ^ The Nation (updated). "The columns of Mirza Aslam Beg". THe Nation. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  5. ^ Dunya News- Gen Beg responsible for Bahawalpur crash: Ijaz
  6. ^ http://www.onlinenews.com.pk/details.php?newsid=206567
  7. ^ Khaled Ahmed, 'Closing in on Aslam Beg', The Friday Times
  8. ^ Givers and takers of money both responsible: Chief Justice - The News - March 10 2012
  9. ^ Indian Muslim Press. "A milestone for girls in Azamgarh village". Twocicles.net. Twocicles.net. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  10. ^ Chellaney, edited by Brahma (1999). Securing India's future in the new millennium. New Delhi: Orient Longman. ISBN 81-250-1721-6. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Staff reports. "Details of Gen Mirza Aslam Beg". Pakistan Herald Megazine. Pakistan Herald Megazine. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  12. ^ Profile (updated). "Mirza Aslam Beg". One Pakistan. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  13. ^ a b c Coll, Steve (2009). On the grand trunk road a journey into South Asia ([New] ed. ed.). New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books. ISBN 9781101029138. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h Beg, General (retired) Mirza Aslam. "My life fifty years ago". Mirza Aslam Beg memoirs. Outlook India. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  15. ^ a b c Amin, A.H. "Remembering Our Warriors Brig (Retd) Shamim Yasin Manto S.I.(M), S.Bt". Defence Journal Pakistan. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  16. ^ NDU. "1971 afwc alumni". National Defence University (NDU); Armed Forces War College. National Defence University (NDU); Armed Forces War College. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  17. ^ Beg, Mirza Aslam (1971 (republished in 2006)). A journey of pain and fear 1 (1). 
  18. ^ a b "Chief Instructors Gallery" National Defence University, Islamabad accessed 6 October 2009
  19. ^ Ahmad Faruiqi; Brian Cloughley; his work on armed forces was done in his book :History of the Pakistan Army" (October 12, 2009). "The army today". Dawn News, 2009. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  20. ^ Beg, Mirzā Aslam (1999). 1st, ed. National security : diplomacy and defence. Rawalpindi: FRIENDS Publication. p. 93. ISBN 969-8199-13-6. 
  21. ^ Beg, Mirza Aslam (1994). Development and security : thoughts and reflections. Rawalpindi, Pakistan: Foundation for Research and National Development and Security, FRIENDS. p. 252. ISBN 969-8199-01-2. 
  22. ^ a b c d e Mirza, Beg (July 22, 2012). "Political aberrations". The Nation, 1978. Retrieved 24 March 2013. 
  23. ^ Maj Gen (r) Shafiq Ahmed. "Army's inquiry commissions" The Nation, 5 August 2004
  24. ^ Rahimullah Yusufzai. "Change of Guard at Peshawar's 11th Corps" The News, 10 May 2001
  25. ^ Hussain, Rizwan (2005). Pakistan and the emergence of Islamic militancy in Afghanistan. Burlington, VT: Ashgate. ISBN 0-7546-4434-0. 
  26. ^ a b c d e Sciolino, Elaine (August 22, 1988). "Pakistan After Zia; Washington Regrets Death of a Solid Ally But Holds Out Hope for Democratic Change". Special to the New York Times. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  27. ^ Adle, president: Chahryar (2005). Towards the contemporary period : from the mid-nineteenth to the end of the twentieth century. Paris: UNESCO Publ. p. 435. ISBN 92-3-10-3985-7. 
  28. ^ a b Blood, Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Ed. by Peter R. (1995). Pakistan : a country study (6. ed., 1. print. ed.). Washington, D.C.: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Gov. Print. Off. ISBN 0-8444-0834-4. 
  29. ^ a b Beg, Mirza (June 19, 2011). "Waiting for the command decision". The Nation, June 19, 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2013. 
  30. ^ a b c d Khan, Feroz Hassan (2012). Eating grass : the making of the Pakistani bomb. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 474. ISBN 0804776016. 
  31. ^ a b c Mir, Amir (October 21, 2012). "Gen Beg may be stripped of Democracy Medal given by BB". The News International. Retrieved 22 March 2013. 
  32. ^ Sayeed, Khalid Bin (1995). Western dominance and political Islam : challenge and response. Albany, N.Y.: State Univ. of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-2265-8. 
  33. ^ Qassem, Ahmad Shayeq (2009). Afghanistan's political stability : a dream unrealised ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). Farnham, Surrey: Burlington, VT. ISBN 978-0-7546-7940-0. 
  34. ^ Satti, Jehangir. The Ruling Enemy. 
  35. ^ a b c d Tomsen, Peter. The Wars of Afghanistan Messianic Terrorism, Tribal Conflicts, and the Failures of Great Powers. (1st ed. ed.). New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-781-2. 
  36. ^ a b c d Singh, R.S.N. (2008). "Nawaz Sharif and Military". The military factor in Pakistan. New Delhi: Frankfort, IL. pp. 84–85. ISBN 0-9815378-9-8. 
  37. ^ Hiro, Dilip (2003). Desert shield to desert storm : the second Gulf war. New York: Authors Choice Press. ISBN 0-595-26904-4. 
  38. ^ a b Ghareeb, Majid Khadduri, Edmund (2001). War in the Gulf, 1990-91 : the Iraq-Kuwait conflict and its implications. Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford University Press, Ghareeb. ISBN 0-19-514979-3. 
  39. ^ Petre, H. Norman Schwarzkopf, written with Peter (1993). It doesn't take a hero : the autobiography (Bantam paperback ed. ed.). New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-56338-6. 
  40. ^ Crossette, Barbara (: August 14, 1990). "CONFRONTATION IN THE GULF; Pakistanis Agree to Join Defense of Saudi Arabia". NYTime, 1990. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  41. ^ Cowasjee, Ardeshir We never learn from history Dawn Newspaper, August 19, 2007
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Ahmed, Khaled (December 7, 2012). "Who killed General Zia?". The Express Tribune, 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2013. 
  43. ^ PBS (March 2004). "General Mirza Aslam Beg: Former Army Foe of Musharraf". PBS Frontline. Retrieved 24 March 2013. 
  44. ^ a b c Beg, Mirza (March 7, 2005). "Outside View: Nuke Proliferators Can't Be Stopped". spacewar. Retrieved 24 March 2013. 
  45. ^ a b Corera, Gordon (2006). Shopping for bombs : nuclear proliferation, global insecurity, and the rise and fall of the A.Q. Khan network ([Online-Ausg.] ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 59–60. ISBN 0-19-530495-0. 
  46. ^ Khaled Ahmed. "The Death of Zia-Ul-Haq" Criterion Quarterly, April–June 2007 Issue - Vol. 2 No. 2
  47. ^ a b Beg, Mirza. "Foundation for Research on International Environment National Development and Security". Friends NGO. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  48. ^ a b Election Commission of Pakistan. "Awami Qiadat Party". Election Commission of Pakistan. Election Commission of Pakistan. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  49. ^ Retired generals, officers of other ranks urge Musharraf to step down Dawn Newspaper, 23 January 2008

External links[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Zahid Hussain. Frontline Pakistan: The Struggle with Militant Islam, New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.
Military offices
Preceded by
Sirdar Farooq Shaukat Khan Lodi
Chief of General Staff
1980–1985
Succeeded by
Muhammad Safdar
Preceded by
Khalid Mahmud Arif
Vice Chief of Army Staff
1987–1988
Succeeded by
post abolished
Preceded by
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq
Chief of Army Staff
1988–1991
Succeeded by
Asif Nawaz