Misophonia, literally “sensitivity to noise”, is a form of decreased sound tolerance. It is believed to be a neurological disorder characterized by negative experiences resulting only from specific sounds, whether loud or soft. The term was coined by American neuroscientists Pawel Jastreboff and Margaret Jastreboff. The term is often used interchangeably with the term selective sound sensitivity. Misophonia has not been classified as a discrete disorder in DSM-IV-TR or ICD-10.
Unlike hyperacusis, misophonia is specific for certain sounds. Little is known about the anatomical location of the physiological abnormality that causes such symptoms but it is most likely high central nervous system structures. It has been speculated that the anatomical location may be more central than that involved in hyperacusis.
People who have misophonia are most commonly annoyed, or even enraged, by such ordinary sounds as other people clipping their nails, brushing teeth, eating, breathing, sniffing, talking, sneezing, yawning, walking, chewing gum, laughing, snoring, whistling or coughing; certain consonants; or repetitive sounds. Some are also affected by visual stimuli, such as repetitive foot or body movements, fidgeting or any movement they might observe out of the corner of their eyes. Intense anxiety and avoidant behavior may develop, which can lead to decreased socialization. Some people may feel the compulsion to mimic what they hear or see.
Prevalence and comorbidity 
The prevalence of misophonia is currently unknown but groups of people identifying with the condition suggest it is more common than previously recognized. Among patients with tinnitus, which is prevalent in 4-5% of the general population, some surveys report prevalence as high as 60% while prevalence in a 2010 study was measured at 10%.
A Dutch study published in 2013 with a sample of 42 patients with misophonia found a low incidence for most psychiatric disorders, the exception being Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (52.4%).
See also 
- M. Edelstein, D. Brang, V. S. Ramachandran (2012). "Sensory modulation in misophonia" (PDF). Program No. 367.07. 2012 Neuroscience Meeting Planner. New Orleans, LA: Society for Neuroscience. p. 1042. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- Jonathan Hazell. "Decreased Sound Tolerance: Hypersensitivity of Hearing". Tinnitus and Hyperacusis Centre, London UK. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
- Pawel J. Jastreboff, Margaret M. Jastreboff (April 2003). "Tinnitis retraining therapy for patients with tinnitus and decreased sound tolerance". Otolaryngol Clin. 36(2): 321–36. PMID 12856300.
- Neal, M.; Cavanna, A. E. (2012). "P3 Selective sound sensitivity syndrome (misophonia) and Tourette syndrome". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 83 (10): e1. doi:10.1136/jnnp-2012-303538.20.
- Aage R. Møller (2006). Hearing, Second Edition: Anatomy, Physiology, and Disorders of the Auditory System. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-372519-6.
- Aage R. Møller (2001). Textbook of Tinnitis, part 1. pp. 25–27. doi:10.1007/978-1-60761-145-5_4. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
- Joyce Cohen (September 5, 2011). "When a Chomp or a Slurp is a Trigger for Outrage". The New York Times. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
- George Hadjipavlou, MD, MA, Susan Baer, MD, PhD, Amanda Lau and Andrew Howard, MD (2008). "Selective Sound Intolerance and Emotional Distress: What Every Clinician Should Hear". Psychosomatic Medicine (American Psychosomatic Society) 70: 739–40. Retrieved February 2012.
- Jastreboff, P., Jastreboff, M. (July 2, 2001). "Components of decreased sound tolerance : hyperacusis, misophonia, phonophobia". Retrieved February 5, 2012.
- Sztuka A, Pospiech L, Gawron W, Dudek K. (2010). "DPOAE in estimation of the function of the cochlea in tinnitus patients with normal hearing.". Auris Nasus Larynx. 37(1): 55–60. PMID 19560298.
- Schröder, A.; Vulink, N.; Denys, D. (2013). "Misophonia: Diagnostic Criteria for a New Psychiatric Disorder". In Fontenelle, Leonardo. PLoS ONE 8: e54706. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054706.
- Misophonia treatment and research at the Academic Medical Center (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) http://www.amcpsychiatrie.nl/research/misophonia.htm
- Misophonia & Sound Sensitivity Survey
- Misophonia: Diagnostic Criteria for a New Psychiatric Disorder